Homosexualität (and/or. Homophilie) designates a sexual orientation, with which love and sexual desiring are predominantly felt opposite persons of same sex. Homosexual Mrs. are called also lesbians or Lesbierinnen, homosexual men also gays. The adjective becomes homosexualalso applied to same sex sexual actions between humans of the same sex, who are not gays or lesbians.

Table of contents

to the term Homosexualität

Karl-Maria Kertbeny erfand 1868 den Begriff Homosexualität
Karl Maria Kertbeny invented 1868 the term Homosexualität
first denomination of the word“homosexual” (in a letter of the Austrian-Hungarian writer/of) Karl Maria Kertbeny in the year 1868 photo: Hungarian national library 1869

the term Homosexualität is a hybrid word new formation from that 19. Century, coined/shaped of the writer Karl Maria Kertbeny out griech. homo =equivalent, homogeneously + lat. sexus = the male and the female sex.

German-language terms

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs coined/shaped in 19. Century as the first the self-designations Urning (male) and Urninde (female), which are today no longer common however.

Female Homosexualität

homosexual one Women are called in the German-speaking countries also lesbian (after the Greek island Lesbos, homeland of the Mrs. loving Dichterin Sappho). With maskuliner coinage of women there is among other things those all-side admitted terms kesser father (meanwhile becomes outdated, todayrather Butch), combat lesbian and Amazone, who are alternatively used.

Male Homosexualität

homosexual men becomes in the German-speaking countries also as stifling (of stifling ” oppressive hot “- in this meaning since that 18. Century stifling as parallel formation too coolly -or of Schwulität ” difficulty, distress, embarrassing situation “) designates. One finds a further derivative in the Middle Ages. Since Homosexualität was punished at that time of the Inquisition, homosexual ones came on the heap of failure. Thus the word is to smolder itself stifling of (memory of the flamesand the fire) derive. Originally devaluing used, the designation was transferred stifling later in the context of the Emanzipationsbewegung by the gay scene - also than political combat term -, and back-pushed thus the devaluing meaning so far that the term today evenin the linguistic usage of the legislation emerges. In the youth language the word is stifling against it still (and/or again) as insult word, which is used as synonym for boring , weichlich and/or enervierend. Further terms for homosexual men, like for example“Hinterlader”, are only based with the view of the male Homosexualität on Sexualpraktiken, without consideration of the cultural and psychological aspects. Another circle of terms refers to the every now and then occurring feminine behavior with men, e.g. Tunten and Schwuchteln (see also Straight acting).

Questionings among gays show that Fellatio is by far the Sexualtechnik most frequently practiced. Analverkehr is not at all the rule, as pejorative terms put like “Analpriester” close.

The lesbian

and gay movement has English-language terms in the English-language areaimplemented the word Gay (before times in the meaning of merry and multicolored) on the other hand as self designation, in order to dissociate itself from the devaluing expression Queer (” strangely, amusingly “). Increasingly into the Community however the word “Queer” is used as self designation, because“often one understands gay” as on men alone referred, is thus not sex fair. Originally a sex-neutral designation, narrowed itself the term - similarly as the German word stifling - in the 70's on men, during same sex lovingWomen in the course of the lesbian toolistic separatism increasingly as lesbians and dykes designated.

The term Gay was in-patriated also in other languages like the French (Gai) and finds than leaning word also increasing in Germany use recently again.

Beginning of the 90's came it within more radical political circles to a reappropriation of the word Queer as over term for lesbians and gays, which includes then usually Transgender with. This term has the words Gay and Lesbian however not to displace, butonly partially to replace can. By Queer Theory it experienced a similar internationalization heretofore as the term Gay.

Chichi one or Battyman are terms, which come from Jamaica Kreoli.

Chinesischsprachige of terms/ Homosexualität in China

boy of men in the erotischen play(Hand role from Peking, late 19. Jh.)

in the People's Republic of China could intersperse the Sexualmedizin first the terms tongxing'ai (“Homoerotik” ) and tongxinglian (“Homosexualität”). It concerned leaning translations out of the Japanese, where the appropriate word douseiai briefly before in supportto the German coined/shaped was. Traditional expressions as fentao (“divide the peach”) and duanxiu (“cut the sleeve off”), which anekdotisch to stories same sex love among the Chinese emperors alluded, were lost in the language of urbaner regions. As verbs they hada relationship or an act, but no personality characteristic designate.

