Homöopathie

Samuel cock man, the founder of the Homöopathie, 1841

the Homöopathie [ˌhomøopaˈtiː] („similar suffering “, of griech. όμοιος homoῖos „directly, homogeneously “and πάθος páthos „wrong, illness “) is a controversially discussed alternative welfare method, whose principles were formulated around 1800.

Homöopathen treat their according to patient principle set up by the founder of the Homöopathie, Samuel cock man: „Something similar is healed by something similar “. For this purpose substances, from which admits is or one accepts, become them could with healthy humans of the illness resembling Symptoms cause, in strong dilution given. The procedure for the dilution is called by Homöopathenstrengthening “, because they believe that the effect of the diluted substance is not weakened but is not strengthened by this procedure.

Those the today's scientific requirements sufficientStudies show in the general survey that the examined homöopathischen treatments do not have significantly over the placebo effect going out medical effectiveness. The central statements of the Homöopathie about its general principles (exponentiation, similarity, vitality) are unverifiable and thus pseudoscientific.

Table of contents

vitality

since

the antiquity became supporting infrom Aristoteles vitalism justified assumed living natures a vitality in such a way specified is inherent in. This vitality, divided in Entelechie and Dynamis, animated after Aristoteles the material body (organism) and lets it feel and be active. Samuel cock man took over the conceptionand it made for a non-material vitality a fundamental idea of its homöopathischen pathology.

„The material Organism, without vitality meant, is not capable of of feeling, no Thätigkeit, no self-preservation; only the immaterial, the material Organism in the healthy and ill animating nature (thatLebensprincip, the vitality) lends all feeling to it and causes its life performing. “

- Samuel cock man: Organon § 10

illness, which does not fall the surgery, is the detuning of these „spirit-like Kraft “(cock man) and thus a change of condition recovering.

„Suffering thatdiseased detuned, spirit-like, unsern bodies animating Dynamis (vitality) in the invisible inside and the epitome, outwardly perceptible organized by it in the Organism, the existing evil of representing symptoms, form a whole, are unity and the same. “

- Samuel cock man: Organon§ 15

illness outside itself thus in a whole of disease characters and symptoms and is to be equated with a detuning of the vitality. The healing, so cock man, is only done via the Umstimmung of the vitality and „condition change of the patient into thatrecovers condition “(Organon, § 19). Their effect is the abolition of the whole of the symptoms. This Umstimmung of the vitality can by small be attained gifts from substances to vibrated or verriebene („dynamisierte “).

The term of the vitality makes a substantialDifference of the Homöopathie to the scientific medicine out, as the basis for illness and healing is seen to individual humans animating not in the bodily functions of the organism, but in „non-material “Kraft. The fact that diseases of material nature are argued cock man always vehementoff. However he assumed „finest Thiere of low order “as a cause of the Cholera.

At that time wide-spread conception of a vitality, those and. A. also Christoph William hoof country (body physician of the Prussian king) represented, placed themselves against an medicine-historical development, inthat increasingly material, observable phenomena decisive for the description of the life became. Thus far parts of the medicine began themselves already forwards cock man times since the discovery of the Blutkreislaufs gradually from the idea of a vitality separated from the material world toodischarge. A further, important reason for this paradigm change was the availability of the microscope, with which many fundamental discoveries of the medicine could be made. Developed and. A. microscopic anatomy and cell biology, so that for many procedures in the humanBodies explanations were found, which made the acceptance of a separate vitality redundant; the natural sciences generally and the medicine in the special got along without them. Bacteria were nevertheless unknown as pathogen still long time to a large extent (see Henle cook postulates).

Some Homöopathentoday still in addition, work with the disease concept which is based on the vitality. From its view this term is suitable for recognizing and heal the individual disease picture without consideration of the material disease causes. The term serves here for it, the wholeto notice the observed symptoms at the same time as a change humans animating Kraft and to specify the goal of the healing as the re-establishment these Kraft.

Other Homöopathen of the twentieth century, in the German linguistic area for instance Otto Leeser, Julius Mezger and Mathias Dorcsi,reformulierten le bzw de Selbstregulation de zur de DES Organismus de Fähigkeit de matrice d'als de Lebensprincip de „de das d'und de Regulationstherapie d'eine d'als de Homöopathie de matrice « (le durch diesen l'ersetzte Hahnemann d'Ausdruck späteren dedans le „Lebenskraft de der de Begriff de repaire d'Organon de DES d'Auflagen « ). Homeostasis (immune defense, temperature regularization, pain sensation and. such). Quite on cock manConsiderations afterwards about Dorcsi assumes illness represents substantially a disturbed ability of the organism for self regularization, which can be corrected perhaps by a minimum attraction, evenly the homöopathische cure. Hence it follows that not all symptoms with prospecton success to be homöopathisch treated can, but only those, with which such a regularization disturbance is central.

