the terms Holocaust (also Holokaust, of Greek ολοκαύτωμα, olokáutoma: „complete fire victim “), Shoa (Hebrew: „Disaster “, „large misfortune “) designate in the closer sense the genocide at approximately six million Jew at the time of the national socialism. In the broader sense the term Holocaust covers also the systematic murder of Sinti, Roma, Jeni and further than gypsies designated groups, of handicapped one, a witness Jehovas, homosexual one as well as from Polish intellectual ones, Russian prisoners of war and members of others, predominantly slawischer groups of peoples.
The Holocaust differs due to its goals and its systematics substantially the pursuit of political opponents of the national socialism: While these were not inevitably murdered, all humans, who belonged to one of the groups mentioned, were already due to their bare existence intended for murder from the infant to the Greis. Nothing that they would have to do or to omit to be able, only luck or coincidence could save, their life, if they fell into the hands of the National Socialist power apparatus.
This article is concerned with priority with the genocide at the European Jews, whom the national socialists with the euphemistischen camouflage term final solution of the Jew question designated. National Socialist murder actions against other groups are represented in the following articles:
- Porajmos: to the murder and pursuit of ziganischer peoples
- action T4 and euthanasia: to the murder on handicapped one,
- pink angle: to the murder at homosexual one,
- a witness Jehovas in the national socialism.
- For the pursuit and murder of political-ideological opponents of the LV regime see: Resistance against the national socialism.
- The article Shoa treats this term and the discussion around the singularity of the Holocaust.
the terms Holocaust and Shoa
both terms by Nichtjuden congruently for the millionfold murder of Jews between 1933 and 1945 are usually used, although the word meaning differs.
The word Holocaust descends from the Greek holókaustos and means „completely burned “. This referred to the religious practice of the burn of animals spread in the antique one as a victim. But it used for the first time the historian Xenophon, then also the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuaginta in such a way specified. Over latin Bible translation of the Vulgata penetrated holocaustum in English vocabulary, not however into German, since Martin Luther translated the expression with fire victim.
Therefore the genocide at the European Jews was designated first only in the English linguistic area with the word Holocaust, for the first time in December 1942 in the daily paper news Chronicle. This connected still without knowledge of the when sea-conference or the establishment of „extermination camps “with it already Hitler's destruction plan at the Jews: … the Jewish people acres tons exterminated. From now on the term in the political discourse kept this sense and became generally accepted in the anglo-saxon science of history after 1945 gradually. But only the author Frederick Forsyth announced 1972 this sense with its novel the document Odessa of a broader public .
There was the foreign word also in German Holokaust, which was however hardly used for the genocide at the Jews and in important dictionaries was not registered. But since the TV serial Holocaust - the history of the family white of 1979 became the term in English way of writing in the Federal Republic usually. It designated now what had been described before as „Jew pursuit “, „Jew destruction “or „Jew murder “.
The historical research in addition spoke before usually of „the murder at the European Jews “. This had stood out only weakly against the general term „Jew hostileness “. Consciousness for the exception position of this National Socialist genocide was up to then hardly in the German population present. A use of the term Holocaust detached of it is semantically and ethicalally disputed therefore in German. The transmission of the term on other events appears often than Effekthascherei or relating of the LV crimes which can be rejected. To that extent the term Holocaust describes rather the perspective of the author descendants.
Jews prefer the everyday Hebrew word since 1945 „Shoa “(שואה; Schoa, Schoah, in the Frankophonie: Shoah, like the film) for the event. The word was already before usual for „a large mischief “or one „disaster “. 1948 also the declaration of independence of the State of Israel took up this term . „Holocaust “against it stressed for Jews too much the victim role of the murdered ones and suggests besides, it „victims “is „“been God-intended. - „Shoa “reject again some representatives of non-Jewish groups of victims of the Holocaust: For it the Hebrew word restricts the view of the murdered Jews.
Outside of Israel „Shoa was patriated “particularly since the film of the same name of Claude Lanzmann of 1985 in, which is considered as „narrative chronicle of the Holocaust “. Who prefers Shoa as Nichtjude „“, with it criticism at the Holocaustfilm of 1979 often connects: This converted the material „romantisierend “, „reisserisch “or „voyeuristisch “and the actual fright of the topic fair did not become.
Many rabbinische authors designate the European Jew destruction 20. Century approximately since the early 80ern as third Churban. „Churban " meant as much as „destruction “and refers to world-historical human being-made disasters. The word was used in former times for the two destruction of the large Jewish temples, which had the extinction of the Judentums from this view also as a goal. The third Churban is thus only a further occurrence of the basic pattern of the history of the Jewish people by other peoples to be pursued. Therefore also the thesis of the singularity of this event is to be rejected.
Social conditions and ideological bases
the national socialists develop their ideology on the Antisemitismus and Antijudaismus spread in nearly completely Europe , that in Germany since beginning 19. Century with the arising Patriotismus and and increasingly an authoritarian nationalism arising ever more aggressively since the century center accompanied. This became by the defeat the radical-democratic - liberals and earlysocialist movements in the March revolution of 1848/49 lastingly strengthened and won at the latest in 1871 the proclaimed Empire of one chauvinististic - expansive character.
Since about 1880 was in the different groups and parties of the racistic völkischen movement, which extended until far into civil circles inside, ever more strongly tendencies arisen, after which the German people was regarded as other superior gentleman race. The Jews were explained thereby as enemy picture in the own country, and of first political driving out and destruction programs came against all Jews to drafts.
In the difference too above all religiously e.g. motivated anti-Semitic prejudices, like it. also in Eastern Europe, linked the LV ideology the Antisemitismus in Germany with one in their fundamentals since 1860 developed pseudoscientific racial theory , which stressed, to divide mankind into different groups of people and they were strongly common in higher and inferior races to arrange.
Hitler bauschte this ideology in its auto+biographic program design my fight already into the 1920er years propagandistically up. It defined the historical view marxism, according to which history was a succession of class warfares, over into a history of race conflicts around habitat, at their end „the healthiest “and „penetration-ablest “race obsiege, after it had „inferior “races „exterminated “or „enslaved “.
According to Hitler „ the arische race was chosen “, among which it ranked the German people, to this victory. When „mankind fight “ he saw main enemy in this the Jews, whom he defined not as religious community, but as (others) „race “; this against any inspection, the one outward distinction of „the Ariern “could nevertheless have made recognizable (with pseudoscientific methods one tried to postulate appropriate outside differences). The special threat by the Jews consists of wanting to mix the different „races “. In addition they fell back beside „the international financial capital “ to ideologies like the liberalism, the Pazifismus, internationalism or the marxism . Thus they would decompose actually „healthy races “„“.
Where the national socialists „not arische “races „only “as Untermen regarded, the Jews in the LV jargon were reviled additionally as vermin and pathogens. 1935 held Heinrich Himmler an internal speech before the SS: The Untermensch, in which it calls Jews common, mörderische natures, which stand still under the animals. Particularly drastically this thesis was spread in the LV propaganda film the eternal Jew of 1940. This used for it the style means of the documentation, in order to arouse in relation to a larger public the appearance of an objective representation.
The history of the Holocaust
the development to the Holocaust began 1933 with the gradual Entrechtung and pursuit of the Jews in Germany and flowed in the destruction of all European Jews, those the National Socialist regime haveful will could. It can be divided roughly into three one on the other developing, temporally overlapping phases:
- Entrechtung and displacement from the administrative machinery and public lives,
- the so-called Arisierung (expropriation of in Jewish possession of enterprises present) and Ghettoisierung,
- Deportation, mass murders and gasification in the extermination camps.
The national socialists the systematic Entrechtung of the Jews operated
Jew pursuit in the German Reich from 1933 to 1939 since Hitler's seizure of power. Immediately after Hitler's appointment as the realm chancellor (30. ) Spontaneous “protests began January 1933 against Jewish officials from functionaries of the NSDAP produced „; Court hearings were disturbed, the removal of Jewish lawyers was demanded in newspaper articles and reader letters. At the 1. April organized the SA a boycott of Jewish business, with which shops were destroyed and Jewish business owners were flogged.
The national accomplished displacement of Jews from the public service began with the law for the re-establishment of the civil service with tenure to 7. April 1933, which planned the dismissal of all Jewish officials. By an intervention of realm president Paul von Hindenburg only the Jewish officials excluded, who already were 1914 ago in the government service, in the world war had fought or member had lost. From now on Jews were removed also from all honorary offices; they received only limit entrance to schools and universities; Jewish tax counsels lost their permission.
1935 worsened the situation of many Jews again drastically: They were excluded no more to examinations than physicians and pharmacists certified and from the military service. Numerous professional associations gave professionals disqualification for it with their spouses, e.g. as domestic helps, technical instructors, church musicians, art and an antique dealer, cinema operator, swimming master. In July it came besides into Berlin to renewed excesses against Jewish business.
In September the Nürnberger of laws cemented racistic discrimination: „The realm citizen law “left Jews the German nationality, devalued these however, as only „Arier “received „the realm citizenry “with the privilege of the right to vote and full freedom of movement. „The Blutschutzgesetz “forbade the marriage ceremony and even except-conjugal Sexualität between Jews and „to Ariern “. Thereby was first unclear who had to be considered as a Jew: „The first regulation half-breeds “Jewish to the realm citizen law “defined then „full Jews “as persons with at least three, “with up to two Jewish grandparents parts. Also who belonged to the Jewish religious community, was considered as „a full Jew “; who occurred after the law decree these, or was witnessed from one „mixed marriage was married with a Jew “, was considered legally as “a full Jew” (so-called. Validity Jew). The allegedly biological „race “- term could be seized thus legally only resorting to not-biological characteristics like the religion.