Into the 1990er years replaced homosexual activists tongxinglian on the basis of Hong Kong and Taiwan increasingly by the term tongzhi (“comrade”, “comrade”). Not only, because the word contained the syllable tong (“directly”), butalso because it as allusion on a well-known quotation of Sun Yat sen be understood could: “The revolution did not triumph yet, comrades, lets us together fight”. Tongzhi is to today at the same time the official address form within the communist party of China,which led to a set of conflicts with the import of the new meaning on the mainland.

In Taiwan meanwhile also the term has itself more ku'er than loud-pictorial support to the English during the second half of the 90's in intellectual circles more queer to spread can. Exactly as in the USA it represents however only an addition of the dominating term - in this case tongzhi -.

Missing terms and other concepts

Die wenigsten Kulturen hielten einen Begriff wie den der Homosexualität für notwendig(Persische Miniatur, Riza-i Abbasi, Two Lovers, Iran 1630)
the few cultures regarded a term like that the Homosexualität as(
Persian miniature, Riza i Abbasi, Two Lovers, Iran 1630) there

it are necessarily with the idea, same sex love and Sexualität to a certain person type coupled or on these limited, around a modern, west coined/shaped conception acts, are missingin nearly all languages indigene expressions for homosexual persons.

Thus it gives for example in the Arab one to today no being certain term for lesbians and gays. The religious term luti (لوطي, derived from the Biblical figure guide) corresponds for instance to the ChristianTerm Sodomit and designates someone, which practices the action of the Analverkehrs forbidden by the Islam. It is not used however in the western sense as name for one identitär fixed minority. In Egypt become took part in the 90's the homosexual scene developedof the media instead as shadh (شاذ, literally “abnormally”, “irregularly” or “unnaturally”; also shadh dschinsiyan شاذجنسيا, “sexually abnorm”) designates and diffamiert. There are however also worth-free terms, which are derived from the Arab word mithl مثل (“directly”) - mithli متليfor gays and mithliya مثلية for lesbians -, whereby مثلية also “Homosexualität” actually means. These terms are used also in the Arab Wikipedia.

In Hungary to time becomes generally accepted the curse word buzi as self designation of members of the gays scene,although it has actually no meaning. It is used everywhere, where one would like to make its annoyance over the fact for air that somewhat inclined ran. Due to its spielerischen Konnotationen it becomes similarly to the English term more queer related.

In Simbabweuses the 1990 created organization GALZ (Gays and Lesbians OF Zimbabwe) English terms, there the difference between an African concept of same sex relations and a western identity as lesbian or a gay of the founders at that time, those by the majority knows andfew were politisiert, were not understood and the only alternative in the national language Shona the insulting expression ngochani would have been. The name remained also later however, since international human rights on the basis of a sexual identity seemed to in-complain more easily.

Inthe afroamerikanischen population of the USA during the 90's in demarcation of a white Gay identity the term down Low or DL developed. It leads itself from the idiom ton on the down low (“it not to the largeBell detach "). In order also same sex loving men without gay identity through HEAVE - prevention campaigns to reach, use AIDS organization meanwhile the neutral term “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM). This culture and kontextsensitive strategy has itself meanwhile also on internationalConferences interspersed.


actual raises to the acquaintance with the literature of the antique ones an extremely astonishing problem for the spirit scientist, which would come most persons, who are unvertraut with the classical authors, not into the sense: whether the dichotomy, thoseby the terms” homosexual “and” heterosexually “subordinated, at all with any reality one corresponds. [...] Consciousness above grounds of the distinction follows after the demand to differentiate. The question, who” or” Mulatte “is black “,” colored “, worries only societies, from racisticPrejudices are impaired [...]. In the antique world so few humans worried to categorize their contemporaries on the basis of the sex to which they felt erotisch drawn that no dichotomy was common, in order to express this distinction. (John bad-wave: Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. Chicago; London 1980. S. 58 f.)

Homosexualität and society

frequency of Homosexualität

major item: Frequency of Homosexualität

estimations over the frequency of Homosexualität vary considerably and become by different, from each other deviating definitions of theArticle complicates. Generally population inquiries between and the population identify ten per cent as lesbian or stifling. However it is to be accepted that inquiries by the social Stigmatisierung of the Homosexualität and with it accompanying the tendency for concealing rather downward as afterabove are falsified. The Kinsey report classified 1948 between 90 and 95 per cent of the population as “up to a certain degree bisexuell “. The actual frequency of homosexual behavior depends however in high measure on social and cultural basic conditions.Thus almost everyone indicated fifth the asked 16 - and 17-jährigen boy same sex sexual experiences to have made in a study to the Jugendsexualität, which was accomplished 1970 by Hamburg Institut for Sexualforschung. Twenty years later were it against it onlytwo per cent. The fact that such studies have however only small logical value shows a representative BRAVO inquiry from number 14/97, which resulted in that all made 25 per cent young between 14 and 17 gays experiences. Two per cent indicated, they were stifling,68 per cent would have nothing against gays.

