Yard advice

the yard advice (or realm yard advice) is the name for an authority, which was formed between 1519 and 1564 in the holy Roman realm. It was an appeal instance standing over government and chambers. At the same time the members of the yard advice were called likewiseyard advice “.


in Germany became at the beginning 17. Century the yard advice by the secret advice replaces. Most well-known representative was secret advice Goethe. After separation of the yard advice as authority the title remained existingyard advice “. It is lent by different governments, usually as honorfor earned officials.


in Austria remained existing the yard advice as titles and survived even the end of the monarchy and the 2. World war. Also today there are still yard advice in Austria, although there is no more (emperor) yard. The title is approximately comparably with the German Ministerialrat - whereby there is such a title also in Austria.

Today typologisch four groups can be differentiated from yard advice with respect to Austria.

Officials of the federation ( university graduate career) form the largest group, who lent the title in the way of the transportreceived (group of uses of A, service class VIII). In the new pattern of the federation - for few years valid - it is however relatively easy to receive this title also in the way of the time advance; it does not have to be connected appropriate revaluation of the job with it. Thus it becomes in the futureto a title inflation come (career group of uses of A1/Funktionsgruppe 2 and more highly). The yard advice title is in the group specified here thus an occupation title for academic federal officials of equal standing underneath „the department chief “, the Ministerialrat and the parliament advice.

Secondly can to federal officials of the higher, in addition, the “middle career”(Maturanten, high school graduate), when being present certain conditions, who is lent titles at the end of the active occupation career (rather rarely; in the official jargon also “gravestone yard advice” mentioned). Also officials, whose careers do not plan this title (e.g. Directors of the higher schools) can receive the yard advice title. It can apply that except-schoolCommitment, about also for political parties, is quite favorable.

A further group are the academic officials of the Land of the Federal Republic administrations, the “national yard advice.” Here there is partly still „the real yard advice “and, in Lower Austria, “the speaking yard advice.” The word „“does not mean real however that the other yard adviceno material are, but rather „working “, in the sense of “Imperium” having.

Fourth there is the actual "" yard advice as Austrian Spezifikum the “Society Hofrat”, h.c. “(to dissolve also “honoris causa” or “humoris causa”). The Austrian Federal President knows the title over request of a specialized Minister, the government, also onPersons lend, who were never officials. If it does not create someone, which yard advice titles too received and much is erpicht on titles, he can try to receive as a substitute the title of a professor likewise lent by the Federal President (it does not have not one day one like always constituted training activityexercised).


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