Similarity principle (Simile principle)

in accordance with cock man Organon both diseases and their treatments are to be understood and „detunings “or „Affectionen “ of the vitality. Such a detuning can nur durch eine andere, der Art nach von ihr abweichende, aber in ihrer Äußerung sehr ähnliche „Affection“ dauerhaft ausgelöscht werden (§ 26). Therefore a disease condition is by a means to sound, which causes similar symptoms when recovering this condition:similiasimilibus curentur („something similar is healed by something similar “). „To the kind deviating “it means here that the means produce not illness, but one „artificial “, short term Affektion („art illness “). The Homöopathie tries to consider the entire individual symptom picture of the patient with the diagnosis, therethis in its Totalität as a sign the detuning of the vitality applies. Among the symptoms thereby all deviations from the earlier healthy condition of the patient, which are accessible by patient report, questioning and observation, essentially rank modalities “(improvement and aggravation) including their „.Also and straight remote symptoms, which do not have to do anything apparently with the main complaint, are raised and used for the medicine regulation. In each case special value is put in the kind of the detuning of the condition, for example with the Infektaccompanying nervousness, weakness, sleeplessness or sadness.

A condition for the application of the similarity principle is on the one hand the knowledge of the homöopathischen means (medicament examination) and on the other hand the accurate collection of the symptom picture of the patient (anamnesis, see: Choice of the means).

“Medicament examination”

A homöopathische treatment is based on the knowledge of the symptoms, which a means can release with healthy humans. Therefore into the Homöopathie medicament examinations so mentioned only with healthy humans are accomplished. Many into the Homöopathie materials used as Ursubstanzen are malicious or can be injurious to health due to its origin and subsequent treatment. For a homöopathische medicament examination according to small doses of the Ursubstanz or dilutions are therefore used. During the examination the changes (symptoms), determined at healthy humans, are held. The result of these examinationsin pharmaceutics (Materiae medicae) one arranges. For the selection of the suitable medicament arranged repertories facilitate the selection after symptoms.

Homöopathi medicament examinations are not to be compared with medicament examinations after the medicament law (AMG). With homöopathischen medicament examinations does not becomean expected effectiveness examined, but observes whether and which symptoms can be caused by a homöopathisches means.

Exponentiation

the next important principle of the Homöopathie is more strengthened the use „“means. Under exponentiation the strong dilution is with simultaneous Dynamisierung (vibrating or friction see down) understanding. The means become by gradually accomplished strengthening from Urtinkturen (vegetable and animal origin: Symbol: Ø or mineral and chemical origin: Symbol O) and from indifferent diluents such as alcohol, distilled water, Glycerin and Lactose manufactured. The procedure is more exactly represented under strengthening ( Homöopathie).

Homöopathi means are used liquid (Dilution) or as Globuli, in deep powers also in the form of tablets.

From the view of the Homöopathen is not the effect of a bare dilutionwith a strengthened, therefore or verriebenen means vibrated comparably. In the Organon of the welfare art (note too § 11) the effect of a strengthened means becomes not the physical substance or physical effect of a medicine material, but the immaterial, „specific medicine strength freed from it “attributed.

The dilution under the chemical limiting resolution (see also Avogadro constant) is however no compelling element of the Homöopathie. Many welfare practical men and some physicians work in Germany also with low powers (D4, D6), in which the materials are present still in considerable concentration.A D6 contains the basic material in the dilution of 1:1.000,000, thus in µg/g. With these only weakly diluted means the regular dose effect relations of the used material is to be considered and unwanted effects possible.

Exponentiation as dilution in decimal steps
power dilution thatcorresponds on the average
to a drop on a water molecule in
D1 1: 10 the volume of a pea
D2 1: 100 a half Esslöffel
D3 1: 1.000 two and a half Schnapsgläser
D6 1: 1 million contents of a small garbage can
D9 1 : 1 billion oil tank vices including trailer
a D12 1: 1 trillion 25 olympic pools
D20 1: A 100 quintillion the Michigan lake in the USA
D23 1: 100 Trilliarden the Mediterranean 3 g water (thimble)
D30 1:1 Quintillion 50-mal the volume of the earth 30 t water (tanker)
D78 1: 1 Tredezillion entire universe (the universe becomes estimated on approximately 10 78 particles)

the theory of the chronic diseases

after practical experiences for many years with the Homöopathie placedCock man firmly that certain disease processes were not to be healed homöopathisch. Starting from 1816 it develops therefore a method for the treatment of chronic diseases. 1828 it published the results of its research in a five-restrained work with the title the chronic diseases. Afterits theory is the basis the chronic diseases a Miasma, a kind deeply lying „Ur-evil “. Cock man divided the Miasmen into Psora (as consequence of the scratching illness), Sykosis (cowardly wart illness as consequence of the Gonorrhoe) and Syphilis. Cock man work after thatRealization of the Miasmen was the attempt to eliminate the Psora how it wrote.

Its understanding of the chronic diseases moves in the context of the medical realizations at that time. The practical consequences of its theory are considered however in the classical Homöopathie until today.

Development

History

in the antiquity was well-known already the principle of the Heilens by same or similar substances, which are taken in „more diluted “dose. The Bible tells that God Moses in Egypt let a metallic queue manufacture (4Mo 21, 8-9). Everyone ofa queue one bit, should be healed by the sight of this reproduction.

Samuel cock man translated an English paper over the welfare way of Chinarinde with malaria. It felt the explanations endeavored in the article as arbitrary and purged therefore upthe idea to take as healthy humans Chinarinde. Thereupon it observed that it had gotten some the well-known malaria symptoms. Its observations turned out later than mistake: The observed effects of Chinarinde could not be determined in later attempts. In additionit comes that the Fieberthermometer was not yet common at cock man times - one proceeded from the felt temperature. Anyhow this coincidence discovery released its researcher urge, and it began to take further poisonous substances themselves like for example many poisonous welfare plants.He noted the symptoms arising on it. Later it treated patient with similar symptom pictures with these materials. In order to rob it of its toxicity, it diluted the materials. To its own astonishment he observed that the welfare effect did not disappear, but itself toostrengthen seemed.