Shades between homo and to hetero

Freud sah Homosexualität genau wie Heterosexualität als Folge einer Einschränkung der Objektwahl (Nishikawa Sukenobu, Japanischer Druck, Anfang 18. Jh.)
Freud Homosexualität saw exactly like Heterosexualität as consequence of a restriction of the object choice
(Nishikawa Sukenobu, Japanese pressure, at the beginning of 18. Jh.)

during in parts of the European culture Homosexualität only into thatlast decades and in some countries this taboo lost its position as taboo topic at the same time is still very strong, is nearly unknown the question about hetero and/or Homosexualität in other cultures. There hetero becomes less strict between homo anddifferentiated, what the characteristic of the human Sexualität might become rather fair as a schroffe polarization. The today indisputable fact that there are different degrees between Homo and Heterosexualität, one has at the beginning 20. Century with the term of the Bisexualitätto seize tries. Many Sexologen hold the opinion that nearly each humans possess bisexuelle portions, which are sometimes less strongly pronounced sometimes more. Victory mouth Freud spoke the exclusive adjustment in this connection of the “innate Bisexualität” of humans, during iton a sex as consequence of a restriction of the object choice regarded. Accordingly the psychoanalysis could uncover that all normal ones in such a way specified showed beside their communist manifestos Heterosexualität a very substantial extent of latent or unconscious Homosexualität.

major item

Coming out: Coming out

many humans, who feel drawn to the own sex rather, it comes in the course of its life to the so mentioned Coming out. Meanwhile Coming out in two phases described. The first phase is the phase of the “itself conscious becoming” or “itself self admission”, places thusthe realization or in addition, the decision that one is open for the same sex love. It also called inside Coming out. The second phase designates the “safe clarifying”, thus the step outward, Coming out at family, friends and/or colleagues. With some this process already takes place itself at the age of 11 years, others is only with 40 or more years over its sexual orientation in the clear one. Most have it Coming out meanwhile at the school age, thus approximately toTime of puberty. At this age many do not dare to request assistance from others to particularly if they notice that their inclination is socially not accepted. Even own parents are sometimes not informed about it. That Coming out can sometimes into a life crisis lead, which can increase up to self intents to kill or realized self selbsttötung. Advisory boards in the larger cities and info. sides in the Internet try to help this humans to accept their Homosexualität. The self selfrateself rate is actual with pubertierenden homosexual ones clearly more highly than with heterosexual of the same age.

Legal same sex partnerships, marriage

major item: Laws to the Homosexualität

Gleichgeschlechtliche Ehen und Partnerschaften in Europa
same sex marriages and partnerships in Europe
even if within the political gay and lesbian movement it is disputed whether one itself the standard of a two-relationship as copy thatcivil marriage to approximate is, the large legal equalization with heterosexual by lesbians and gays is welcomed predominantly.

There are already legal regulations for a same sex partnership in a set of European countries; in Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Canada as well as Massachusetts(the USA) the marriage for homosexual ones was opened completely; in Scandinavia and other European countries is this opening in the discussion.

In Germany there is 1 since that. August 2001 the registered life partnership in such a way specified. After their Verabschiedung by thatSome politicians doubts about it announced Bundestag; the governed by the Union countries Bavaria, Saxonia and Thuringia strove even for a complete abolition of the law before the Federal Constitutional Court. This got straight however that a complete equalization with the marriage nothing inWays would stand, since the life partnership does not compete with the marriage already alone, because it another circle of acquaintances of references.

A complete equalization still stands to time within the range of the taxes, the survivor supply and the possibility of the common adoption of children.To 29. October 2004 was in this connection realized some changes: Thus life partners - like spouses - in the law of property of the increase community will live, if they agree upon nothing else. Equal treatment takes place after the separation now also with the maintenance right. Besides an engagement is introduced- Life partners will be able themselves to get engaged in the future like spouses with legal effect. Furthermore the law regulates that homosexual ones can adopt the physical child of their life partner. And finally now also the regulations of the survivor supply in the legal old age pension insurance on life partners becomeexpanded. Concerning the official supply the Federal High Court decided however that no marrying addition is entitled to officials in registered partnerships. This contradicts a judgement of the federal labor court, which grants this addition to the employee in the public service.

