the historical school of the political economy coined/shaped the German-language social science over one century between 1850 and 1950 away. It dedicated to many sub-problems of the economics like the value teachings or the nature of the interest, argues however in particular with practical problems, like the arising social question, thus the depletion of broad layers in the course of the industrialization. Their representatives tried to operate thereby science in line with standard usage and to point solutions out for current problems of their time. Dogma-historically she particularly out-did with the criticism at the classical teachings and one can quite call her a direct forerunner of the modern Institutionenökonomik. Beyond that it led to two enriching discussions in the academic world: the method controversy of the political economy, with which the necessity and fertility for inductive and deductive research were discussed, and which value judgement controversy over the question, how normative economics may be and can.
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older one historical school
the older historical school is itself particularly in its refusal of the classical period united. , To thus formulate from space and time independent laws one meets their requirement, nature legalnesses very sceptically. In particular it opposes the Pluralität of ideals and the versatility of human behavior to the conception of a “ideal” national economy - political economy is thus no nature, but a social science.
Ro - as general agents of this school - the economic conditions and conceptions of individual epochs and geographic area wants to explore. From this, he expects, can by empirical evaluation development laws be derived. These are suitable not by SE for the forecast, can help however current developments better to understand. Hildebrand explains the political economy even as the germ cell of a general culture theory ( the sociology was at this time not yet established as own science discipline).
As result of their research work numerous detailed studies of the development of local crafts enterprises up to developing whole economic sectors did not only develop. You are entitled also earnings/services the term the culture as measured variable on historical changes into the political economy to have introduced.
the historical method
the historical school tries to embody their hypotheses in the reality. It was necessary to secure the own studies by means of empirical collections and/or fall back to realizations of the science of history. Since all in such a way worked out development laws are dependent on their context in space and time, they are not universally applicable, it are however possible to work Entwicklungsstufen out so mentioned which resemble each other despite their spatial or temporal distance. There, so the acceptance, also the developments would run similarly.
These conceptions oppose that individualistisch, utilitaristisch and deterministically regarded classical period diametrically.
In summary one can say that all representatives the same basic view consisted of understanding all life procedures as historical events. Motivate humans not only the self-interest for acting, but also other cultural factors. Since however culture changes is subjected and the political economy is occupied with humans, it can be also only one social science, no natural science, when those had understood it the classical authors. A goal is then no collection of laws of nature, but the systematization and Verallgemeinerung of historical data, in order to arrive at empirically durable statements.
younger one historical school
the recent historical school criticizes to the older above all their urge to the theory. Instead of trying already to derive development laws only the empirical basis is to be increased. Their research work extends therefore also mostly to further detailed studies for economic development.
Particularly Gustav of Schmoller concerns itself intensively with social institutions. The self-interest - as classical drive for human behavior - it adds the desire for ethical acting, acknowledgment, which fear before punishment and lived habits in right and moral in addition, which manifest themselves in these institutions.
Beyond that the representatives of the recent historical school are frequently normative active. They regard it as their task, to the ethics obligate pieces of advice for solution more politically and above all social problems to give. Many of these problems attribute it to side effects of the free-market economy and demand interferences into the market. Liberty, so further, is necessary, but not sufficient, in order to create prosperity. In addition a state must come, which can correct inadvertent results such as industrielle of concentration processes or rising fortune inequality. This aspect, which coined/shaped also not insignificant the arrangement of the social free-market economy in Germany after 1945, brings in the designation Kathedersozialisten for its representatives .
For the better lighting of social questions representatives of the historical school and other sociopolitically engaged scientists 1872 create the association for Socialpolitik, the stage for the large science-theoretical debates - which becomes method controversy and the value judgement debate.
The connecting element of the representatives of the recent historical school is particularly in the opinions to the method, the society and the economy. To the state and the political economy is given here the task, overall economic goals, of pursuing in particular the public interest and of bringing the private sector to moral acting. The restaurant process is seen socialmore organic as, evolutorisch and not than eternal cycle. And finally the inclusion of interests of group and the investigation of the relationship of right and economics forms a common opinion of this school.
- Böhm Bawerk, Eugen: Historical and theoretical political economy. In: Franz X. White: Collected writings of Eugen Böhm Bawerk. Vienna, Leipzig, 1924. S. 157-188.
- Brandt, Karl: History of the national economy. Volume 2: From historicism to the Neoklassik, Freiburg, 1994.
- Schachtschabel, Hans, G.: History of the economical Lehrmeinungen. Stuttgart, Duesseldorf, 1971.
- Diefenbach, Nicolas: Historical school of the political economy in Germany, Marburg, 2002.