As historical merit/service to the theory of cock man are considered a set of innovations, which represented a meaningful alternative to the medical welfare procedures at that time (by itthe Allopathie was called “). Micro organisms had not been recognized at that time yet as pathogens.Many at that time usual means and treatments, which were not based often by any means on age-old experience, but only in 17. Century after the alchimistisch coined/shaped theory of the Paracelsus introduced were, endanger the patient more, than they helped - called not completely in vainone this kind of the medicine also „heroische medicine “. That is, Drastika so mentioned with active substances, as for example lead acetate or mercury chloride, was given the patients, which did not kill few patients. This explains the determination of cock man, only in each case only oneTo use means patiently, and the detailed occupation with the patient. Its (from chemical view) often nearly active substanceless „means “contributed likewise to the penetration one „gentler “way of the medicine generally.

Status in the German-speaking countries

Homöopathie is in Germany a recognized Special therapy form in the sense of the social legislation. Since 1978 the German legislator in the medicament law admits itself to the Wissenschaftspluralismus of the medicine. Among them the school medicine on the one hand and on the other hand three special therapy directions are understood at present:

the meansthe special therapy directions can be ordered certified and may, also without for it an effectiveness proof was furnished.

In Austria the Homöopathie is since the medicament law 1983 a recognized part of the medicine.

In Switzerland means became that since 1999five classes of the complementary medicine, under it those the Homöopathie, of the health insurance companies - basic insurance taken over, if they were used up by a physician. To 30. June 2005 has the Federal Office for health, part of the EDI, this obligation to perform after the results ofit in order given study „program evaluation complementary medicine “again painted.

The European legislation plans its own procedure of admission for homöopathische means since the guideline 2001/83. In the novella on this guideline (2004/27) this simplified procedure of admission becomes for the first time for all member countriesobligating. The guideline requires the print (quotation) „Homöopathi medicament without authorized welfare announcements “.

Homöopathie in further countries

since for instance in the middle of the 1820er years spread the Homöopathie in the Germanynear countries, since center of the 1830er also beyond that. Cock man of worksearly into different foreign languages, for the first time 1824 into the French and Italian were translated. In individual countries there were every now and then however substantial of resistances. Like that the Homöopathie was officially forbidden in Austria between 1819 and 1837 by Metternich. In the USA it gaveoccasional regulations, after which members were excluded from medical societies radical, if they co-operated with Homöopathen. The development of the Homöopathie in the USA ran stormily: the first homöopathische newspaper in the USA was created 1835 by Hans Burch Gram.The Constantin herring born in Saxonia 1833 came to America and created with other Homöopathen the first homöopathische university in the USA (North American academy of the homöopathischen welfare art, Allentown). 1844 became, likewise under herring participation, as the first national physician combinationthe American of institutes OF Homeopathy based. 1848 developed the first training centre for Mrs., the Homoeopathic bad clay/tone Female Medical college. To large parts the Homöopathie applied for the population in this time as more scientific than „the school medicine “, because her on firmPrinciples develops. Sound sequence with yellow fever and Choleraepidemien contributed to their establishment. A layman movement as in Germany did not develop however. After the American civil war (1861-1864) the bloom time of the Homöopathie in the USA began. To the late 1870er there were yearsapproximately 4000 homöopathisch transacts; 1898 was operated 20 homöopathische colleges, 140 homöopathische hospitals and 57 homöopathische Ambulatorien; there were more than 100 homöopathische societies and 31 homöopathische magazines. One 1876 for the first time in Philadelphia aligned international homöopathischer congress of physician underline the meaningthe Homöopathie in the USA. Regardless of the quantity of the spreading the quality of the training and practice is judged retrospectively however critically. Nevertheless important work developed, from which under others the James Tyler Kents won world-wide meaning. Kents of Hauptwerke are totoday beside cock man writings for many Homöopathen considerably; its repertory is most common. With the turn of the century it came to a fall of the Homöopathie in the USA. For the 1970er years upswing is to be observed. The number thatin the USA practicing Homöopathen rose from less than 200 into the 1970ern to approximately 3000 in the year 1996.

This Renaissance was also in other countries. It is along by the influence of charismatischer personalities, particularly by Georgos Vithoulkas. Vithoulkas, 1932 in Athens born, originally worked as an engineer in South Africa and came there with the Homöopathie into contact. 1966 it was approbiert at the Indian of institutes OF Homeopathy. it began 1967 with the training of Greek physicians in Athens. Its1970 created Athenian School OF Homeopathic Medicine became a germ cell of the Homöopathie Renaissance. 1996 were lent to it the alternative Nobelpreis. Also in Germany Vithoulkas won large trailer shank.

A second internationally well-known center of the Homöopathie became India. There was italready during the colonial age in the first half 19. Century introduced by the European medical profession. Treatments took place here also in the range of the fight against epidemics, like asiatic Cholera and frequently returning plague waves. Soon also native physicians were interested andLayman-soundly for the Homöopathie, since their medical concepts could be connected with the Indian welfare tradition and the methods of the modern western medicine. Since 1973 the Homöopathie is fully nationally recognized. In India work approx. Homöopathen qualified 300.000; there are 180College, 7,500 government clinics and 307 hospitals.