More radical parts of the lesbianand gay movement lean the life partnership - when marriage verpönt light - and the associated necessary special law giving for homosexual ones off. Instead they demand the abolishment of the marriage and plead for so mentioned “choice relative shanks” on time.

Rechtlicher Status der Homosexualität in der Welt
Legal status of the Homosexualität inthe world

in Switzerland first Geneva at the 1 became in the canton. May 2001 a PaCS imported, which the entry of homosexual, as made also heterosexual partnerships possible. To 22. September 2002 became in Zurich a registered partnership of the being correct people also62,7% Yes-portion approve. This regulation continued some as those Geneva solution and placed registered life partnerships married couples directly, so far this in the authority of the canton lay. To Geneva and Zurich also the canton new castle led the registered partnership forunmarried pairs. The canton parliament has to 27. January 2004 affirmatively.

To 5. June 2005 co-ordinated entire Swiss the being correct people on the partnership law (PartG) to the registered partnership. It is world-wide the first national referendum over this question. It have58% of the voters affirmatively. There were majorities particularly in the central country from St.Gallen to Geneva. It was there a rather homogeneous distribution of the Yes-portions. Cities did not only agree, but also ländlichere areas. Rejecting were above all rural-rural, catholic cantons.Agreed altogether 16,5 of 23 cantons. The registered partnership in Switzerland creates an equalization with the marriage in fiscal questions, social security benefits, vomits, attendance right, right to refuse to give evidence, etc. It prevents however expressly the entrance to the reproduction medicine and the adoption. The registered partnershipin Switzerland has effects on civil status. Civil status is not any more “single”, but “registered”. The law presumably steps at the 1. January 2007 into force.

A Gegenpol to the efforts for the equalization of homosexual relations with the marriage is in the representatives of the way of life politics.

Rainbow families

homosexual partners can witness with one another no descendants. Children grow up nevertheless in same sex partnerships. The science discusses this phenomenon increasingly under the term rainbow families.

Homosexualität and occupation

particularly a problem resultfor homosexual ones, which are for example publicly employed (teacher, politician), in the youth work are active, or attend to an occupation in the Christian-religious life (priests). Gays teachers and youth leaders are often rejected because of subordinated influence of the children with substantial pressure. Politician, thoseopenly to their Homosexualität stand, could form itself only in recent time. A well-known example of it is a governing mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit, whose Outing was received into the language culture: I am stifling, and that is also goodso. Gays or lesbian leading employees (also managers) are regarded frequently as compromisable (extortable). That they live therefore frequently in (illusory) marriage conditions, again and again in the literature one mentions, is empirically like that not not provable however. The development within thatEconomics goes against-reflecting against it rather in the direction that enterprises promote and support aimed homosexual ones as coworkers, in order also in the staff the society (Diversity management). Catholic ones of clergyman with homosexual assessment are increasingly noticed, whereby a homosexual life-style,as is the case for all church employees, however usually as not compatible with the Christian faith one regards. 2005 published the office church an instruction, in the persons with „low-sitting homosexual Tendezen “and supporters of a homosexual culture as suitable candidatesWeiheamt (priest, deacon) to be regarded. Persons with easy homosexual tendencies (e.g. „Knasthomosexualität “, dte rodent experiences) must have overcome these at least 3 years before the Diakonweihe. Employees of the church, which a life partnership are received, become, comparably divorced colleagues, who marry again, usually because ofIncompatability with the faith dismisses.

Homosexual ones

encounter German Federal Armed Forces in the German Federal Armed Forces still restraint. Altogether has, not least by the increasing portion of soldiers, who must develop German Federal Armed Forces further their consciousness for Sexualität. With the “Sexualerlass” to centers the regulation (joint service regulation)14/3 were forbidden a discrimination. With the last change in July 2004 after proscription for many decades of homosexual superiors, who had to count under approval of iurisdiction of the supreme court on transfers and even dismissals, more liberal handling the Sexualität was selected. Meanwhilealso the working group of homosexual members of the German Federal Armed Forces (AHsAB registered association) uses itself for the interests of homosexual humans in the German Federal Armed Forces.

In the future in principle all relations forms are referred into the private sector. Homosexual relations can be maintained out of service also within military plants,also the rank of the relations partners plays no more role.