In the year 1936 because of the olympic plays in Berlin and the associated attention of the foreign country first no further laws were issued against Jews, and even the everyday life chicaneries withdrew for scarcely two years into the background.
The year 1938 intensified the Entrechtung and discrimination of the Jews then systematically. To 5. To select January 1938 „the law over the change of surnames and first names “issued, which Jews forced, from a certain, closely limited number „typically Jewish “pre and surnames their first or secondary names. Starting from February Jewish enterprises and households received smaller dispatchings at raw materials and foreign exchange. There also none were allowed to work „German-bloody “women more. They received starting from March no more public orders and had starting from that to 26. April its entire fortune the state reveal („announce “). With it „the Arisierung began “from enterprises in Jewish possession.
The national social welfare for Jews was stopped; from now on Jewish welfare care associations had to carry these. After the electricians and Gasinstallateuren lost starting from September 1938 all still active Jewish physicians their license to practise medicine, in November followed the attorneys, in January 1939 the pharmacists, tooth and veterinary surgeons. All Jewish stock exchanges and supermarkets were closed. Jewish pupils were not allowed to make together with German schoolmates the Abitur for no more. Jewish donations had to change their statutes going by that they should serve only the emigration of the Jews.
To „the connection of “ Austria it came to a first large escape wave of Jewish Germans usually without means from the realm area, particularly into Switzerland. Thereupon those required Swiss authorities of Germany the marking of Jewish passports. A regulation specified then that all passports of Jewish citizens without the stamp character were invalid „to J “. These and further restrictions prevented the admission rope that after beginning of war 1939 escape-willing Jews, which equaled a safe death sentence for most concerning.
Also different European states made more difficult now the entry for immigrants from Germany. After Poland Jew of Polish origin, who lived longer in Germany, which wanted to extract Polish nationality, the Gestapo at the end of of October 1938 pushed about 15,000 Jews away in a night and a nebula action to Poland. Concerned of it also parents Paris students of the Herschel Grynszpan were. This shot thereupon the German diplomats, of Rath.
This was the welcome pretext for the up to then cruelest Pogrome against Jews in the Germany 20. Century: the Novemberpogrome of 9. on the 10. November 1938. They were introduced by Joseph Goebbels and supported by numerous gau leaders of the NSDAP and their subordinate party officials. Most of the often centuries-old synagogs of Germany were ignited and destroyed. In addition thousands of houses and dwellings were devastated by Jews. 100 to 400 Jews (the exact number is unknown) was murdered; many were struck, hurt and humiliated. In the following days up to 36.000 Jews in already existing concentration camps were interned for the first time.
The National Socialist ruling powers tested successfully with it the readiness of the German population for watching, way looking or going through. Goebbels explained the nationally directed and waited „over cooking of the people soul “in newspaper articles for terminated, announced however at the same time: „The further lessons “would be given „to the Judentum on the way of the legislation. “Meant thereby above all the Arisierung accomplished now was . Jews a billion were imposed upon „to compensation “for the building damage of the Pogromnacht. „The regulation for the elimination of the Jews from the German economic life “forbade among other things retail trade, distributing houses, Bestellkontore, guidance of crafts enterprises, goods offered on fairs, markets or exhibitions, production management and activity to them as leading employees.
In addition everyday life discrimination came: For example park banks with describing „only for Germans “, „Entjudung “(renaming) of street name, uniform prohibition, general classification into the highest tax schedule, prohibition of the use of sleep and food cars of the National Railroad, cancellation of rent subsidy. Houseowners were allowed freed dwellings „full Jew “letting, them „special residential areas “were no longer on assigned. With it their Ghettoisierung began. To 4. July 1939 besides all Jewish associations, organizations and donations obligatorily in one „to realm combination “were united.
These state measures pursued the clearly recognizable goal, the Jews from all ranges of the public, state up to the beginning of war 1939, of excluding culture and economics all as much as possible Jews for emigration made of Germany to urge. From 510.000 German Jews, who were attached 1933 the Israeli tables Kultusgemeinden, about 315,000 left their homeland and fled in the exile until 1939. From remaining approximately 200,000 humans again 1939 15,000 the escape succeeded. At the most 10,000 in „mixed marriages “or illegaly in the realm living Jews escaped from their murder.
Note: Even if for the years starting from 1939 of systematic genocide it is only spoken one may not survey that also in the time to 1939 Jews were systematically murdered. Jews, who to a KZ was in-supplied, were there to an organized terror exposed, which only few survived longer than a few weeks. Eugen Kogon describes in its book, the SS-state, grey-triumphs examples. Even if it concerns “only” (compared with later) ten thousands here, it concerns clearly organized mass murder.
The transition to the systematic genocide starting from September 1939
with that 2. World war began at the 1. September 1939 at the same time the actual National Socialist destruction politics. In the Holocaustforschung it is disputed whether the resolution was already seized for the murder of all Jews in the summer 1941 or however in the middle of October 1941.
Its goal had expressed already 1925 to Hitler in its auto+biographic propaganda writing „my fight “and in many public speeches before it: the complete destruction „of the Weltjudentums “, as it called it. In addition the war offered new possibilities to the Nazis. Because now Jew the legal departure from the German Reich was no longer possible. This permitted the systematic collection and isolation relating to domestic affairs of the German Jews and brought to it millions of European Jews in the occupied areas, particularly in Poland, the Ukraine, white Russia, the Soviet Union and Hungary, into the range to the National Socialist rule.
1945 in January 1939 announced Hitler in a realm tag speech, a new world war the “destruction of the Jewish race in Europe” will mean. In the apron of the Poland campaign SS and armed forces closed an agreement, which gave Heinrich Himmler as a “commissioner for German nationality” special authority for the areas which can be occupied. To 20. Septembers 1939 decided Hitler, Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Albert Forster as short-term objective to bring and in Ghettos concentrate within a yearly all Jews from the realm there to Poland. One first probably still thought thereby of the mechanism of a supervised „Jew reservation “at the Russian border.
Resettled in March 1940 the Jews that in the meantime „eingedeutschten “Polish areas south of Warsaw and Lublin obligatorily „“. In the larger Polish cities such as Warsaw or Łódź hermetically blocked Ghettos for it was furnished. There died thereupon already many by hunger, cold weather and daily arbitrary murders of the LV security guards.
The armed forces commander, Johannes Blaskowitz, protested and thereupon set off from Hitler short hand. There was not further protest on the part of the armed forces guidance.
In April 1940 these obligation resettlements were again stopped however for the time being, because organizational problems resulted in the case of it. Afterwards the Central Reich Security Office considered the plan in June to push all Jews away from Germany and the conquered areas to Madagascar. It was shown however soon that the war made such a mass transport impossible. Ships and airplanes were used for military purposes and were not over the long distance to be protected.
In the autumn 1940 „realm gaus “a time proceeded long without uniformity with the Jews of their range: Thus pushed bathing, the Pfalz and the Saarland about 6500 humans to 22. and 23. October into vacant parts of France off. Some cities issued on one's own output restrictions and drew in the radio sets of Jewish citizens. The Gestapo could only prevent this, by arranging the same measures realm far. Jews received now also no cocoa - and chocolate products more, no dress maps, no textile - and leather material. Their food maps were marked J like their passports with one „“, and they were allowed to only buy daily after 15:30 clock if most shelves were already emptied in the shops.
of murdered Jews after the mass murder in the ravine Babi Jar with Kiew/Ukraine with the Russia campaign at summer 1941. Again in an agreement with the armed forces special authorizations for the SS were agreed upon - after the experiences in Poland there could be this time no doubts, what was to be understood by it. The groups of employments in such a way specified of the SS followed the advancing troops of the armed forces. These let Jews in villages and cities collect, in order to then shoot it in great quantities: for example in Babi Jar with Kiew and with Riga. At many such actions were directly involved also individual regular armed forces itsnesses as well as three police battalions (see in addition Daniel Goldhagen).
The armed forces co-operated also during the organizational collection the areas occupied by Jews in closely with the SS; only few commanders refused - they were not punished by the way. Thus the destruction by the war , destruction by hard labour for the war and destruction can be separated in the areas conquered by war not.
To 9. September 1941 arranged the police that all Jews would have to well visibly carry in the future a yellow star in form of a David star at the outside clothes. In January 1942 all were seized their articles of clothing from wool and fur. Starting from March of the yearly also the dwellings of the Jews remained in the realm had to be marked by one „Jew star “. They were allowed to only use public means of transport in exceptional cases. Also Jews at the age of over 65 years, which had been up to then spared, had to mount now the Deportationszüge. The press was allowed to report nothing more on these measures. Starting from 19. Octobers did not receive the remaining Jews important food such as meat, wheat products, milk, artificial honey, cocoa powder any longer. Food endings abroad were taken off from their rations, painted extra rations for patient.
In February 1943 all conditions of employment between Germans were and „full Jews “and/or. To dissolve “validity Jews “. In April all Jews, „“and „gypsies “the German nationality was denied to Jewish half-breeds. Since Deportationen and gasifications were in the camps long in the full course, this measure was only an example zynischer bureaucratic perfection without legal and actual meaning.
The prohibition for the still remaining Jews followed to use with law cases the tidy course of law before German courts. Punishable actions, which committed it, were punished directly by the police. No requirements on their possession could make belonging one of Deportierten more valid; this fell to the realm. This complete Entrechtung made the Jews still living in the realm parallel to the Holocaust to the free game.
