Homeland

Südafrikanische Homelands
South African Homelands

as Homelands were designated during the apartheid the master areas of the black ones in South Africa. The white Apartheids leaders called the Homelands Bantustan. They wanted to implement the racial segregation of the apartheid under the slogan „of the separate development “also territorially and formally independent states of the black ones create in South Africa, to whose inhabitants (illusory) independence should be entitled. The Homelands was economically, financial and militarily however completely on South Africa dependent. In fact they represented separated reservations only from the remaining national territory .

The creation of Bantustans ran on the isolation and Aufsplitterung of the black populationoutside. The black ones, which continued to work in South Africa and lived therefore also in Townships or in Hostels, were suddenly foreigner in South Africa. They possessed no more durable right of residence. , The numerical predominance of the black citizens of South Africa was additionally tried by this measure in favor of the white ones toochange. This obvious Heuchelei of the white ruling powers was denounced publicly by the United Nations and led to the fact that itself all states of the world refused except South Africa recognizing the Homelands as independent states. Also the South African resistance organization ANC always rejected the Homelands.

There were tenHomelands. The first Bantustan became the Transkei under chieftain emperor Daliwonga Matanzima, the cousin Nelson Mandelas, which was an embittered opponent of the Homelands. It accommodated the people of the Xhosa.

Table of contents

the emergence

from 1958 to 1966 was Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd of South African prime ministers. Into its term of office the transformation of the reservations fell in Homelands afterthe model in Natal already in 19. Century usual policy of the native administration. Verwoerds a goal was to realize independent Bantustans without losing however the black ones as cheap workers in the white economy. This politics of the separation or segregation aimed at it off, thoseto legitimize social differences and economic inequalities.

With the Homeland politics a large part of the black ones should be separated to prevent not least in order one of black ones controlled unit state. Verwoerd spoke also of multiracial unitary state. It developed a viergleisige policy, which the white ones , Black ones, colored ones and Asians parallel next to each other to promote should. He understood this politics as Dekolonisationsprozess.

1959 were discharged the Bantu Self Government act. Thus the basis was put, in order to summarize the 42 past reservations in eight Homelands, by smaller Bantu - areas by land exchange attached to largerbecame. Later the Homelands on ten was supplemented. The Homelands was based on linguistic and cultural differences, could not consider however any longer as well to the ethnical differences as the reservations. The different Bantu Ethnien had gladly one „white buffer zone “, around itself from other groups thatTo define Bantu. These zones were lost through the summary by the majority.

Each Homeland received a white commissioner, who acted as official representatives of the government. Officially the chieftains knew their prominent position maintained. Most of the government were actual as prominent persons of the Homelands recognized chieftainsSuccessor of the old chieftain Lineage. Again it was only that they stood on the pay roll of the government. If the leaders sat down against the Homeland politics to the resistance, then on its traditional position no consideration was taken. Faithfully the natalschen model set one it off short hand andreplaced it by government-faithful men.

Verwoerds ideology, like also those of its nationalistic successors, had versatile consequences. The tendency was completely new not to regard the different Bantu peoples as ethnical unit how it was so far the case, but as ethnical groups. A black identity should avoided, thatZusammengehörigkeitsgefühl to be weakened.

The moreover one the resettlements were forced. Affected by it black tenant as well as owner Black so mentioned Spots were strongest, whereby it concerned black ones, which had bought native country act of 1913 reason and soil before that outside of the later Homelands.Thousands urban black ones were deportiert into the Homelands. In particular old persons, patient and weak ones, who were considered as unproductive, were affected by it. Thus the apartheid system the poverty of the cities externalisierte into the Homelands. Alone between 1960 and 1970 400,000 urban black ones were shipped into the Homelands.Accordingly the population in the Homelands increased continuously. 1955 if still on the average 60 persons divided a square mile, then there was 1969 with 110 persons almost twice as many. The population in the Homelands rose altogether from four million in the year 1960 to 6.9 millionten years later. But agricultural production sank into the Homelands within the same time interval on less than two thirds. The Homelands was substantial over-populated, the agriculturally cultivatable surface took because of the closer settlement, that by over feasting and by burn-off down of pastures caused erosion as well as throughthe strong competition of the white Farmer off. The consequence all these factors was a substantial depletion of the Homelands and, on the search for work, a renewed drift of the Bantu, essentially the men, into the cities. The Mrs. for their part did not only have now the householdlead and the children educate, but were additionally still alone responsible for the agriculture.