The characteristics of the life in a community accommodation - connected with a restriction of the Privatsphäre - however particularly in international missions feel some members of the German Federal Armed Forces however also in the future as challenge. Thisconcern in particular such members, their closer friend circle exclusive from heterosexual and ungeouteten homosexual ones (and/or. alleged heterosexual) exists.

Ethical evaluations of the Homosexualität

the ethical evaluation of Homosexualität leads to different and even to contrary results of the statement, among other things depending on,which anthropologischen conditions and interpretations of the Homosexualität to be at the basis put. Also the ethical evaluation is pretty often on a certain religious aspect dependent or with it connected (see in addition the own article Homosexualität and religion).

, Where one thosehomosexual orientation of the person either as natural condition or as result of a free decision positively which can be rated regards, appropriate homosexual behavior to this orientation as morally good is also regarded, if thereby the generally accepted basic postulates of along-human living together are respected.

Exist opinions, which already already regard the homosexual inclination as such as disorder or anthropologischen “defect”. On this opinion developing ethical evaluation will not morally negative qualify have yet this inclination as (so far and to that extent here thatMoment of the liberty is missing). It exists however the opinion that the free and so that responsible person homosexual behavior (under the condition that one assumes that during existing inclination the behavior is really freely selectable) to be condemned can. Evaluates one homosexual actionsas morally negative, then different gradations of the reaction to homosexual document are possible in this case: Of the still possible tolerance as morally negative outstanding homosexual behaviors up to the demand of its absolute omission and social proscription or tofor demand for legal pursuit (in extreme cases with death penalty) a large range results.

European Ethnologie

under the reproach of the Sodomie was burned the Templer on the heap of failure (manuscript illustration, approx. 1350)

A recent generation of lesbian gays sociologists, philosopher and historianslike Mary McIntosh (The Homosexual Role, 1968), Michel Foucault (La Volonté de savoir, 1976), Alan Bray (Homosexuality in Renaissance England, 1982) or at present in particular David Halperin (How ton of DO the History OF Homosexuality, 2002) regard “Homosexualität” no more than a supertemporal Essenz, but than an invention of the European modern times. Thus it is not meant that women and men at other places and at other times would not have had same sex Sex. Rather those subordinateauthors mentioned that our current view of Homosexualität as “its way”, which differentiates a minority from a majority a relatively recent construction is.

The sodomitische sin

the theological model of the Sodomie, which preceded the modern term of the Homosexualität, is entitledthis in a clear contrast. Sodomie - as “more against-naturally” (Platon) traffic between men, in addition, between a man and a woman - was regarded as a general-human vice and was not assigned to a certain category of persons. Foucault sharpenedthis difference too, by stating in famous a Sentenz become: “The Sodomit was a Gestrauchelter, the homosexual one is a species. “(See also: Sodomiterverfolgung)

apart from the discourse of the Sodomie, that itself in the Middle Ages above all upthe act of the Analverkehrs , gave it however also terms, which expressed a positive aspect, referred as for instance that the friendship.

Friendship as way of life

friendship “could resemble nearly at all times also a romantic relationship between two personsSex designate. Kisses, embracing and Händchenhalten, common sleeping in a bed (therefore the ancient term of the “bed comrade”) just like passionate dear stating and loyalty oaths became among men until far into the early modern times and often even still at the beginning20. Century as completely normal perception. Among women is - since end 19. Century however with ever larger restrictions - partly also today still the case. Semantics (meaning meanings) from friendship and love were therefore hardly from each otherto differentiate. The Greek word philos about can mean both “friend” and “loving”.

In the Christianity such relations only rarely with “monströsen “figure of the Sodomiten in connection brought, and if, then usually in the context of a politicalPlot (as in the case of Eduard II. or the medieval Templerorden).

Christian one brother shanks

the Christian Mystik loaded, affected by the Islamic Sufismus, the love between friends even with a religious meaning. Likewise the Christianity adapts both in Gilgamesch Epos as in the Jewish Bible, in addition, in the Satyricon for a dear relationship between two men used term of the 'brother '(oath brother shank). To their combination the orthodox church had the rite of the “brother making” (Adelphopoiesis)prepared, that the two friends for their love, which should continue into death, numerous pairs of holy as models called. This did not exclude the parallel marriage ceremony with a woman however. In latin the west, where until far into the modern timesneither married people nor sworn brothers (fratres iurati) the Segnung of a priest required, are at least a row received from tombs, in which man and later were bestattet with one another also pairs of women. The engravings contain often symbols of unsterblicher love as for examplethe representation of a kiss or the inscription “in the life unites, separately in death”.