Relatively protected against extermination only Jews were in „mixed marriages “or foreign nationality. Also their rights were always continued to limit: One considered sterilizing it or dissolving their marriages. „Half-breeds “were not allowed to visit higher schools starting from September 1942 more; Soldiers among them had to leave the armed forces. After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler to 20. July 1944 also all officials became to dismiss, who were married with „Jewish half-breeds “. In January 1945 all were instructed „half-breeds “to „the closed work input “.
To his destruction threat from January 1939 Hitler often returned in the war process. Thus it deplored 1943 in a realm tag speech, for this prophecy to have been laughed at and attached:
- Innumerable ones of those, which laughed at that time, do not laugh today any longer.
The extermination camps
the first concentration camp were 1933 developed in already DAK-strike with Munich furnished. It served with priority like other KZs of its kind until 1938 the arrest and liquidating of political opponents - under it in the first years of the LV regime above all Pazifisten, intellectual ones link communist, Social Democrat , - in addition, offered a model for later extermination camps. Jews were there from the outset particularly terrorized and had the highest number of deaths rates.
To the planned murders on a large scale mass shooting applied, like them immediately after beginning of war in Poland began, soon as „inefficiently “. Besides anonymizated methodmethod methods should the psychological restraining threshold of the authors further lower or completely eliminate. Therefore the groups of employments of the state police and the SD tested 1941 mass massentötungen since autumn by mobile gasification cars. In December they began to use this method in Kulmhof systematically.
before 1939-41 had been used with the action T4, the euthanasia action in such a way specified for the murder mentally and physically heavily obstruction , carbon monoxide in Gaskammern. In this systematic, realm-far action medicines, food withdrawal, injections and gas as instrumentinstrument instruments had been tested. Also different details of the murder machinery used later were at that time tested and sophisticated. Physicians, administrative and transportation specialists of the T4-Aktion ascended partially in the SS-hierarchy and passing on their experiences to the crews in the extermination camps.
Since the murder rate wished by the SS-guidance could not be obtained also with the methods, how they had been used with the euthanasia action, extermination camps were finally established, whose principal purpose was the industrial killing of large a number of humans as possible. Such camps put on in
- ), controlled by Nazi Germany
- , Chelmno (dt. also Kulmhof) (1941)
- Treblinka with Warsaw (1942)
- Majdanek with Lublin (1942)
- Belzec with Lublin (1942) and in
- Sobibor with Lublin in Poland as well as in
- Maly Trostinez with Minsk in white Russia.
From whole Europe occupied by German troops to end of war humans were deportiert alone for the purpose of their destruction into these camps. As far as they had not already died in the case of transport in cattle railroad cars, they were selected right after their arrival in able to work ones and non--able to work. Children and its mothers, old person and patient, were led right after the selection in Gaskammern, which were camouflaged as shower rooms usually. In Auschwitz they became with cyclone B guest. In other extermination camps engine exhaust gases were mostly used. The gas caused an painful up to 20 minutes lasting asphyxiation death. The corpses were burned afterwards in crematoria. Physical remnants - hair and gold teeth - and private goods of the victims - clothes, shoes, eyeglasses, suit-case etc. - were industrially used of the SS.
In addition people attempts came to military, medical and other purposes in the camps. The victims were infected for example in pressure chambers extremely high or low air pressure suspended, in ice water undercooled, with bacteria, abused for surgical attempts and much more besides. The authors, for instance the SS-physician Josef Mengele, accepted death or lifelong health damage of the test subjects consciously and without each scruples.
At many German and Swiss research establishments were still until recently human parts of the body, which had been requested and supplied once from the Nazis to „investigation purposes “.
Planning documents, when sea-conference and victim numbers
of the actual planning of the Holocaust exist only few written documents the Nazi period, since the closer circle of the authors wanted to hide the dimension and consequence of its project also regarding the possible war defeat for future generations. Directly the persons involved therein were subject to the professional secrecy. The conversion of the genocide was considered as „secret realm thing “.
Among prominent national socialists thus a clear consciousness for the extraordinary civilization break of this genocide was present. But speaks also a speech Heinrich Himmlers before SS-officers, who had been involved already in the Massenexekutionen behind the east front.
Originally was probably planned to push after the expected lightning victory over the Soviet Union, the Jews away into inhospitable regions of Russia where they would fast at the basis have gone. Decided after being missing the lightning victory the “final solution” in controlled the already order; Poland offered itself there almost.
To 20. January 1942 took place under the line of the boss of the state police and the SD, pure hard Heydrich, the when sea-conference at Berlin. On it high-ranking ministerial officials of the realm government discussed „the final solution in such a way specified of the Jew question “, i.e. the Deportation and murder of all European Jews. From received documents of the conference it can be seen that 11 million humans were intended for destruction.
In the largest concentration camp Auschwitz Birkenau were murdered roughly 1.100.000 to 1.500.000 humans. About one million of it were Jews. In the respectable historical research it applies today as secured that during the Second World War at least 5.29 million were killed, at the most scarcely over 6 million Jew in concentration and extermination camps as well as with Massenexekutionen. Absolutely accurate numbers could be never determined, since many Deportierte were sent right after to their arrival - without individual to have thus been registered - into the Gaskammern. For the areas standing under National Socialist control the work calls „dimension of the genocide “(see below) the following minimum numbers:
|France and Belgium||32,000|
|Yugoslavia||55,000 - 60,000|
|Luxembourg||of the 1,200|
|Soviet Union||2.100.000 - 2.200.000|
far common is the view, the Jews hardly resistance against their Deportationen and schliessliche murder would have offered (connected with of some implied reproach to carry therefore as far as a certain degree the debt at the suffered treatment). Only few of them suspected first something from the whole extent them course-thought „fate “. For many the information about mass extermination camp, which increasingly by 1942 /43 among other things in the Jewish Ghettos Poland, Lithuania, of white Russia circulated, was nothing else as rumors. The conception that they should be murdered as a whole people, appeared most at the beginning of already first information not examinable because of the dimension of such in the given situation as a little convincing. Even if it under the Repressionen of the Nazis already since Hitler's seizure of power and/or. the occupation of their respective countries of origin obviously to suffer and many from them in the Ghettos at hunger, deficiency diseases had or in consequence of encroachments by force already died, accepted them nevertheless that their life was important altogether - at least as a worker - to enough, in order to be able to survive at least as slave workers, until the Germans were defeated. Thus developed the picture of the apparently sakeless victims, that would not have had to oppose anything to their pursuers.
The resistance of the Jews against their murderers was actual, although under conceivablly unfavorable conditions, at least after the beginning 2. World war more common and more varied, than one accepts far away. One of the more well-known examples of it - and a Fanal for the Jewish resistance altogether - was the rebellion in the Warsaw Ghetto of 19. April 1943 up to 16. May 1943. It organized by the Jewish war organization „ZOB “ in the final phase of the dissolution of the Ghettos by the Nazis, as all there still remaining Jews into the extermination camps - particularly after Treblinka - to be deportiert should. The underground organization was einge of couriers, who oscillated between „the arischen “part and the blocked Jewish Ghetto Warsaw under lethal conditions, gradually with smuggled weapons, mainly hand-held weapons (rifles, pistols and appropriate ammunition), hand grenades and explosive supplied. First in an element of surprise high losses could teach the groups fighting in different houses of the Ghettos to the penetrating clearing commands of the SS and strike them into the escape. Thereupon the SS with heavy equipment returned such as tanks and cannons . Despite the supremacy of the Germans the Jewish groups of resistances in one could hold themselves about four weeks persisting house fight. At the end for the still remaining fighters only the surrender and thus in most cases death remained by shooting. Only few involved ones of this rebellion could save themselves by the sewers.
Also in other Ghettos Jewish groups of resistances, which help Ghettobewohnern occasionally to the escape, formed and isolate also smaller revolts to initiate could, so for example in Bialystok and Wilna. Furthermore there were revolts and rebellions of the Jewish prisoners in the KZs and extermination camps of Eastern Europe in some cases and/or. Parts of them: Thus it came for example to 14. October 1943 to a rebellion in the extermination camp Sobibor in east Poland, stated by Jewish-Russian prisoners of war. It succeeded to the insurgent ones to kill nine member of the security guards before the well prepared revolt was noticed. It expanded to a mass rebellion of the Jews, to who it succeeded to open the gates to the camp. 320 Jewish KZ-passengers could flee. Many of them afterwards different groups of partisans in the forests followed. However only 47 of the refugees from Sobibor survived the end of the war. The Nazis gave the camp up in consequence of the mass escape to at the end of of 1943.
In the KZ Auschwitz Birkenau, which largest extermination camps of the Nazis, there were about 700 individual escape attempts in the time of its existence, from which about 300 was successful. To 7. October 1944 came it to the desperate rebellion of the Jewish special command into Auschwitz, which at the crematoria, which for the victims of the mass gasifications, was used incinerators. A part of the crematorium IV was destroyed by the ignition of the explosive in-smuggled by female prisoners. 250 prisoners tried a mass escape. They all were however fast seized and killed relatively.
