Holstein

of these articles describes the north German region Holstein, for further meanings sees Holstein (term clarifying).

Holstein (dän. and niederdt.: Holsten, lat.: holsatia) a region is in the south of Schleswig-Holstein between Elbe and Eider and became after its inhabitants,the Holsten (eigtl.Get-sowed = „forest-ate “) designated. Holstein belonged from 811 to 1806 to the Frankish and/or. German Reich, whose northernmost territory represented it. It was following until 1474 county and until 1864 duchy Holstein. Until 1806 Holstein belonged to Holy Roman realm of German nation, after 1815 it was part of the German federation, until it came 1867 to Prussia.

Largest city was to 1937 Altona, before it became as consequence of the large Hamburg law to Hamburg in in common December. From now on was the old principal place Kiel due to its meaning as naval base and industrial site the most important city, the Provinzialregierung for Holstein and Schleswig had its seat in Schleswig.

Table of contents

history

those probably first written mention name-giving Holsteiner is with Adam of Bremen anno 1076:

Transalbianorum Saxonum populi sunt tres: primi ad occeanum Tedmarsgoi sunt, et eorum ecclesia mouldin Melindorp, secundi Holcetae dicti A silvis quas accolunt; eos Sturia flumen interluit, ecclesia Scanafeld; tercii nobiliores Sturmarii et dicuntur, EO quod seditionibus I/O of gene frequens agitur. Inter quos metropolis Hammaburg caput extollit, olim viris et armis potens, Agro etfrugibus felix.

translated:

“The nordelbischen peoples that Saxonia are three, when first at the ocean are those Dithmar, and their nut/mother church is in Meldorf, when second Holsteiner, designated after the forests, which inhabit it; between them that flowsRiver disturb, (their) church is in Schenefeld, the third and noblest trunk is called Stormarn, because this gau frequently by storms of unrest one seizes. In its center the nut/mother church Hamburg raises its head, which was rich in former timesat men and weapons, productively ashore and fruits. “

The original Holstein covered thus approximately the today's circles Segeberg, stone castle, Pinneberg, new cathedral, Kiel, Rendsburg Eckernförde south the Eider, southern Plön and Stormarn.

The borderto the Danes in the today's region Südschleswig already formed since the time of Karl of the large one the Eider (Latin: Egdor fluvius), in the east the Levensau (north of Kiel). From 934 to 1025 belonged also the area up to Schlei as Marks of Schleswig to the holy Roman realm.

Beside the mentioned gaus Dithmar and Holstein existed also to the gau Stormarn. After Dithmar only to the count von Stade one subordinated and then to a farmer republic developed, the gaus mergedHolstein and Stormarn to the county Holstein. The Belehnung of Adolf of looking castle with the county Holstein took place 1111 via the Saxonian duke Lothar von Supplinburg. After the conquest of the slawischen areas (Wagrien) eastern the Limes Saxoniae (east Holstein)the counts von Holstein could develop their power also in the western regions in relation to the low aristocracy fully. Only in Dithmar 16 held themselves to in. Century inside still free farmers. The attempt of the Danish king Waldemar II., Holsteininto his realm to integrate, 1227 in the battle of Bornhöved because of the resistance of a coalition of north German prince under count Adolf IV. failed. by Holstein. The counts von Holstein could not only strengthen their rule after this victory in Holstein,separate soon also in the neighbouring duchy Schleswig at influence win, temporarily also in Denmark. Thus it came to a ever closer connection between Holstein and Schleswig; above all the holsteinische aristocracy had soon large properties north the Eider, andthe looking citizens placed finally also the duke of Schleswig.

Starting from 1261 the county Holstein was divided by the counts von Schauenburg and Holstein into different counties.

Over after becoming extinct the looking citizens counts 1459 a renewed Auseinanderentwicklung of the duchies tooavoids, selected one 1460 the Danish king to the duke of Schleswig and count von Holstein (whereby the latter was state-legally actually not correct, since the county was a German Lehen, but the emperor recognized the procedure later on). In the year 1474 became Holstein the duchy Holstein (realm-direct Lehen). Christian I. from Denmark, in personnel union king of Denmark, duke of Schleswig and count von Holstein, became thus the duke of Holstein. Contrary to Schleswig Holstein remained until 1806further state-legally seen a part of the holy Roman realm of German nation, even if it were governed by the Danish king. The north border of the duchy was the realm border thus at the same time. Thus 1665 also the mechanism of the University of Kiel took place due to oneimperial privilege. The Danish king Christian IV. in his characteristic as a duke of Holstein into the dreissigjährigen war one entangled, which led starting from 1627 also in Holstein to substantial devastations.