The invention of the homosexual one

the brother shank (s.o.), sworn by the institution, is today only the term of the warm brother remaining as synonym for a “gay”remained. In this term change reveals itself the historical break, which was caused by the modern concept of the Homosexualität: One identifies and places gestures of the affection, which would have been understood in former times simply as indications of a friendship, today as “homosexual” her therebyas deviation from the social standard under suspicion. The consequence is particularly among male young people provable a drastic decrease of same sex Sexualerfahrungen of 18 on two per cent alone between 1970 and 1990. This development accompanies with increasing Homophobie, becausemany young humans from fear to possibly be considered as a “gay” and/or as a “lesbian” from all homosexual one demonstratively (and partly even by force) distinguish themselves. Among young men this tendency is generally again clearly more strongly pronounced for demarcation than under youngWomen. It is this active defense, by which the stigmatisierende label of the Homosexualität reproduces itself as automatically.

Globalization of a way of thinking

binary categorization of persons as hetero and homo and/or “normally” and “differently” is meanwhile nearly world-wide tooan apparently irrefutable reality become. This process, which already occurred in some metropolises of Europe such as London, Paris and Amsterdam around 1700, reached regions such as China and against it only at the beginning and/or center 20. Century. Some post office-colonialAuthors like the Hongkonger sociology professor Zhou Huashan criticize the Homophobie in their countries therefore as a consequence of the European imperialism.

History and Homosexualität: Social movement and emancipation

gay pursuit

John Atherton und John Childe, 1640 in Dublin wegen "Sodomie" gehenkt.
John ether clay/tone and John Childe, 1640 in Dublin because of “Sodomie” gehenkt.

Up to the high Middle Ages the Analverkehr within the Christian range applied as sin, but not yet as crime; therefore threatened maximally a church penalty and an occasional exclusion of the Eucharistie, but still no lay punishment. Of 13. Century up to the clearing-up Analverkehr between men was threatened in Europe under the designation “Sodomieby lay laws with the heap of failure , is then spoken nearly completely here still of the Sodomiterverfolgung. To larger pursuits and hundreds of executions it came in each case duringthe late Middle Ages in north Italy and Spain as well as during entire 18. Century also in England, France and the Netherlands.

The ideas of the French revolution led in numerous states, which oriented themselves at the French code Napoléon, around 1800 to the abolishmentall laws against the “against-natural Unzucht” (so for instance in the Netherlands, in the Rhine country and in Bavaria, Gesetze against the Homosexualität). Preußen wandelte 1794 mit der Einführung des Allgemeinen Landrechts die Todesstrafe in eine Zuchthausstrafe um. 1871 became the PrussianParagraph to the penal code of the German Reich taken up and as paragraph 175 in the following time ever more frequently applied.

Up to the reform paragraph 175 in the year 1969 the police worked at it with informers in the gays subculture and secret Pink lists, on which numerous names were registered by homosexual men. Since Homosexualität was punishable and was diagnosed into the 70's as psychological illness, homosexual ones could be accommodated also on indefinite time liberty-extracting in a forensischen psychiatry.An example is the “treatment” of the British mathematician Alan Turing in the year 1952.

In der NS-Zeit führte gleichgeschlechtliche Liebe oftmals ins KZ
In the NS time same sex love led into the KZ during

the time of the national socialism often became approx. Kidnaps 10,000 gays in concentration camps, where they carry the pink anglehad (gays during the national socialism). Survived only about 40 per cent of them. Although there was no law against the lesbian love, the Gestapo arrested also an unknown number of women because of its Homosexualität and marked it into thatConcentration camps as “Asoziale “with the black angle.

In the Federal Republic of Germany the paragraph 175 to 1969 continued to exist in the version intensified by the Nazis, which was recognized by the Federal Constitutional Court 1957 as legal. Only 1994 it fellin the course of the adjustment of right with the GDR away.

In many states homosexual ones are still and/or again pursued also today and threatened with death, so for instance in Jamaica, Simbabwe, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria and numerous Islamic states.In addition, in the east of Europe, for example in Serbia, Romania, Albania and even in some the new European Union - countries is precarious the situation of the human rights to time: Thus Latvia become demonstrations for tolerance opposite gays in Poland andand lesbians by authorities forbidden or partly with substantial force confronts, which is stirred up by the churches and right-wing extremist nationalist. In Poland lately demands some prominent politicians became loud to be homosexual ones into camps and/or. outTo eliminate Poland. In the UN the Vatikan and the Islamic states try together to prevent the discussion over the human right situation for gays and lesbians.