European-wide thousands were submerged Jews involved in the guerilla warfare against the German Besatzer, in particular in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, the Balkans states and Greece, where Jewish partisans followed usually the existing groups of resistances. In Eastern Europe, particularly in catholic coined/shaped Poland, it succeeded from the KZs and Ghettos to the escaping rather rarely to follow groups of partisans already existing since there often also among LV opponents anti-Semitic of resentment prevailed. Due to this circumstance straight in Poland formed more strongly than in west and south Europe also own specifically Jewish partisan units, to be which came despite their initial inexperience fast into the call, particularly decided and motivated fighters against the Nazis, and who were supplied in the further war process preferentially by the advancing Red Army partly with weapons. In particular with the so-called „rail war “, Jewish groups of partisans went to a series of notices and act of sabotage ions against rail transports of the German armed forces to the east front frequently up into action and struck temporarily substantial gaps into war the infrastructure of the Germans.
In the French colony Algeria kollaborierenden with the Germans there was Jewish resistance fighters, who conquered as uneinnehmbar valid fortress the Algiers from the inside with „ the operation torch/flare “, and thus a crucial contribution for the landing of the allied ones and their following successful campaign against the German armed forces in North Africa made.
Many Jews, who could emigrieren into the 1930er years and at the beginning of the war before the Nazis abroad safe , closed during 2. World war the regular troops of the different allied ones on. In many armies there were own Jewish units in different branches of service, which fought as soldiers against the LV regime. After the war emigrierte German Jews often served the allied one as translators in occupied Germany. A prominent example of it is a writer Stefan Heym, which returned as an officer of the American army to Germany.
According to estimations were European-wide up to 1.5 million Jew in the regular military fight and in the underground as partisans actively in the resistance against National Socialist tyranny involved.
Resistance in the occupied or allied countries
a small number of European Jews was saved, because the governments of their homelands of the demand of Hitler Germany did not give way after their distribution.
Finland, since 1941 of Germany allying in the war against the Soviet Union, did not deliver its Jews to a large extent, although Himmler this in the summer 1942 with a Finland - stay of the Finnish government had demanded. The Prime Minister Rangell is to have answered to it, of Finland Jews are citizens like all different and served also than soldiers in the war against the Soviet Union. Some Jews were delivered nevertheless, because they were communists. This practice was however already stopped starting from December 1942, after newspapers and some politicians had protested against it. Occasionally the entry was refused to Jewish refugees to Finland; but those about 1,000 Jews living in Finland could be nearly completely saved.
In Denmark king seized Christian X. demonstratively a party for the Jews, when the German crew authorities wanted to force also it to carrying the Jew star. To the resistance of belonging coworkers of crew power the Danish Untergrundbewegung before threatening raids of the SS warned. Thereupon it succeeded in the country to the living person with the aid large parts of the population in September and October 1943, most approx. To channel 6,000 Jews into neutral Sweden. Thus a comparatively low number of Danish Jews, was murdered 161 humans, in German camps. (see also: Rescue of the Danish Jews)
Italian fascism was aligned differently than the German national socialism not anti-Semitic. In addition it came that Italy at the beginning of allied Germany and none of this occupied country were. After beginning of war anti-Jewish laws were issued, but the government and particularly the army opposed that urge of the Germans to send the Italian Jews into death. They were interned, but under better conditions than in the German concentration camps and without constant death threat. Therefore some Jews from the occupied France and from Yugoslavia fled to Italy. Only after the front change of Italy 1943 the Germans treated the country like an occupied area and transferred the Italian Jews into their own extermination camps.
Also the example of Bulgaria - likewise allied Germany - proves that a decided resistance could successfully through-cross the German plans. Here owing to the firm attitude by government and population about 50,000 Jews were saved.
Many Poland were traditionally of the catholic Antijudaismus coined/shaped. Nevertheless there were beside persons the Jews delivered - to survive many also by even - also many (also catholic) groupings, how „the Zegota “those helped the Jew, although for it differently than in Western Europe not only the death penalty for the individual aid threatened, but regularly also for its family or the whole village. More than one half million Polish Jew survived the Holocaust, many by assistance from the population. Many Poland were frightened over the murder of Jewish children and hid they for example on the country, with the partisans or in catholic monasteries. Thus those represent also more as a third of all in Yad Vashem than fair ones among the peoples distinguishing to Poland.
further European resistance
neutral Switzerland umschlossene of the Axis powers did not deliver Jews with Swiss citizen right. During the war it took up zigtausende of refugees, under it also many Jews legally, many further created the border crossing illegaly and became from the authorities (waited) or private ones (illegal) in the country keep. Altogether 275 ' 000 refugees outlived - of it 26 ' 000 Jews fled from the foreign country into Switzerland in Switzerland. Under the so-called. “The boat is fully” - doctrine became in addition, a large unknown number of refugees - under it at least. 30 ' 000 Jews - at the border back pointed or illegaly entries the Nazis at the border hand over and thus into (nearly) safe death sent. Switzerland was requested several times by Adolf Hitler to accept no further Jews and deliver fled Jews. At least never one corresponded to latter demand, first more or less, depending upon current war situation and subjectively estimated invasion danger. Whether Switzerland of more Jews could have taken up or to have and whether the admission of more Jews to an invasion Switzerland would have led, is one extremely disputed question - concrete invasion plans existed anyhow since 1940 (operation fir tree).
The German Industrielle Oskar Schindler protected 1200 Jewish forced laborers within the German Reich the destruction, by being responsible her to end of war as war-importantly defined and for her maintenance personally.
Chronology of National Socialist Jew pursuit
- 30. January 1933: Adolf Hitler becomes realm chancellor. In the following months it comes to anti-Semitic acts of violence.
- March 1933: The first „official “ concentration camps (KZs) develop for Oranienburg in DAK-strike and.
- 1. to 3. April 1933: Germany further boycott of Jewish business
- 7. April 1933: The law for the re-establishment of the civil service with tenure with „the Arierparagraphen “far away „not Arier “from the public service and introduces „the Ariernachweis “.
- 25. April 1933: The law against the overstocking of German schools and universities forces the dismissal of „not Ariern “from schools and universities.
- 30. June 1933: The marriage with „not Ariern “leads to the dismissal from the government service.
- 14. July 1933: The law over the revocation of naturalizations and the deprivation of the German nationality approximately „east Jews “is introduced.
- 29. September 1933: After the realm hereditary yard law hereditary yard farmers need a Ariernachweis until 1800.
- 4. October 1933: The editor law excludes German Jews from the press .
- 5. February 1934: German Jews do not become any more the exam for physicians and dentists certified; the same follows still 1934 for Jewish law - and pharmacy - students.
- 21. May 1935: The law on conscription excludes German Jews from the military service .
- 16. July 1935: Realm Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick forbids registrars of births, marriages and deaths participating in race mixed marriages.
- 15. September 1935: The Nürnberger of laws - the realm citizen law and law for the protection of the German blood and the German honour - extracts the citizen rights from Jews and forbids marriages and sexual intercourse between Jews and non--Jews.
- 14. November 1935: The first regulation to the realm citizen law dismisses all remaining Jews from public offices.
- 24. March 1936: Aids for child-rich Jewish families are painted.
- 15. April 1936: Members of the realm press chamber, one month later also the realm chamber of the forming arts must furnish a Ariernachweis.
- 15. October 1936: Jews may not give private instruction to Germans.
- 15. April 1937: Jews may not attain a doctorate any longer.
- 12. June 1937: After one secret-let from pure hard Heydrich, to the boss of the Central Reich Security Office, Jewish “race violaters so mentioned “after detention completion in a KZ are instructed.
- 1938: The Arisierung begins with the registration of the Jewish fortune and restriction of the access to its accounts. The synagogs in Munich and Nuremberg are destroyed.
- 13. March 1938: To the connection of Austria it comes there to Jew-hostile terror.
- 15. June 1938: About 1,500 Jews are arrested in „the June action “approximately „Asoziale “in KZs.
- 17. August 1938: Jews must accept additionally the first name „Sara “or „Israel “.
- 5. October 1938: Jewish passports are stamped with a large red „J “.
- 7. November 1938: The Jewish Herschel Grynszpan murders the Legationssekretär Ernst Eduard of the Rath.
- 9. November 1938: At the so-called „realm crystal night “and produce the national socialists in completely Germany Pogrome initiate against Jews, their business, houses, synagogs and other mechanisms. Hundreds are murdered thereby and hurt heavily. In the following days about 20,000 Jews in KZs of the realm area are arrested.
- 12. November 1938: The German Jews must pay as „Sühneleistung “for the destruction of the Novemberpogrome over a billion realm Mark.
- 24. January 1939: Hermann Göring instructs Ministers of the Interior Wilhelm Frick to develop a realm center for Jewish emigration.
- 30. January 1939: For the case of a future war Hitler prophesies „the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe “.
- 1. September 1939: With the Second World War also Jew pursuit in areas of east and Western Europe occupied by Germany begins.
- 20. September 1939: The Jews must deliver their radios.
- 27. September 1939: The Central Reich Security Office is created by pool by state police (Sipo) and security agency (SD).
- 24. October 1939: The German crew authorities introduce the first „Jew badge to Wlocalawec “into Poland.
- 23. November 1939: All Polish Jews must carry „the Jew star “.
- 1939/40: Jew in Poland, later also in Lithuania and others in blocked urban Ghettos are isolated and collected „“, among them the Warsaw Ghetto. There also Jews from the environment are finally obligation-resettled and from other countries. Their overstocking and supply lacking lead from the outside to the intended extremely high death rate, particularly by hunger and deficiency diseases.
- January 1940: Within the framework euthanasia of the program and the action T4 first humans guest become.
- 27. April 1940: Heinrich Himmler, the realm leader of the SS, instructs the building of the KZ Auschwitz.