In France homöopathische medicines are used by approximately a third of the family doctors. Since the French national health system recognized the Homöopathie 1965, the costs of the medicines and the treatment are refunded.

In Great Britainpractice homöopathische physicians for the 1830er years. At the Faculty OF Homoeopathy can be put down after three-year training a nationally recognized exam. Since 1950 the cost of a homöopathischen treatment are borne by the national health service. The relatively high social prestigethe Homöopathie is supported by the fact that the English king family occurs publicly for this therapy form.

In Brazil the Homöopathie has a long tradition. In Rio de Janeiro already 1843 homöopathisches Ausbildungsinstitut one created. Since 1980 the Homöopathie is nationally recognizedrepresent and at the universities. It plays also in the medically under-lowest regions of the country an increasing role.

Directions in the Homöopathie

Homöopathie is no uniform teachings. There are different directions, which fight each other partly mutually. Also welfare practical men can orThe school medical profession, who use Homöopathie, a direction to be not generally assigned. Following enumerating suggests only the large spectrum: Classical Homöopathie, genuine Homöopathie, Bönninghausen method, bending he method, miasmatische Homöopathie, scientific Homöopathie, scientific-critical direction, process orientated and creative Homöopathie, impulse Homöopathie, Resonanzhomöopathie, Seghal method, Herscue method,cent ral delusion, C4-Homöopathie, quantum-logical Homöopathie etc.

Classical Homöopathie

the term „classical Homöopathie “developed from the emergency to distinguish itself from the large spectrum as „homöopathisch “designated welfare methods. Bases of the classical Homöopathie are the theory of cock man and itself to it the orientingAdvancements of the welfare method (for example by Bönninghausen, herring, Kent and. A.). Contrary to many other directions of the Homöopathie into the classical Homöopathie in each case a means one gives at one time, mostly in a middle or high power. Medicaments becomeafter thorough anamnesis in principle according to the individual symptom picture of the patient selected.

Classical Homöopathen treats both acute diseases and chronic suffering (constitutional treatment).

„Scientific-critical “Homöopathie

the so-called „scientific-critical “Homöopathie is a direction of the Homöopathie, those on the basisthe schoolmedical teachings uses homöopathische medicaments as addition of other therapy forms. Frequently low powers to D12 are used, in which still another chemically provable remainder of the medicine substance is present. In addition medicaments become not according to the often very complex entire symptom picturethe patient, but after pathology (illness) orders. The identification of the suitable medicament particularly facilitates, because for example for a cold illness from a list of few means must be only selected. Likes is also the use of „complex means“, D. h. a blending of different means, which is arranged for a certain illness.

The therapy with complex means contradicts however fundamentally the nature of the original Homöopathie; Cock man writes in his Organon:

„§ 273: In no case ofHealing is nöthig and the-half alone already inadmissible it, more than only one to use simple medicine substance at one time with the patient. It is not to be seen, how it can be subjected only to the mindesten doubt whether it more naturally and more reasonably sey, onlya particular, simple, to probably order known medicine material at one time in an illness or a mixture of several, verschiednen. In that only protect and simple, the only natural welfare art, in the Homöopathie, are it quite bad, the patient two verschiedneTo enter medicine substances at one time. “

Laienhomöopathie

for the propagation of the Homöopathie contributed not only physicians, but also patients and Laienbehandler. In 19. Century particularly won the Homöopathie in circles of the aristocracy and with educated citizens trailer and multiplicators. Also those stoodHomöopathie from the outset the religion close. Many the first Homöopathen were minister sons or theology students. France the Klerus occurred openly for cock man teachings. Many ministers Homöopathie, completely particularly in Austria, practiced living on the country. In addition, landowners,Buyers and others were involved in the spreading of the Homöopathie. This development was promoted by the homöopathische family doctor literature in such a way specified, which appeared since end of the 1820er years. In their the treatment of frequent diseases with simple means was described. Besides gaveit starting from approximately 1830 magazines, which addressed themselves particularly to laymen. Into this time also the first homöopathischen establishments of association fall.

Layman associations

the German homöopathischen layman associations are a world-wide unique phenomenon. Between 1870 and 1933 444 of such associations was created,particularly in Württemberg, Saxonia, Prussia and bathing. 1914 was two per cent of the württembergischen population member in a homöopathischen association. The associations offered entrance to homöopathischem knowledge and treatment apart from sociability and leisure activities above all in the form of self-help.They created homöopathische family doctor literature on and made these accessible for their members. Hearts of the associations were the homöopathischen association pharmacies with partial large supplies of homöopathischer medicines (nearly always in deep D-powers). Club members were allowed to publish themselves free of charge (apart from membership dues) the desired meansleave. This practice was however from the beginning legally disputed and was finally forbidden.

In „the crisis of the medicine “into the 1920er years found naturopathy, life reform movement and alternative welfare procedures strengthen inlet. The naturheilkundlichen and homöopathischen layman federations won many trailersalso under workers and small citizens. The roof federation realm federation for Homöopathie and health care covered 1930 348 associations with 38.200 members in the year. The national socialism took up this tendency developing to a mass movement with „the new German medicine “and it took in for its goals. The homöopathischen layman associations were seized of it first with. In the course of the time its activity decreased however clearly; at the end „of the third realm “the homöopathische layman nature was to a large extent destroyed. After the Second World War becamesome associations again-based, reached however not approximately the earlier meaning.