In history and in the present also homosexual ones were even often large enemiesand pursuers of other homosexual. Like that it is well-known that there is often latently homosexual one, which fight each other from fear of becoming known the own inclination, all different, above all openly admitting, homosexual ones fought and.


the rainbow flag, since 1978international stifling-lesbian symbol

major item: Lesbian and gay movement

first demands for urnischen marriage were raised from Karl Heinrich Ulrichs 1867 on the German lawyer day in Munich before 500 members. Even if its lecture with mockery and refusal were taken up, begins onthis day the history of the homosexual emancipation.

The beginning of the organized homosexual Emanzipationsbewegung is set generally with the establishment of the scientific-humanitarian committee (WhK) by the citizen of Berlin physician Magnus deer field in the year 1897. It concerned thereby however a Honoratiorenvereinigung,only approx. 500 members covered and outward as homosexual movement into action did not go. Instead it exclusively recruited paragraph 175 with scientific arguments for a cancellation.

The friendship federations created after 1919 were in terms of figures far more important.As groups of roofs in August 1920 the created German friendship federation (DFB) with in May 1922 the federation for human rights (BfM), developed, competed. The latter proved in its size development as the by far more successful model. It already counted 1924 over 12.000, 1929,toward end of the Weimar Republic, even more than 48,000 members. Foreign attached groups is it according to data of the association in Switzerland, in Austria, in Czechoslovakia, in New York town center, Argentina and Brazil givenhave. However hardly something is well-known over these groups. The emphasis of the friendship federations lay in the planning of social gathering meetings, covered however also political and journalistic activities as well as the guarantee of legal protection for those members, that were affected by the paragraph 175.

After smashing these first Emanzipationsbestrebungen by the Nazis the emphasis of the homosexual movement moved into the United States. In the spring 1951 Harry Hay, member of the CPUSA , together with Bob cladding, based Chuck Rowland, Dale Jennings and Rudi Gernreichthe Mattachine Society. 1955 developed under guidance of Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon the lesbian organization Daughters OF Bilitis. Both groups called themselves as homophil, in order to extract itself from the reduction of Homosexualität on the act of the Beischlafs.Under the pressure of the McCarthy - era entpolitisierten themselves these organizations and became debating clubs, which did not step in the public into feature. Only in the middle 60's found one with thickly Leitsch (New York) and franc of the Kameny (Washington)Re-orientation at the protest forms of the black civil rights movement instead of.

To 28. June 1969 came it on the occasion of a police raid into New Yorker gay bar the Stonewall to a rebellion into the Christopher Street, which persisted three days. This event led to oneRadicalization of numerous lesbians and gays. Following left movements of the time at that time mixed groups were based like the Gay liberation front and the Gay Activists Alliance.

At the 1. May 1970 made finally the group of Radicalesbians on itself attentive,by interrupting the second yearly congress in New York for the combination of the women with a planned happening. The communist manifesto of the woman-Mrs. woman distributed there justified for the women's movement as influential proving concept of the political Lesbianismus: Lesbian its becamenot as a sexual orientation, but as the only possible strategy of the resistance against patriarchale patronizing and suppression understood.

All of these political strategies and concepts were carried into the 1970er years to Europe.

In the Federal Republic of Germany were basedafter the liberalisation paragraph 175 in the year 1969 and after the Fernsehausstrahlung of the film the homosexual one is not by verse, but the situation in which it lives the first groups of gays. The open and provoking representation of gays by the director Pink one of Praunheim, which availed itself for this of a political text of the sociologist and Sexualforschers Martin Dannecker, encountered in the public, in addition, with conservative and adapted homosexual ones refusal.

Similarly as in the USA lesbians separated in thatAnd engaged itself Federal Republic already very early of the male dominated groups of gays instead in the women's movement, where same sex love for an only not recognized one, but often even präferierten life-style it became.

In and the 90's 80's it camea broad fan-out, in addition, to a progressive Entpolitisierung of the homosexual Emanzipationsbewegung. At the same time a reapproximation of lesbians and gays took place. Since for instance in the middle of the 80's they organize annual demonstrations together in nearly all European and American metropolises toMemory of the Stonewall rebellion. In the 90's from it enormous removals became, those under the designation Christopher Street Day and/or. Gay Pride parade in the days between June and July world-wide several millions humans on the road pull. Onlythe participants connect a concrete political statement rarely with their presence however. Appropriate counter projects to the Repolitisierung of the CSD in Germany are the Transgeniale CSD in Berlin cross mountain and the Queerrr Street Days in Hamburg.