- From June to August 1940 the Central Reich Security Office and the State Department work on a plan to the Deportation of the Jews to Madagascar. (Madagascar plan)
- 15./16. November 1940: Hermetic isolation of the Warsaw Ghettos by the building of a wall.
- Spring 1941: In the context of the preparations for the attack on the Soviet Union become four groups of employments, which are to murder Jews beside Soviet functionaries also.
- 22. June 1941: Beginning of the operation Barbarossa, the attack on the Soviet Union and in the consequence murder of the there living Jews.
- 31. July 1941: Hermann Göring assigns pure hard Heydrich „the final solution of the Jew question “.
- 1. September 1941: Also German Jews must carry the Jew star.
- 3. September 1941: In Auschwitz first Probervergasungen with cyclone B is accomplished.
- 19. Septembers 1941 also the Jews in the German Reich from the completed sixth Lebensjahr on have the yellow Jew star “on the left chest side of the article of clothing to visibly carry”.
- 29. and 30. September 1941: Murder of nearly 34,000 Jews with Babi Jar.
- September until November 1941: Planning and commencement of construction of the extermination camps Chelmno, Belzec, Majdanek and Auschwitz Birkenau.
- 23. October 1941: Jews the emigration from the German sphere of influence is forbidden.
- 30. November 1941: With Riga more than 10,000 Jews are murdered.
- 20. January 1942: On the when sea-conference the LV leaders prepare „the final solution of the Jew question “. Afterwards the industrially operated murder of the Jews is advanced by gasification in the extermination camps particularly in the occupied areas of Eastern Europe. For the action pure hard become still the extermination camps Sobibor and Treblinka established.
- starting from February 1942: Deportationen first from Poland, then Germany and from the other occupied areas into the extermination camps.
- 19. July 1942: Heinrich Himmler demands that Poland to at the end of becomes “Jew-free” 1942.
- August 1942: In the two last weeks become in the extermination camps Chelmno, Treblinka and Belzec more than 200,000 Jews guest.
- 19. April to 16. May 1943: Rebellion in the Warsaw Ghetto: Jewish groups of resistances rise against their murderers with the evacuation of the remaining Jews from the Ghetto into the extermination camps. The SS strikes down the rebellion after 4 weeks.
- 11. June 1943: Himmler instructs liquidating all Polish Ghettos.
- 19. June 1943: Joseph Goebbels explains Berlin for “Jew-free”.
- 2. August 1943: Prisoner rebellion in the extermination camp Treblinka.
- 14. October 1943: Prisoner rebellion in the extermination camp Sobibor, thereafter there end of the gasifications.
- 19. October 1943: End of the action pure hard: between November 1941 and October 1943 in the camps Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka about 1.750.000 Jews were murdered.
- 24. July 1944: The KZ Majdanek is released as the first Lagar by the Soviets.
- 27. November 1944: Himmler instructs the end of the gasifications in Ausschwitz.
- 27. January 1945: Soviet troops reach Auschwitz and release there still living the latter approx. 7,500 KZ-passengers.
- April 1945: End of the monthly are accomplished in the KZ Ravensbrück and in the KZ duty living the last gasifications.
- 29. April: American troops occupy the oldest concentration camp in DAK-strike.
- 30. April: Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
- 9. May 1945: The unconditional surrender of Germany comes into force.
- 20. November 1945: Beginning of the Nürnberger of process against the main war criminals
- 1957: The Ulmer process of group of employments shows that many crimes of the national socialists were not examined and were punished yet.
- 6. November 1958: Establishment of the centers place of the national administrations of justice for the clearing-up of National Socialist crimes in Ludwigsburg.
- 11. May 1960: Seizure of Adolf calibration man by the Israeli secret service Mossad. He was condemned and executed from an Israeli court to death.
- 1960: Introduction of the incitement of the masses as criminal offence existence, among them paragraph 3 also denying the Holocaust falls after § 130.
- 1963: Beginning of the Auschwitzprozesse.
- 1965: Since the Verjährung of the murders threatens währnd the NS time, it comes to a violent debate over the extension of the period of limitation for murder. The period is extended and waived 1979.
- 26. November 1975: Beginning of the main negotiation of the Majdanek process.
- 1979: Holocaust word of the yearly.
- 10. May 2005: Inauguration it monument for the murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin.
Further groups of KZ-prisoners in beech forest,
for the destruction program of the Nazis also the murder of three million belonged to Russian prisoners of war and nearly three million not-Jewish Poland by Massenexekutionen, war actions or food withdrawal. More than two million east European, v.a. Poland and Russians died with them imposed hard labour.
The Nazis proceeded thereby in accordance with the principle „destruction by work “: Dying the forced laborers in the labour camps by hunger, cold weather, excessive demand and arbitrary murders of the security guards was taken and caused consciously in purchase. As long as the concerning were able to work, their hard labour served again the continuation of the war and thus further destruction.
Also the mechanism of the labour camps and kidnapping the prisoners of war was no coincidental, but systematically caused consequence of the Russia campaign. Beyond the destruction of the European Jews the Nazis in the master planner east had prepared a long-range program for the destruction and resettlement. Afterwards further than „rassisch inferior “designated, above all slawische peoples should be exterminated gradually by mass murder and banishing to Siberia.
A partial chapter of the Holocaust displaced for a long time was also the systematic internment and murder of the Sinti, Roma and further groups, which were called and arranged of the Nazis gypsies. This classification was based likewise on racistic thinking samples and aimed at as large an eliminating as possible.
Also politically unpopular ones, like for example communist, socialist, so-called Asoziale, trade unionist, a witness Jehovas, oppositional Christian, maladjusted young people such as Swing - lovers, noble pointing mirror-image rates or members of the bündischen youth as well as homosexual ones were killed in the concentration camps. The degree of their pursuit differed however clearly from the Genozid at Jews, the enslavement and Massenvernichtung of the Slawen and massive internment and killing „of the gypsies aiming at complete extermination “.
in view of the well-known victim numbers is difficult it until today to understand, why and as a large number of humans could take part in planning, execution and concealing of the Holocaust. A monocausal explanation for it is not possible. The historical research examined and so far put a bundle of causes out:
Economic and social motives of the authors
- the new „gentlemen “and their trailers drew economic advantages from their achieved power. Often national socialists enriched themselves and others „people comrades “at the fortune of their Jewish fellow citizens. Many usual citizens were beneficiaries „of the Arisierung “, and are it „only “that the Deportation of a Jewish neighbour solved their „housing question “or eliminated the annoying economic competitor. The state organs helped often straight small and larger entrepreneurs to loose-will unpleasant successful competitors and take over their enterprise.
- In addition bottlenecks came in the framework „the home in realm “- movement: Foreign Germans had to be accommodated now. In addition also homes for handicapped ones were vacated and finally murdered their inhabitant in trucks with exhaust gases (see and. A. Institute for LV killing Hadamar).
- With the beginning of war the Jews already plundered applied as „surplus Esser “, which represented a load for the supply of army and homeland.
Bureaucratic and hierarchical motives
- after planning for „a Jew reservation “in Poland or overseas (Madagascar plan for example) had not failed, had the Aufsteiger in the new bureaucratic elite because of their radical Antisemitismus any inhibitions, for „problem solution “for systematic destruction planned with bureaucratic efficiency to change over (when sea-conference).
- During many hearings and processes after 1945 again and again „the necessity to obey orders played “a role. Prime example for it were the statements of the Holocaust planner Adolf calibration man in his process in Israel: They document a cooperating of efficiency, subordination in the state hierarchy and total feeling cold weather.
- Rassisti theories under the cover of the science had since early 19. To seize and itself common in biology, people customer and linguistics know century in Germany, in addition, in other states of Europe foot.
- Apparent „scientific ones “bases for the identification „unwerten life “supplied at that time relatively new Eugenik.
- The inclusion of the universities into the Ausgrenzung of Jewish scientists, the establishment of one „ethnology “, the participation of numerous fields in injustice law, injustice medicine, historical falsification etc. a role which can be underestimated did not play at the time of the preparation and execution of the Holocausts.
- the fact that „completely normal humans could commit “such contempting for human beings acts it raised, questions to the influenceableness of the individual. Concepts like the systematic Ausgrenzung of the victims from the circle of the own group show the possible manipulating barness of the particular.
- Psychological experiments of the 1960er and 1970er years examined human behavior under group obligation or authority obedience. Admit became above all the Milgram experiment and the Stanford Prison experiment with their informative results.
- Depth-psychological interpretations confront a connection between the sea protest of inhuman educating methods and the feeling blindness - particularly authoritarian nationally - to force ago (Alice Miller, Wilhelm realm, Erich pious, Alexander Suez ago country Neill, Alexander Mitscherlich). Said sentences like „a boy “plays down therefore unconsciously the brutal child corporal punishment spread at that time does not cry.
- Daniel J. Goldhagen set up the disputed thesis that in Germany a eliminatorischer Antisemitismus had developed, because the Germans regarded the Jews as a people as an evil, which applies to eliminate it. - Critics of this thesis stress that it continues to shift the causes of the Holocaust only temporally into the past, but further not conclusively to explain can, why the Antisemitismus was more mörderischer in Germany as elsewhere.