The economic dependence of the black ones on the cities was also the large problem of the segregation politics. At least half of the black ones worked outside of the Homelands.

This was not however the only oneReason, why the segregation politics encountered active criticism. One accused the responsible persons, the territorial separation brings only a small part of the black ones a certain use; the black ones living outside of the Homelands in particular lost meanwhile the last remainders of their economic and political rights, were howeverfurther dependent on the city, since the Homelands could nourish only about a fifth of the black population.

the ten Homelands

most Homelands were not coherent areas.

Coherently were Ciskei, KwaNdebele (south Ndebele) and QwaQwa (Basotho), not being connectedthe Homelands Transkei, Kwazulu, Gazankulu, Bophuthatswana, Lebowa, Venda and Kangwane.

independence of the Homelands

by the Verabschiedung of further laws worked the apartheid regime to dismiss the Homelands into independence.

With the Bantu Homelands Citizenship act of 1970 all black citizens of a Homelands should become, also those, which lived outside on it. The inhabitants of the Homelands had thus two nationalities: An internal, i.e. that of their Homelands, as well as an external, that of South Africa. Owing to the Bantu Homelands Acts knew the government one yearlater attribute the Homelands different stages of the self-government. The steps to the independence looked as follows: First a legislative meeting was furnished as Vorläuferin of a parliament. This executive council was authorized to issue within certain internal ranges of laws. In a second step, after the grant of the internalSelf-government was reshuffled the executive council of the territorial authority to a cabinet, which a chief Minister managed. All Portfolios, excluded those the defense and the outside affairs, was transferred now this Homeland government.

Likewise 1970 were issued the Constitution Amendment act, according to which the South African president one or more AfricanLanguages as official national language to recognize knew.

1976 became the Transkei as the first Homeland into quasi-independence to dismiss. One year later followed Bophuthatswana, 1979 Venda and 1981 Ciskei. One must speak therefore of quasi-independence, because the Homelands officially actually independently, however economically substantial ofSouth Africa were dependent and independently to thus never work could. About three quarters of all incomes of the Homelands originated from the government cash from South Africa. Internationally four mentioned above sovereigns the states were never recognized also. Further Ethnien, everything in front the Zulu under Mangosuthu Buthelezi,the autonomy of their Homelands KwaZulu had successfully resisted.

After the end of the apartheid regime in South Africa the Homelands was integrated into the nine reorganized provinces of the republic.

approximately two fifth of all black ones

in Homelands lived the life in the Homelands 1960.Until 1985 this portion rose to approximately two thirds. Between them 3.5 million black ones had been resettled by urban areas into the Homelands. The surface of all Homelands collected covered approximately 12% of the state country. The Homelands was however not regularly distributed on completely South Africa.

Work on []

Three kinds from

contacts maintained influence of the white Homeland inhabitants to the white ones. Thus they came with white ones into contact, which in the Homelands had established themselves. White ones were not allowed to possess in the Homelands a country, which was reserved excluding black ones; lived howeversome white official ones like mission acres, dealers and worker Rekrutierer there. By the influence of this white ones developed the black ones new forms of the language, the clothes and the material culture generally.

The mission acres brought a new religion, which the black ones often linked with their traditional religion.For example God was recognized also of the trailers of the traditional religion as the only highest nature, which the Bantu had already known before the arrival of the white ones. The moreover one of replaced rain prayers traditional rain rituals. Catholic Segnungsrituale replaced again traditional rituals, which needed the Bantu,in order to protect house, fields, cattle and so on from bad charm and Hexerei. The deceased ancestors played further an important role with the Bantu. Pitch, unemployment, arrest, accident and similar Unglücke connected the black ones with the fact that their ancestors had turned away from them. Luckin the play or with bets however they attributed to the Goodwill of the ancestors.

The education was adapted to the new life system. Besides the black ones were subjected to the laws of the white ones despite segregation, which limited their traditional culture substantially. Thus the government forbade to ritual homicide. SoZauberer or Hexer mentioned was punished when exercising its practices. Taxes were raised. Various penalties should guarantee the adherence to these laws. There were also new social services such as health care, schools or economic developments. This all affected the life of the black ones in the Homelands. It developeda new, changed culture.

The life of the black ones was continued to affect by the contact with adjacent white Farmern. In particular the black ones learned new forms of the agriculture.

To third many accepted black one a job outside of the Homelands. Thus they acquired new knowledge as Houseboys,Mine worker or the like.