Since center of the 1970er years experiences the Homöopathie with the increase of the popularity of alternative welfare methods in addition, with laymen again an upswing. Homöopathi means are not (except for exceptions)prescription requiring and can be referred freely in the pharmacy. Often one believes, homöopathische means are completely harmless, since they contain chemically seen only minimum portions of the medicine substance. Above all classical Homöopathen warns however of the treatment of more than onlyharmless illnesses by laymen. They point out that a means is to be called not already therefore „homöopathisch “, because it was manufactured by strengthening, but only, if it fits with its typical symptoms the symptoms of the patient. Otherwisealso Homöopathika could have a allopathische effect.

Homöopathie in the veterinary medicine

the Homöopathie has nearly just as long tradition in the animal medicine as in the Humanmedizin. The first publication (suggestions on the appropriate treatment ill animals) originates from thatYear 1815. From Samuel cock man is delivered a hand written speech manuscript over the Homöopathi medicine of the Hausthiere. Therein cock man holds the point of view that „… Thiere… with a word by the homöopathische kind of welfare at least just as surely and certainly, ashumans to heal (are) “.

Gustav William large (1794-1847), physician and joint founder of the general Homöopathi newspaper, published an essay, in which he determines, in the year 1830 animal healings on homöopathischem way would be the best proof that the effect thatHomöopathie on Suggestion is not based.

Individual authors however particularly doubt regarding the animal species-specific differences a transferability „of the medicament pictures “from humans on the animal and demand before the use of homöopathischer means execution of medicament examinations of the animal.

In 19.Century was not everywhere permitted it to the veterinary surgeons to treat animals homöopathisch. End of the century left the interest to the Tierhomöopathie and set only into the 1920er year. Beside domestic animals also utilizable animals are homöopathisch treated.

In Germany,in the USA, in Brazil and in the Slowakei is there special Homöopathieschulen for veterinary surgeons. In France Homöopathieausbildungen in national veterinary universities as well as in the Landwirtschaftskammern and specialist areas are offered to the biological aminal husbandry. In addition there are several Privatschulen, the Homöopathieausbildungenoffer for veterinary surgeons. In Austria at the veterinary university Vienna a lecture is regarded to Homöopathie to the topic „as utilizable animals “. Beyond that there are specialized veterinary surgeons for Homöopathie for some time in Austria.

Application

choice of the means

basis for the choice of theBy means of is on the one hand the knowledge of the effects and symptoms, which a medicine can release with healthy humans. In order to attain these knowledge, medicament examinations are accomplished. On the other hand the central choice is based on a homöopathischen anamnesis of the patient, i.e. an observation andQuestioning, in which the entire symptom picture and the kind „of the detuning of the vitality are seized “(Repetorisierung). In contrast to the anamnesis of the scientific medicine in the homöopathischen anamnesis the patient is asked over a multiplicity of circumstances, those from scientific vieware insignificant. A goal is it to find that means out with which the symptoms observed with healthy humans agree if possible with those, which were seized with the anamnesis of the patient.

As aids to the choice of the means pharmaceutics and repertories serve. InPharmaceutics is described the means with all during the medicament examination observed symptoms. Repertories are hierarchically arranged according to symptoms. Here to each symptom all means are called, with which the symptom was observed. The so-called priority of a means (1-wertig to 4-wertig)gives a reference to how the means works satisfactorily with the healing of this symptom is. A high priority in the repertory receives a means only, if it caused this symptom on the one hand during the medicament examination with a high number of healthy pro gangs andeven if there are on the other hand many reports of successful healing of cases with this symptom.

A clear statistic definition for „the high number “does not give it. Therefore in modern repertories also markings for proven means are led, those on the experienceindividual Homöopathen with high reputation decrease/go back. The Künzli points in such a way specified are quoted for example by many authors. Thus the empirical maximum stress is watered. Instead of receiving a priority, on a combination of many medicament examinations and many treatment processes been based, becomesthe statement into the proximity of individual case knowledge moved (EN: anecdotal evidence).

Dosage

strengthened means gives it in the form of alcoholic solutions, tablets and Globuli (with homöopathischer solution ball from sugar impregnated). With the income of solutions should after recommendationby some Homöopathen without the use of a metallic spoon to be done, since this can affect the alleged „memory characteristics “of the liquid. Instead a spoon from wood or plastics can be used. Also cock man assumed that the benefit or smelldifferent substances the effect of some homöopathischer means leg-pregnant can (cock man: Organon §§ 259 FF.)

Homöopathi means are under the tongue too träufeln and/or. to dissolve under the tongue and approx. one minute in the mouth too leave, around the absorption over thoseTo improve mouth mucous membrane. The best result is to be able to be achieved, if the homöopathischen medicaments are taken immediately after occurance of of the first symptoms.

Homöopathi high powers should be particularly effective, why on the part of the Homöopathen it is demanded that these always by oneexperienced Homöopathen is observed to be ordered and the process.