- Raul Hilberg, even survivor of the Holocaust, examined the long-term prehistory of the Holocaust in Central Europe in a comprehensive standard work. He came to the result that particularly the Christian Antijudaismus and the medieval Jew politics of the church offered all models and experiences for their systematic escalation of Jew pursuit to the Nazis. The gasification was only missing: perhaps only, because this means had not been invented yet. - This explanation beginning embeds the characteristic of the Holocaust into a historical continuity, without relating and level it thereby. Because despite century-long, just as intensive Jew hate, Entrechtung and Ghettoisierung earlier Pogrome never attained systematics and consequence, which the Nazis at the Jews executed.
of the Antisemitismus, which the national socialists publicised and executed with the Holocaust, from complex roots grew: above all the Christian Antijudaismus. Thus there is already anti-Jewish Polemik, which makes the Jewish people responsible as a whole for death Jesu Christi in the new will (e.g. Mt 27.25). During the ascent process of the church for the state religion of the Roman realm these situation-conditioned statements were systematized to a antijudaistischen theology. The teachings central for it remained in church history across all denominations „the God murder “- theory and „the Enterbung “ of the Judentums represented by the church, for instance at the symbol shape „of the traitor “Judas.
The Ausgrenzungspolitik of the emperors and Popes provided in the Middle Ages European-wide for the isolation of Jewish municipalities. With social bad states, crusades and epidemics the religious hate unloaded itself then again and again in Pogromen against the Jews. In it the reformation changed little, since also the late Martin Luther was a large Judenhasser. It delivered the medieval anti-Jewish plates of the modern times.
There they were transferred form secularized by the rising middle class in and linked with other, also except-Biblical motives. Thus for instance of the shape of the Ahasveros the legend was composed by „the eternal Jew “, who moves racing and restless by the times and which exhausts peoples.
Why this Jew hostileness straight in Germany, also otherwise spread , could lead to the Holocaust, an open question is in the research.
The Holocaust in contemporary view
which the German population knew?
during itself the Ausgrenzung and discrimination of the Jews in Germany before all eyes carried out, paid attention the Hitler regime during „the final solution in such a way specified “to strictest secrecy. SS - It was forbidden to belonging ones under menace of the death penalty reporting on the murder from Jews or Sinti and Roma to. The number of the authors, for example member of security guards, taken part directly in the crimes, groups of employments, police battalions and armed forces-steep, becomes estimated on approximately 300,000.
In relation to the remaining population the Deportationen of the Jews from the realm was called officially „resettlements “. A propaganda film over „the Vorzeigeghetto “ Theresienstadt with the title „the leader gives to the Jews a city “suggested this picture still 1944, when many Germans had become by so-called whispering propaganda long Mitwissern of the mass murder. A majority of the Germans accepted the lie of the alleged resettlements without to ask, although such Massendeportationen already represented heavy injustice for itself taken. Many acted in such a way out of fear of the LV terror, others against because they profited from the anti-Jewish policy of the Nazis or divided their anti-Semitic conviction.
The fact that „the resettlement actually meant “mass murder received some Germans only from hearing legends, approximately from soldiers on homeland vacation. The resistance fighter Helmut James count von Moltke wrote 1943: „It does not know at least nine tenths of the population that we killed hundredthousands of Jews. “ Nevertheless even the tenth, which knew at least ansatzweise, undertook - apart from few rühmlichen exceptions - nothing against the Holocaust. - Only after end of war the majority of the German population experienced the whole extent of the LV-Gräuel. Some they were brought on drastic way to the knowledge: Thus American occupation troops forced the population Weimars to participate in guidance by the neighbouring KZ beech forest from whose existence everyone had had to know at the place. But even then some the crimes of the Nazis did not want to admit.
These were only the logical result its that had taken place into the first war years inside before all eyes in Germany. It could not remain hidden for anybody at that time that the Jews disappeared gradually from the social life. Anti-Jewish measures like the boycott of 1933 and the realm-far Pogrome of 9. November 1938 took place on open road. Everyone knew about countless discriminations and restrictions, the Jews were subjected to which: of the Nürnberger race laws over professionals disqualification, the Jew star, the Ghettoisierung and much more besides. Besides each newspaper reader and radio listener of Hitler could do several times repeated threat of 30. January 1939, after which a new world war would mean „the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe “. For a long time before the seizure of power Hitler had discharged similar threats already in his book „my fight “, which found far spreading after 1933.
Although the genocide at the Jews was a logical consequence of the National Socialist racial policy, at that time and believed this very day some humans believed that the pictures and report from the concentration camps were a component of British and American war propaganda. At that time like today much ignorance over the Holocaust is in the reason ignorance wools, a displacement from fear, shame or indifference. - However the US historian contradicts Daniel Goldhagen, which explains and as fundamental agreement as the destruction program of the national socialists describes the passive attitude of the very most Germans opposite the Holocaust from one deeply in the German society Antisemitismus verwurzelten.
At the beginning many Germans in the course profited to the institutionalized pursuit of the Jewish population from „air they run gene “directly from the wrong of their Jewish neighbours. Against end of war the survival fight in the zerbombten cities let a thought to the still larger wrong of other humans arise hardly. In the destroyed cities the rumor went around again and again, which was air war the retaliation for what one did the Jews. This is interpreted occasionally as indication of a untergründigen injustice consciousness, was however all too often also expression of a deeply anti-Semitic attitude, after which „the Jews at all debt are “or „control America “.
In view of the accomplice shank or indifference of the German population majority the rare acts of that not-Jewish Germans are to be evaluated all the more highly, the Jews helped to survive. Today probably the most well-known representative of this small group was Oskar Schindler, which protected approximately 1,200 Jewish forced laborers the murder.
The attitude of the allied
already 1939 ago, above all however after beginning of war criticized the allied ones the National Socialist home policy, under it also the pursuit of Jews and other minorities. Nevertheless the European Jews were not evacuated before the advancing troops of the Axis powers. Since 1942 were them the German extermination politics well-known; since then they condemned these extremely sharply and justified also their war strategy without seizing however purposeful measures for the prevention of the large Holocaust. In the middle of December 1942 the American and the British government a warning discussion that „the responsible persons of a retaliation do not escape “ became. This procedure against the authors in the special one followed however only after end of war.
When the first messages arrived over the Massenvernichtung, the US State Department tried to suppress their publication. On pressure of the public opinion an international conference met , in order to discuss solutions for refugees in April 1943 on Bermuda. It ran however without result. Only after intervention of the Minister of Finance Henry Morgenthau Franklin D quit. Roosevelt to 22. January 1944 the installation was Refugee board on. This committee contributed to the rescue of several thousand Jews.
The British government showed its attitude by different handicaps, omissions and evasive maneuvers. When in December some British delegates required, Jewish refugees had safe refuge to be promised, rejected this the British minister of foreign affairs with the reason, it would give „security doubts “and „geographical problems “. At the beginning of of 1943 became admits that one could have saved 70,000 Romanian Jews against deposit of a certain sum in Switzerland. The government blocked however the plan.
most badly proceeded the Soviet authorities with the Jews. After conclusion of the Hitler Stalin pact in August 1939 German Jews - under it many communists, who had looked for refuge in Russia - were delivered the Nazis. After outbreak of war the special endangerment of the Jews remained unconsidered. The Soviet reporting concealed the German extermination politics. Jewish refugees found often no support by to partisans, of these not as Mitkämpfer were taken up and partially of their weapons and food robbed, which however was also strongly dependent on the individual case.
After end of war the attitude of the allied ones hardly changed. In the English and American zone of occupation about 200,000 Jewish refugees arrived. An English general, who led the United nation relief and rehablitation administration, maintained, a Jewish „secret organization “ Jews to Germany „would smuggle “. They are dressed, probably and rosy-cheeked „well “ and would possess „large money “. In the middle of 1946 the English authorities forbade to Jewish refugees the entrance to the British zone of occupation.
Because of such experiences some representatives of Jewish groups of victims assume that some prominent forces in the west of Nazi propaganda succumbed, according to which „the Weltjudentum in such a way specified had caused “the war, in order to seize the rule over the anglo-saxon states. In addition, a totalEuropean responsibility for the Holocaust was stressed in church circles after 1945: often, but not always to relating the German debt portion.
The Nachgeschichte of the Holocaust
Traumatisierung of the survivors
many survivors of the extermination camps and humans, which could extract themselves from the threatening murder by escape or other circumstances, suffered and suffers from post office trauma tables load disturbance (PTBS). The psychiatrist and Psychoanalytiker William Niederland coined/shaped for it into the 1960er years the term of the survivor syndrome. Many Holocaust survivors was and is not not possible it partially until today to speak about its experiences in the death camps.
the whole extent of the National Socialist Gräueltaten came only to the light of the world public, as if allied troops the areas released, in which the concentration and extermination camps were.
The allied ones had agreed upon the continuous „Entnazifizierung of “Germany to the conference of Jalta in February 1945 apart from the demilitirization also for the time after their victory and had affirmed this resolution to the Potsdamer conference at the end of of July 1945.
the punishment of National Socialist crimes began with the Nürnberger processes and the discrete event type processes opened by allied powers between 1945 and 1948, in particular with the Nürnberger process against the main war criminals. Starting from 1949, after the establishment of the two German states, the prosecution changed into their competence, came however into consequence of the cold war soon completely to succumbing. Parallel for this however also the abolition of LV injustice judgements as well as the compensation were operated in particular expropriated victims.
In the GDR some looking processes took place against subordinated function carriers of the Nazi regime, in which it went less around their individual responsibility than around debt assignments to the West German side. In the Federal Republic of Germany again former members of the NSDAP actually prevented long time as judges and officials a serious pursuit of the authors. The initiative to their seeking out was left essentially to private individuals such as Simon Wiesenthal.