Than these knowledge the change of their way of thinking was probably more important. As workers were the black ones the white ones subject. They met a over-powerful white culture, which their own much did not have to oppose. From this a unterwürfiges behavior without any resulted self-confident its.

social ones and economic situation

Xhosa children into the former Transkei

the condition for a positive development in the Homelands seemed given due to the fact that they covered mostly fruitful and water-rich places. Homelands were established at the traditional settlement areas of the Bantu, the thiswith a careful eye on the economy of the soil had selected. Only 35% of the surface of South Africa exhibit an average rainfall of 500 mm per year, which is considered as minimum to a successful building of drying fields. In the Homelands was the cultivatable surface with 76%far more largely. In contrast to it is smaller the half desert surface with only 0.5% in the Homelands around a multiple compared with that from completely South Africa, which becomes estimated on 27%. The poverty was enormous in the Homelands despite these positive conditions.

The inhabitantsthe Homelands were disadvantaged not only by the above average quantity of old persons, children and patients, but were additionally discrimination suspended by the white ones. Thus the government spent five times as much on the training of a white child, as on that of a black child.The training of the black ones suffered additionally by the fact that many young men had to break off the school, in order parents financially to support and that many black ones it could not afford, their children into the better schools of the white ones to send. Only about 14% of all trainable children also actually locked the school. Most black ones never enjoyed the training of occupation teachings and had to give themselves with a second-class occupation contently.

Different measures of the government aimed off to lure the black ones into the Homelands. One of it was the local promotion of economy development. Possibilities for employment together with the agriculture were hardly present in the Homelands. 1962 lived approximately 1.4 million black ones in the Transkei. Of it only straight 20,592 had a job within the Homelands. Unemployment under the black population became in the year 1977 on 22%estimated. It is to be assumed that the black ones living in the cities were far by it affected less than in the Homelands the living persons. However the borders of the Homelands were partially extended into the 1980er years, so that nearby black urban settlements into the Homelandswere integrated. The settlement Umlazi for example, in close proximity to Durban convenient, became a component of Kwazulu, or the Mdantsane lain in close proximity to East London the Homeland Ciskei one incorporated. The moreover one granted the government the industrial enterprises tax exemptions, if they decided, theirTo settle enterprise to the borders of the Homelands. This decentralization of the industry did not bring however desired success. 1960 reached those approximately 30% the inhabitant of South Africa, which lived in the Homelands, only straight 2.5% of the entire South African creation of value. Ten years later this mark sankeven on 2%. In order to make the black ones possible living in Homelands the work in outside convenient cities, the Homelands with railway lines or Buslinien was opened. A consequence of the economic efforts was however that in the Homelands a clear trend toward the population concentration at the peripheryprevailed.

ethnical composition

the Homelands in consideration of the different Ethnien had been established. Each Ethnie had thus its own territory, which belonged almost exclusively to them. In accordance with that censuses of 1970 was Bophuthatswana the ethnical most differentiated Homeland. 68% of the 880,000 De-facto-inhabitantsbelonged to the Tswana . The proximity to the industrial area with main mine activity approximately around Pretoria - Witwatersrand tightened further Ethnien. Thus lived that in Bophuthatswana beside the Tswana, approximately 8,000 white ones, colored one and Asian also some Xhosa, Pedi, Basotho, Shangana Tsonga and Zulu.Into the remaining Homelands in each case only one Ethnie placed nearly the entire population: The two Homelands Transkei and Ciskei inhabited the Xhosa to 95 and/or. 97 %. In Kwazulu those formed for Zulu with 97,5% the majority, in Lebowa the Pedi with 83%, inGazankulu the Shangana Tsonga with 86%, in Venda the Venda with 90%, in Qwaqwa the Basotho with 99,6%.

literature

  • halfoh, Axel, J.: The South African Bantu Homelands - concept - structure - development perspectives.Ifo-institut for economic research Munich (Hg.); Africa studies No.90, 1976.
  • Horrell, Muriel: The African Homelands OF South Africa. South African of institutes OF Race relation (Hg.); Pietermaritzburg: The Natal Witness, 1973.
  • Kaur, Abnash: South Africa and Bantustans. Delhi: Kalinga Publications, 1995
  • long, Andrea: Separate development and the section OF Bantu. Administration in South Africa -History and analysis of the special administration for black ones. Work from Institut for Africa customer 103. Hamburg: Group donation German institute for overseas (Hg.), 1999
  • Rogers, Barbara: South Africa: The „Bantu Homelands “. London: Christian Action Publications, 1972.
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