Contraindications

  • alcoholism (with income of the alcoholic solution)
  • allergies against one of the contents materials (with low exponentiation) and/or. the carrier material (for example lactose)
  • in pregnancy and quiet time as well as with children only in„Homöopathi aggravation “/

side effects takes arrangement with the physician

as side effect of Homöopathen the homöopathische aggravation in such a way specified (also Erstverschlimmerung) is mentioned: a temporary reinforcement of the symptoms. Whether these actually exist did not document.

With low power stages (to approximatelyD6) a regular unwanted medicament effect can occur, because on the average still considerable amounts of material are contained. So z can. B. by the use of Mercurius (mercury), Arsenicum (arsenic) or Nux vomica (Brechnuss), a plant, the Strychnin -Alkaloids contains, poisonings to be caused.

Criticism to the Homöopathie

until today exists neither a formal, reproducible proof still another acceptable scientific reason for an effectiveness of the Homöopathie, which go beyond the placebo effect. It becomes therefore from the majority of the scientificMedicine as ineffective treatment even dangerous in some cases rejected.See in addition the section dangers of the Homöopathie.

Cock man created his Homöopathie before 200 years on two principles. On the one hand diseases are to be treated by medicines, which similar symptoms causelike the illness. Its self attempt with Chinarinde is considered as useless, since it is not reproducible. Cock man possibly showed a allergische reaction to the Chinarinde. The beginning of the Homöopathie is based thus on a mistake and its dogma-table-naive generalization. On the other handhomöopathische medicines are used in more diluted („more strengthened “) form. This beginning is useless after today's medical and physical realizations and/or. it relies on the faith that unknown procedures make the respective material when strengthening the medicine. For the existence of these proceduresthere are no references.

A loadable proof of the effectiveness

in approximately 100 independent studies no proofs for an effectiveness could not be furnished.

The sound sequence of the Homöopathie comparably other one is „more alternative “therapies with those (for example „traditional Chinese medicine “)and move in the context of the reorganization rates of a placebo treatment. This placebo effect used often unconsciously on the part of the Homöopathie is one in the medicine well documented and proven psychological component, which plays a role with nearly all medical treatments. Therefore that becomesAttention of the medicine also increasingly on these effects guided, approximately to a partnerschaftlichere physician patient relationship („Compliance “).

Despite the clear proofs many proponents of the Homöopathie insist on the fact that a homöopathische treatment works beyond the placebo effect. Often become thereby howeverIndividual cases or self checks indicated, which possess scientifically no relevance, since a double-blind study with a control's group, which receives placebos, would be necessary. In order to determine, whether between a homöopathischen active substance and a placebo a considerable difference exists, it uses statisticians for example the four-field test.

Also respectable successes, which the Homöopathie was after-said also by independent studies, can be explained to that according to strict scientific requirements with methodical weaknesses and other distorting influences, like a current Metaanalyse as the effectiveness of homöopathischer treatments stressed, those in the August bookletrenowned medicine magazine The Lancet (2005) documented. A Swiss-British group of researchers had evaluated altogether 220 studies regarding the treatment success of most diverse illnesses with homöopathischen or schoolmedical methods. Here comparatively worse cutting of the Homöopathie, of them off resulted isolated successes alsothe placebo effect to be explained. Also the Metauntersuchung broad-put on confirmed the assumption that studies with few participants feign rather non-existent effects as extensive investigations. This confirmation of the effect of placebo effects directs however the scientific interest on the effectiveness „more subjectively “healing. Newer one Investigations seem to prove that the placebo healing is not to be explained with bare fancy, but substanzielle, to prove biochemical understandable effects on the central nervous system are. These effects purposefully for treatment to use, appears as worthwhile strategy. Also that is considered as advantagethe sound sequence to favour it knows alternative welfare methods that a special confidence climate between therapist and patient was developed. The magazine Lancet judges the results in summary: „Physicians must be now courageous and honest - with their patients regarding the missing effectof Homöopathie and with itself concerning the failure of the modern medicine to fulfill the needs of the patients after a personally aligned supply. “

Due to the missing proof of the medical effectiveness many trailers of the Homöopathie regard the scientific methods asnot sufficiently in order to prove the effectiveness. Since there is however no other scientific method, methods of the pseudo are consulted - or Parawissenschaft or the Esoterik. Thus however the argument that Homöopathie is scientific, is given up. In this connection oftenused sentence reads: „Who heals, is right “. This viewpoint informs however especially no about to what extent placebo effects or about also spontaneous healing - effects work, which occur with all treatment forms. Also can the justification pressure, which rests on alternative methods on the part of the science,entice to let circulate mainly success stories.

From view of the today's scientific medicine is the evaluation of the results of medicament examinations problematic, among other things, because the applied dose and/or. Power often did not document and most examination reports from that 19.Century come and accomplished are not blind. The medicament examinations in the Homöopathie are thus not comparable with the modern effectiveness examinations in the scientific medicine. A scientifically clean examination of Pulsatilla 3X was accomplished 1978 by Anne Clover, alsothe result the fact that the observed were so strong placebo symptoms that genuine symptoms be determined could not (see to Provings in [1]).