Only at 1958 the West German law to considerable extent began to pursue Nazi crimes. At that time the president of the international Auschwitz committee Hermann long leg and the hessian prosecutor general Fritz farmer reached the further pursuit of a charge of Adolf Rögner, which led to the arrest of a notorious Folterers, the former SS-man William Boger. Determinations of many years Bauers made finally the opening of the main method for 1963 possible to the Auschwitz processes in Frankfurt/Main. Only a consciousness for the LV crimes, their conditions and their consequences produced the shocking witness reports and the large medium echo on these processes with a majority of the German population: nearly 20 years after the war. On the other hand now already briefly after 1945 the publicly raised demands strengthened after one „conclusion line “. The accused during the Auschwitz processes showed no regret and always appointed themselves to „the necessity to obey orders in such a way specified “. Their defenders tried to discredit the legal proceedings as „looking processes “whereby they knew a majority of the public opinion behind itself.
1965 came it in the German Bundestag to an excited debate over the Verjährung of crimes from the Nazi period (debatedebate debate); after right at that time the period of limitation amounted to 20 years. First the period was pushed by a legal trick (beginning of the period 1949, establishment of the Federal Republic) onto 1969; 1969 were extended the period of limitation by 10 years and completely waived 1979 for murder and genocide.
During the following processes usually - to observe as with the pursuit of nationally organized injustice actually in principle - only the directly implementing authors of lower ranks in the command string were sued. The last larger procedures against LV authors were the Majdanek processes from 1975 to 1981 before the regional court Duesseldorf. From originally 15 accused SS-members were condemned there at the end of only six men and two women: Only lifelong and sieved temporally limited detentions were imposed between three and twelve years. The acquietals and as too low felt imprisonments released at that time world-wide protests.
Of special, in legal importance the process did not only prove against Adolf calibration man in Jerusalem in the year 1961. The former director/conductor of the Judenreferats in such a way specified in the Central Reich Security Office had organized the transport of millions of European Jews into the extermination camps. It could submerge after the war under wrong name in Argentina. The Israeli secret service Mossad sought out it there however 1960 and kidnapped it after Jerusalem. The there process against a main author from the executive of the LV regime brought the planerischen and administrative mechanisms to the light, which stood behind the Genozid at the Jews. Calibration man occurrence before court and its justification attempts made for a broad public possible for the first time in addition, to throw a view of the psychology of the authors. The Prozessbeobachterin Hannah Arendt spoke in this connection of „the banality of the bad one “. Calibration man was found in December 1961 for guilty and condemned to death. After a revision negotiation it was hung in May 1962.
Remuneration of fortune losses
the allied military administrations for occupied Germany and Austria issued - just as the later governments of the Federal Republic, the GDR and Austria - regulations, which set all measures of the Hitler regime for the Entrechtung and expropriation of the Jews repealed.
A complete remuneration at least for the material losses of the concerning nevertheless never took place. Numerous survivors of the extermination camps and their legal inheriting had to complain partially over decades before German and Austrian courts around the Rückerstattung of property or around payments of compensation.
While the governments of the GDR for itself an anti-fascist tradition lodged a complaint rejected and to briefly before the turn all requirements, which could result from actions of the German Reich, the governments of the Federal Republic saw these as a right successor of the realm. This led already under the first Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to compensation politics, which planned at least a ansatzweise collective remuneration.
In negotiations with David Ben Gurion agreed Adenauer on maintenance payments for the State of Israel, which was regarded as a legal successor of the murdered Jews. These payments lay not least in the interest of the Federal Republic, which could be established thereby again as a respected member of the international community of states. The so-called compensation payments are rejected from German right-wing extremists to today. In addition, they encountered in Israel violent criticism, since many humans wanted to accept there no „blood money in such a way specified “from Germany.
Processing by the churches
the churches try their debt portion of the civilization break, which the Holocaust represents, to carry approximately since beginning of the 60's during a partially painful processing process calculation.
In the EKD admit themselves today ever to more partial churches as a result of the Rheini Synodalerklärung from 1980 to „the federation without being under notice “: The Jewish people was always God chosen people and remains it, so that Christian its is possible without Jewish existence never. This refers also the solidarity with the State of Israel . Besides it is recognized that the Holocaust could never have happened, if the churches had demonstrated not for many centuries all measures against Jews - except the industrial gasification -. The next love inherited from the Judentum is understood as order for work and retaining about living conditions, which lastingly impossible a repetition of similar crimes makes.
Individual regional churches adopted pleas of guilty, which dissociated themselves also from Jew-hostile expressions Martin Luther.
Within and outside of the catholic church the behavior of Pope is Pius XII. during the Holocaust until today most disputed. The Pope had supported on the one hand the rescue of the Roman Jews, on the other hand however to the genocide had been silent, also after to him the facts admits had become.
In the catholic church the critical argument began with the own debt at Antijudaismus and Antisemitismus and with the responsibility of catholics for the Holocaust only after Pius' death in the year 1958. Its successor Johannes XXIII. the Jews responded for the first time in the history of the papacy as „brothers “. Of it initiated 2. Vatikani council discharged 1965 the explanation Nostra Aetate, after which it was not longer church Lehrmeinung, the Jews collectively for death Jesu Christi to make responsible.
In plea of guilty the Mea culpa from the year 2000 has Pope Johannes Paul II. publicly the debt of individual catholics at the pursuit of the Jews admitted, without addressing however concrete errors, omissions or crimes on the part of the church - approximately regarding the Holocaust - or to suggest possibilities of the compensation.
Antisemiten, revisionists and the Holocaust
major item: Holocaustleugnung
old persons national socialists, neo-Nazi and them intimate German national, fascist and historicalrevisionistic groups and parties try since always 1945 again to pull the Holocaust totally or partly in doubts. Usually they argue with an alleged conspiracy of the Jews and winner powers of 1945 against Germany and take over breakless the anti-Semitic propaganda of the National Socialist regime.
In recent time denial increasingly also Islamic fundamentalists like the Iranian president Mahmūd Ahmadī Nežād that it gave the Holocaust actually or in this extent. The Islamic Antisemitismus, which comes in this attitude to the expression, is essentially a reflex on the Middle East conflict and aims off to place the existence right of the State of Israel infrage. In this point right-wing extremism and Islamic fundamentalism touch themselves.
As offense of the victims and the memory of the deceased denying of the Holocausts is posed in countries such as Germany, Austria and France under punishment.
in the history of the Federal Republic gave and gives it forces, which try, to relate the Holocaust by embedding him into larger world-historical connections and so that “seek to cause „a normalized historical picture. To it for example the attempt belongs to represent the national socialism as answer to one „to Jewish communism “which brought equivalent crimes out in form of the Stalinismus. As further examples positions become frequent from the so-called historian controversy (keyword: „causal Nexus “) from the years 1986/87 aforementioned. Right-wing extremists groups want to historisieren the Holocaust, because the memory of Auschwitz „values “how national pride, militarism and great power politics for it on a long-term basis „decomposes “and discredits.
The criticism at these attempts places not in principle in agreement that the larger historical connections and causes of the Holocaust must be investigated. But it fights frequently the associated minimization and extracting of the Holocaust from German history and its continuity as well as „exculpatory “misinterpretation against causes and effects.
a third tendency is increasing under a recent generation of neo-Nazis: Instead of denying or relating here increasingly the conscious identification with the authors of the Jew murder happens and its Glorifizierung.
All misdirected forms of handling the Holocaust are connected and favour each other: The displacement, relating, denying and glorification are only gradually differentiated stages of a creeping dissociation from the own German, culpable past. They indicate symptomatically the processing of the thousands of years crime not carried out yet also in the center to the society. Herein the challenge exists for an appropriate form of the memory with those, which were not involved and less and less survivors can ask victims or authors.
Reminder and memory of the Holocaust
today remind numerous memorials and museums (for example the Florida Holocaust museum) in the whole world at the Holocaust. At least just as importantly are however also initiatives and organizations, which make their contribution on most different levels and with the most different means for the memory culture of the Holocaust. They made it among other things it's duty to inform above all young-finite over the Holocaust to strengthen their sense of responsibility and civil courage or to manufacture - for example over projects to the Schüleraustausch - an international dialogue.
The most important Holocaustgedenkstätte is Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, where among other things the avenue of the fair ones among the peoples is. In Germany and formerly the German occupied areas are above all the memorial places on the areas of the former concentration camps of importance, in particular the KZ Auschwitz Birkenau. Also the Jewish museum and the recently opened monument for the murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin possess a special meaning. Important initiatives of the reconciliation work are for example the action Sühnezeichen and the intending services.