1490 were already it to a first landing hurrying under thatSons of the Danish king come, which led to a next to each other of “royal” and “herzoglichen” areas in Holstein, to in late 18. Century to last should.

Witch pursuits in the duchy Holstein extended from 1530 to 1735. Within the range ofHolstein, Lauenburg and Luebeck gave it to witch process against altogether 490 persons. There were many pursuits 1600-1640 and 1660-1670. Witch processes in Holstein

as well as Schleswig was Holstein after 1815 reason for conflicts between Denmark and Prussia, although from DanishSide the affiliation of Holstein to Germany in all rule was not denied (only from 1806 to 1815 Holstein had been inkorporiert in Denmark). Until 1864 were governed Holstein as part of the German federation from Denmark. As consequence of the GermanDanish war was there 1865 a short Prussian-Austrian Kondominium, 1866 fell Holstein by the Prussian-Austrian war at Prussia and formed starting from 1867 together with Schleswig the province Schleswig-Holstein, from after the Second World War the country of the Federal RepublicGermany became.

coat of arms

the silver Nesselblatt on red reason is the coat of arms of the looking citizens, who were belehnt 1111 with Holstein. Different cities of Holstein took over this coat of arms, by adding a further indication for distinction, e.g.the state capital Kiel the black boat.

Over the emergence of the holsteinischen coat of arms and over his sense one wrote much. The opinions are very much divided. In the opinion the silver figure is a Nesselblatt, after another, a sheetthe case shrubs (Ilex). The looking citizens are to have taken up after a 3.Ansicht a Nesselblatt to their coat of arms, because its master lock was located at the Weser on the Nettelnberg. On the other hand however the fact speaks that the looking citizens originally led a lion in the coat of armsand only later, than they were national gentlemen von Holstein, whom “Nesselblatt” accepted as coat of arms figure. The Nesselblatt is only 1239 proven.

The Nesselblatt became in Holstein first of Adolf IV., which defeated 1227 the Danes with Bornhöved, beside the lion coat of arms, laterof its sons as exclusive coat of arms led.

Geografie

Holstein extends from the Elbe in the south to to the Eider and the Levensau in the north. In the west becomes the region of the North Sea and in the east oflimits for the Baltic Sea.Fehmarn however belonged historically to Schleswig, and Luebeck came only 1937 again to Holstein. Also the duchy Lauenburg in the southeast was for a long time formally independent.

languages

in Holstein high German and Niederdeutsch ( Holsteiner flat become) spoken.

economics

large one of parts of Holstein like for example Dithmar or Elbmar is agriculturally coined/shaped. Larger industrial settlements are particularly in the large cities Kiel and Luebeck as well as in Hamburg surrounding countrysides. Brunsbüttel at Elbe and northeast ship canalis an important chemistry city and has one of the oldest nuclear power stations of Germany. Kiel particularly is as shipbuilding center of world rank (and. A. Submarines with gas cell drive of the HDW) meaning.

media and education

largest one regional daily papers are the Kieler message, the Lübecker message, the regional newspapers of the Schleswig Holsteini newspaper publisher SHZ and in Hamburg appearing Hamburg evening paper. In the range broadcast is to be called above all the NDR (north German broadcast). Besides there are private broadcasting stations such as RSH (radio Schleswig-Holstein)or NORA (northeast lake radio) and open channels in Kiel, Luebeck and in Dithmar.

The most important university of the country is the University of Kiel, in 17. Century was created. Important beside it also the small and specialized (medical) university is tooLuebeck with emphasis in medicine, computer science and biotechnology.

religion

over 60% Holsteiner are member of the Evangelist church (Nordelbi church). Besides there are to catholics, Freikirchler, Jews and Muslims.

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