No plausible beginning of a mechanism

it is today undisputed that larger dilutions than for instance 1:10 24 - which oneExponentiation of D24 or C12 corresponds - statistically seen hardly only one molecule of the original substance to contain; see a strengthening. That corresponds approximately to dissolving a headache tablet in the Atlantic. Cock man could have known this already, there at his time already that Dalton' sche atom model as usual Lehrmeinung an infinite divisibility of an amount of material forbade. Since the production of the homöopathischen medicines in a pure area (germ and dust-filtered job) is usually not accomplished, it must be accepted that during the dilution process (opens the mixing vessel and addition ofDilution solution) the concentration of the active substance removes, from air however impurities are added. This causes that finally in the high-strengthened preparations except the support (water, ethanol or lactose) only the pollution of the supports (all three contain metallic impurities) and thoseImpurities from the environment are contained. Sometimes also the best filter procedures leave more residual substances in the water, than homöopathische active substances are in it. Thus a material effect relation cannot be reasonably examined.

On the part of the Homöopathen there are speculations that an effectby information one makes possible, which will not transfer molecularly stored and (the Frenchman Jacques Benveniste has in this area researched). Active substances are to leave for example „castings “ in Wasserclustern, which are then passed on to other water cluster. For these theories it gives howeverno basis. Accepted, this information storage would function, then the question arises immediately, how long such a storage remains. Are stable this cluster, then the water before the use must be cleaned, because otherwise it contains still old information.If they are not stable, a homöopathische medicine became fast ineffective. Which is done with this speculative Speicherclustern after the income via the patient, is left then however to the pure fantasy. The cluster beginning knows anyhow the effect of homöopathischer means in unresolvedForm (Globuli) do not explain and remains insufficient as general explanation. Who accepts an effectiveness of homöopathischer preparations, it accepts with the fact implicitly that the scientific conception of the world, how it is obtained in the schools is wrong or roughly incomplete.

The homöopathische medication after that„Similarity principle “is besides not comprehensibly, there it exclusively on the outwardly visible symptoms of the patient is based and no scientific investigations as for instance radiographs, ultrasonic and fabric samples is consulted. So caused must at the time of consistent execution for example allergisch, bacterially or viralEqual illnesses to be treated, if they show the same symptoms.

Of the moreover the medicine choice is based exclusive on the subjective estimate of the Homöopathen whether things are outwardly similar or not. The Rorschachtest for example shows however, like differently perceptions being interpreted can andas these interpretations are dependent on experience and Fantasie. It must be expected thus that the treatment of an illness precipitates depending upon biography of the Homöopathen differently. A correct homöopathische treatment does not give it, there it no uniform conception of similaritygives.

Internal contradictions

in some places see also contradictions in the homöopathischen theory and practice to critic. Like that it is questionable why only the desired characteristics of a respective material strengthen exponentiation “their effect and not also the unwanted side effects by one „and/or.the effects and side effects all the other trace elements, residual substances etc., which were in addition in the alcohol/water or in the container.

Many Homöopathen state, the school medicine sound no diseases, but suppress only symptoms, while the Homöopathie the cause of theSuffering fight. After cock man one can know an illness however only by its symptoms, which reflects itself in practice the homöopathischen anamnesis and using up according to symptom picture. Critics see in the argumentation that disappearing symptoms with schoolmedical treatmentwhen suppression is rated, with more homöopathischer as healing, measuring with two different measure.

To the Tierhomöopathie it is criticized that medicament examinations are always implemented at humans. It is simply accepted that they are transferable to animals. Classical Homöopathen attaches importance to it,the fact that the symptoms in the language of the patient are described and attaches a special weight to mental symptoms. Both is not possible with animals. In addition many Homöopathen recommend to their human patients not to eat or drink, if them homöopathische meanstake. With animals however the means are usually added to the fodder or drinking water.

Driven the Homöopathie

the renouncement of a normal medical supply, which as a rule in the connection of a treatment with illusory medicines such as Homöopathika one practices, can with acute complaintslethal its, since the employment of an effective therapy can be retarded.

Since the intensified occurrence of the symptoms is understood by the term Erstverschlimmerung as part of the healing process, important treatments can missed or to be only late made.

Many Homöopathen lean protective inoculationstotally or partly off. Who cannot be inoculated due to its, that is not received risk of dangerous infections which can be underestimated . Homöopathische inoculation “(oral gifts of disease products, „Nosoden “, in power) become occasional or „ homöopathische by Homöopathen also „ Malaria prophylaxis “offered. Such practices are rejected however by the roof federations (for instance the German central association of homöopathischer physicians), because they can cause no Immunisierung in principle.

Since also poisons are given like for example mercury and other heavy metals in high-diluted form,can after longer income from powers to D12 symptoms of intoxication occur.

Other points of criticism

a further point of criticism is the therapy duration, which is usually not called by the therapists with the gift of the means and which let the suspicion arise in some cases,that the therapy is simply terminated with „healing “, no matter whether the improvement is passing or durable.

„The Erstverschlimmerung in such a way specified “is for Homöopathen the proof that the body responds to the cure. The school physician regards these „to aggravation “as a referenceon the fact that the cure does not work evenly . It is thus accused to the Homöopathen that he away-defines the inefficacy with one „beautiful “word.

Homöopathen state, factors in the way of life, generally damaging the effect of a strengthened medicament can by, and by attraction andLuxury to be affected unfavorably. Critics do not see therein a protection statement of the users if the complaints improving.