In Germany is since 1996 of the 27. January day of the memory of the victims of the national socialism. After a resolution of the United Nations (UN) since 2006 to evenly this date world-wide the day of the memory of the victims of the Holocaust is committed.
of standard works
- Götz Aly: „Final solution “. People shift and the murder at the European Jew, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1998, ISBN 3596140676 (Jew murder as consequence of a chain of failed National Socialist driving out, resettlement and Deportationsprojekten, processes many new sources)
- Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Dimension of the genocide. The number of the Jewish victims of the national socialism, Dtv, Munich 1996, ISBN 3423046902 (internationally the only comprehensive scientific work of numerous historians over the victim numbers, arranged to individual countries)
- Philippe Burrin: Hitler and the Jews. The decision for the genocide, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1993, ISBN 3100463080 (first thorough work to the decision-making process)
- Saul Friedländer: The third realm and the Jews. The years of pursuit 1933-1939, Dtv, Munich 2000, ISBN 342330765X (first volume, predominantly from the perspective of the Jewish pursuit victims)
- Christian Gerlach: War, nutrition, genocide. German destruction politics in the Second World War Pendo publishing house, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3858424048
- the expansion of the German mass murders in the occupied Soviet areas in the autumn 1941. Considerations to the destruction politics against Jews and Soviet prisoners of war
- the meaning of the German nourishing politics for the acceleration of the murder at the Jew 1942
- when sea-conference
- Raul Hilberg: The destruction of the European Jews., Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1990, volume 1: ISBN 3596106117 ; Volume 2: ISBN 3596106125 ; Volume 3: ISBN 3596106133 (internationally recognized standard work with emphasis on long-term roots of the Holocaust in the Middle Ages)
- Raul Hilberg: Author, victim, spectator. The destruction of the Jews 1933-1945, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 2003, ISBN 3596132169 (supplement)
- Eberhard Jäckel among other things (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. The pursuit and murder of the European Jews, Piper, Munich 1998, ISBN 3492227007 (reference book for Erstinformation, partly unreliably)
- Eugen Kogon: The SS-state. The system of the German concentration camps, Heyne, Munich 2000, ISBN 345302978X (postwar book of a survivor of the KZ beech forest; little contains Peter Longerich to the murder at the European Jews since
- 1941): Politics of the destruction. An overall display of the National Socialist Jew destruction, Piper, Munich 1998, ISBN 3492037550 (emphasis: different development and decision phases during the process for the total destruction of the European Jews)
- Peter Longerich: The unwritten instruction. Hitler and the way to „the final solution ", Piper, Munich 2001, ISBN 3492042953 (comprehensively documented proof of the systematic destruction politics and Hitler role thereby; appraisal contains the author for the process against David Irving)
- Dieter Pohl: Pursuit and mass murder in the NS time 1933-1945, scientific book company, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3534151585 (LV specialist of the institute for contemporary history places current state of research compressed, reliably, with all substantial partial aspects for Erstinformation and specialists)
- Gerald Reitlinger: The final solution. Hitler's attempt of the extermination of the Jews of Europe 1939-1945. (Standard work of 1979, clear systematic representation of the Deportatonen and execution of the Holocaust, arranged to countries; partly by new sources) Leny
- Yāhîl overhauls: The Shoah. Survival fight and destruction of the European Jews, Luchterhand, Munich 1998, ISBN 345302978X (extensive, clear representation of the Holocaust and the rescue and emigration attempts)
literature to single aspects of the Holocaust
- Uwe D. Adam: Jew politics in the third realm, Droste publishing house Duesseldorf 2003, ISBN 3770040635
- Vincas Bartusevicius among other things (Hrsg.): Holocaust in Lithuania. War, Jew murders and Kollaboration in the year 1941, Böhlau, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3412139025
- Rainer C. Tree: The Holocaust and the German elite. Genocide and national Suicide in Germany, 1871-1945. Totowa/London, ISBN 0709906569
- Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Legend, lies, prejudices. A dictionary to contemporary history, Dtv, Munich 2002, ISBN 3423301309
- Christopher R. Browning: Completely normal men. The reserve battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland, Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005, ISBN 3499608006
- Christopher R. Browning: Provoking „the final solution ". National Socialist Jew politics 1939-1942, Propyläen publishing house, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3549071876
- Christopher R. Browning: The way to „the final solution ". Decision and author, Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002, ISBN 3499613441
- Manfred Deiler (Hrsg.): The KZ-command purchase ring, Landsberg 1944/45. The destruction of the Jews in the defense project „ring-airworthiness directive-practices ", citizen combination, Landsberg/Lech 1993, ISBN 3980277539
- Manfred Deiler (Hrsg.): Landsberg in April 1945. The end of the Holocaust in Bavaria; Death march and release, citizen combination, Landsberg/Lech 1993, ISBN 3980377512
- Daniel Goldhagen: Hitler's willing executors. Completely usual Germans and the Holocaust, Goldmann, Munich 2000, ISBN 3442150884
- Claude Lanzmann: Shoah, although publishing house, Grafenau 1999, ISBN 392209874 (interviews with survivors; Instruction book to Lanzmanns film documentation on DVD)
- Peter Neitzke: Concentration camp document F 321 for the international military court yard Nuremberg, Zweitausendeins-Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 1997, ISBN 3861500124 (2001 Judaica)
- Karin Orth: The concentration camp SS. Socialstructural analyses and biographic studies, Dtv, Munich 2004, ISBN 3423340851 (review for H-Soz-u-cult of Christian Scharnefsky)
- Jean Claude Pressac: The crematoria of Auschwitz. The technology of the mass murder, Piper, Munich 1995, ISBN 3492121934 (English original on-line)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Rhodes: The German murderers. The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Holocaust, Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2004, 3785721838
- Lea Rosh, Eberhard Jäckel: „Death is a master from Germany. Deportation and murder of the Jews. Kollaboration and Verweigerung in Europe, Dtv, Munich 1993, ISBN 3423303069 (instruction book for TV-documentation)
- Karl A. Schleunes: The Twisted Road ton of Auschwitz. Nazi Policy toward German Jews, 1933-39, University OF Illinois, Urbana, Ill. 1990, ISBN 0252061470
- Michael cutters: „Volkspädagogik " from right. Ernst Nolte, the efforts toward „the Historisierung " of the national socialism and „the self-confident nation ", Friedrich Ebert donation, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3860774638 (electronics OD.: Library of the FES, 1998)
- Gerhard beautiful-Bernese: The yellow star. Jew pursuit in Europe 1933-1945, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1991, ISBN 359610601X (photo volume)
- Gerd R. Over crowd: Places of having a horror. Crime in the Second World War, Primus publishing house, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3896782320
- James Edward Young: Describe the Holocaust. Representation and consequences of the interpretation,
- Alexandra Rossberg, Johan Lansen (Hrsg.): The silence break. Berlin lessons to late sequences of the Schoa. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1997, ISBN 351839231X
of the Holocaust in films (chronologically arranged selection)
- deadly storm (the USA 1940; Direction: Franc Borzage)
- Jakob of the liars (GDR 1975; Direction: Franc Beyer)
- from a German life (Federal Republic of Germany 1977; Direction: Theodor Kotulla)
- Holocaust - the history of the family white (4-teilige TV serial, the USA 1978; Direction: Marvin J. Chomsky)
- Shoah (France 1985; Direction: Claude Lanzmann)
- good-bye, children (France/Federal Republic of Germany 1987; Direction: Louis Malle)
- Sobibor (Great Britain 1987; Direction: Jack gold)
- grain-flower-blue (Poland 1988; Direction: Lezek Wosiewicz)
- triumph of the spirit - a Boxer in hell (the USA 1989; Direction: Robert M. Young)
- Korczak (Poland/Germany/France 1990; Direction: Andrzej Wajda)
- Schindlers list (the USA 1993, direction: Steven play mountain)
- the Karwoche (Poland 1996; Direction: Andrzej Wajda)
- the life is beautiful (Italy 1997; Direction: Roberto Benigni)
- course of the life (France/Belgium/Israel 1998; Direction: Radu Mihaileanu)
- Jakob of the liars (the USA, France, Hungary, 1998; Direction: Peter Kassovitz)
- Klemperer - a life in Germany (12-teilige TV serial (see. Victor Klemperer), Germany 1999; Direction: Dock Wessel)
- Anne franc - true history (the USA, 2001; Direction: Robert thorn helmet)
- Uprising - the rebellion (USA/Great Britain/Germany Austria 2001; Direction: John Avnet)
- the when sea-conference (the USA 2001; Direction franc R. Pierson and FRG 1984 )
- the gray area (the USA 2001; Direction: Tim Blake Nelson)
- the pianist (Great Britain/France/Poland 2002; Direction: Novel Polanski)
- the deputy (France/Germany 2002; Direction: Constantin Costa Gavras)
- Babij Jar (Germany/Russia 2003; Direction: Jeff Kanew)
- country of the destruction. (Documentary film over the remainders of the scenes in Poland. From Romuald Karmakar, Germany 2003/2004)
- to badges in the concentration camps
- action Reinhardt
- Antisemitismus to 1945
- German compensation politics
- education in the national socialism
- Ewa Paradies
- historical revisionism
- list of the concentration camps
- list of well-known victims of the national socialism
- portal: To national socialism
- armed forces and LV crime
- crime against the humanity
- coming to terms with the past and memory culture of the time of the national socialism
- use of the term Holocaust
Web on the left of
for Web on the left of to memorial places, initiatives and memory culture about Holocaust see memories and memory of the victims of the national socialism and in the articles linked there.
|Commons: Holocaust - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Holocaust - quotations|
- international overview by LV memorial places and institutions
- Peter Ortag: Jewish culture and history. Hrsg: Brandenburgi national center for political education. 5. Edition 2003 - Chapter B/III/6 „the Holocaust “
- Shoa - the LV mass murder at the Jews of Europe
- „Holocaust reference “, arguments against Auschwitzleugner
- The Mazal LIBRARY extensive on-line archives to the Holocaust (English)
- Holocaust Memorial museum English
- Jewish life in Germany 1914-2005, Website of the federal center for political education and the German historical museum (dt. & English)
- working premises Holocaustliteratur
- Shoa.de: Victim numbers of the Holocaust
- data base too over 62.000 Austrian victims of the Holocaust
- data base of the victims on the Internet side of Yad Vashem