Quotations

„already in the year 1790 […] I made the first pure attempt at me with the Chinarinde […], andwith this first attempt me first the Morgenröthe came up itself to up to the brightest day the clearing up welfare teachings. I took for the sake of the attempt some days two-meal daily each time four Quentchen good China; the Füse, the fingertips etc. becameme only coldly, I ward matt and sleepy, my pulse ward hard and geschwind; a unleidliche fearfulness, trembling (however without Schaudern), a reducingness by all members; then knocking in the head, Röthe in cheeks, thirst, briefly all me otherwise withChange fever of usual symptoms appeared successively, but without actual Fieberschauder. With short: also me with change fever usually particularly characteristic symptoms, the stumpness of the senses, the kind of rigidity in all joints, particularly however the deaf adverse feeling, which in thatPeriostium over all bones of the whole body their seat to have seems - all appeared. This Paroxysm lasted two to three hours each meal, and renewed themselves, if I repeated this gift, otherwise not. I stopped and was healthy. “

- Cock man: Description of original

„still more clearly is the situation with the Homöopathie. For the gläubigen trailers a kind Bible of the pure teachings exists to this therapy form, i.e. cock man Organon. Cock man has in itself a closed before 200 years and from himeven as definitely judged training building establishes. Such closed systems, it are also so unreasonable, have a certain fascination for some humans. Like that the representatives of this teachings have it that in the public the impression developed, here are createda serious alternative to the medicine is divided to find, a view pretty often also by otherwise critical and in other ranges reasonable humans. Neither the well-known similarity set nor the exponentiation through extreme diluting are in any way scientifically occupied.Success reports on homöopathische healings concern never larger groups of patients with certain diseases, but consist of individual drop descriptions. Drop descriptions extract themselves however the Falsifikationsmöglichkeit, it are true in principle. “

- Johannes Köberling: German society for internal medicine, 1997, [2]

used therapy forms

literature

sources

  • Samuel cock man: Organon of the welfare art. Narayana publishing house, Kandern 2004, ISBN 3-92-138380-3
  • Samuel cock man: Pure pharmaceutics. 6 volumes. Karl F. Haug technical book publishing house, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-83-040263-5
  • Samuel cock man: The chronic diseases.Their peculiar nature and homöopathische healing. 5 volumes. Karl F. Haug technical book publishing house, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-83-040264-3
  • Timothy Field everything: The Encyclopedia OF pure Materia Medica, 10 volumes, Reprint, New Delhi 1995 (originally: 1874-1879)
  • Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Hughes, Jabez P. Dake: ACyclopedia OF Drug Pathogenesy, 4 volumes, Reprint, New Delhi 1979 (originally: 1884-1891)

Secondary literature

  • Martin of thing (Hrsg): World history of the Homöopathie: Countries, schools, welfare-well-informed, Beck, Munich 1996
  • Martin of thing: Homöopathie: Patient, welfare-well-informed, institutions; from the beginnings to today, Haug,Heidelberg 1996
  • Sigrid Heinze (Hrsg.): Homöopathie 1796-1996: a medicine and its history. Catalog to the exhibition of the German hygiene museum Dresden of 17. May to 20. October 1996, Berlin 1996
  • Robert Jütte: Samuel cock man. Founder of the Homöopathie.dtv - German paperbacksPublishing house, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-42-324447-X
  • Josef M. Schmidt: Bag Atlas Homöopathie in word and picture. Bases, methodology, history, Haug, Heidelberg 2001
  • Martin Schmitz (Hrsg.): Currents of the Homöopathie: Concepts - teacher - spreading, forum Homöopathie, KVC publishing house meal, 2. Edition2002
  • Rudolf Tischner: History of the Homöopathie in four parts, Leipzig 1932-1939, facsimile reproduction: Springer, Vienna 1998
  • Rudolf Tischner: Of the Homöopathie. History of the Homöopathie from the antiquity to the most recent time, new edition of the expenditure of 1950. Sunday, Stuttgart 2001
  • Matthias Wischner: Small history of the Homöopathie, forum Homöopathie, KVC publishing house meal 2004, ISBN 3-933351-41-3

supporting

  • Peter Christian Endler: Expedition Homöopathieforschung. An old welfare system becomes plausible. Publishing house William Maudrich, Vienna - Munich - Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-85-175695-9
  • walter Köster: Ill one Children homöopathisch heal. rororo publishing house, ISBN 3-499-60151-6

critically

  • Wolfgang H. Hopff: Homöopathie regards critically. Thieme, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-13-765401-7
  • Otto Prokop: Homöopathie. Which really carries it out?. Ullstein paperback, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-54-835521-8
  • Martin Lambeck: Does physics err? Over alternative medicineand Esoterik. Publishing house CHBeck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-40-649469-2
  • Michael Shermer, Lee Traynor: Healing promise. Alternative medicine between trial and error. Alibri publishing house Gunnar Schedel, Aschaffenburg 2004, ISBN 3-93-271086-X
  • Hans Werner Lüdke: Homöopathie: A fruitful, no terrible mistake. In: German physician sheet.100 (3) /2003. Federal Medical Society andCash-medical Federal union, S. A107-A109, ISSN 0012-1207 on-line: [3]
  • Adorno, Theodor W.: Theses against the Okkultismus. In Ders.: Minima Moralia. Collected writings 4, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt A.M. 1951, S. 273 - 280

scientific Metastudien to the effectiveness

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Homöopathie - quotations
of source texts
over Homöopathie
criticism
please considers you the reference to health topics!
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)