A new feature forms the desireafter territorial demarcation of the hetero world, which frequently Gay Nationalism one calls. Thus became of a group of Australian activists to 14. June 2004 a tiny Koralleninsel named Cato occupies and the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom proclaimed. The new stateturned out rather rapidly as a Micronation under many, because neither the Imperator Dale Parker Anderson one nor otherwise someone was ready to establish itself on Cato. The discrepancies within the Führungsriege led to splintering the movement into several groups.

Homosexualitätand medicine


the psychiatric Pathologisierung of the Homosexualität began in the middle 19. Century. She was understood as symptom of an internal reversal of the sex feeling (“contrary Sexualempfindung”, “inversion”). 1869 published the citizen of Berlin mental specialist Carl Westphal the first scientific essay to this topic,to which it the term “conträre Sexualempfindung” introduced.

Homosexualität became 1974 of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) due to a resolution from the year before from its disease catalog (DIAGNOSTIC and Statistical manual OF mentally Disorders, briefly: DSM,edition at that time DSM-II) painted. Before Homosexualität was considered as psychological illness. However from then on the “sexual orientation disturbance” existed, later in the DSM-III” I dystone Homosexualität " mentioned in the DSM-II, with which a condition of continuing suffering to the own Homosexualität are diagnosedcould. In the new, current DSM-IV is a diagnostic category “sexual disturbance” not designated more near, which contains also a “continuous and pronounced suffering from sexual orientation” (302.9).

From internationally the Classification published by the World Health Organization OF Diseases (ICD) became thoseHomosexualität only 1992 with the publication of the ICD-10 removes. But the disturbance picture that was taken up there I to dystonen Sexualorientierung (F66.1) in the range of the personality and behavior disturbances. In the ICD-8 Homosexualität was already represented as disputed disease picture.

In the Psychotherapie gives ittwo controversy camp. Trailers of the Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy try to integrate handling Homosexualität if possible into the people its. In addition opposite it gives physician and/or. Psychotherapeuten, those the discontent with the homosexual adjustment as disturbance (in the agreement to the DSM-IV andICD-10) see (e.g.Charles Socarides, Joseph Nicolosi). Trailers of a third group come likewise to light. Der Psychotherapeut Doug Haldeman z.B., auch im Vorstand der American Psychological Association vertreten, ist Streiter für die Homosexuellen. Haldeman demands however at the same time the rightthe homosexual one to the therapy on change, the concerning with its inclination should be dissatisfied.

The sexual inclinations as such do not determine yet the psychological identity of humans, since to it substantially the free statement belongs. Not jede/r “homosexual ones so mentioned”feels inclinations the same kind and intensity as ein/e Andere/r. Some have strong and continuing homosexual feelings; with others these are only easy and temporarily.


to the emancipation of the gays carried - likewise apart from the public work -also strongly AIDS in such a way specified - epidemic disease at the beginning of the 1980er years. This sounds itself first contradictory, there AIDS (Acquired immune Deficiency of syndromes) in the western countries, probably due to the higher Promiskuität and the high infection danger in particular Analverkehr, first strongly in gay circles spread.

By the clearing-up campaigns activated by the AIDS assistance and the German Federal Government the taboo topic Homosexualität came however more strongly into the view of the public. Thus clearing-up did not only become over the rear virus and thatby it released disease picture AIDS reaches, on the contrary as precautionary measure for safer Sexualpraktiken (Safer Sex) one recruited. Also many false opinions and prejudices in social consciousness over gays and lesbians could be corrected. A constantly rising tolerance leaves itselfdetermine in the population opposite Homosexualität. The moral Gesellschaftswerte shifted, even if some humans Homosexualität condemn or homosexual humans devaluations.

Many humans bring gays to Sexualität automatically with AIDS in connection. Gays are however in dominant medical opinion onlyto add this special group of risks if it frequently unprotected Analverkehr and/or. Traffic with changing Sexualpartnern has, there the injury and/or. Risk of infection with analer penetration is drastically higher than general with vaginaler penetration and Promiskuität the risk behavior for sexually transferable diseasesto add is.

The fact that HEAVE in Germany still a danger is occupies Robert the institute for cook. From the new infecting with HEAVE are homosexual in Germany in the last 36 months 60% of the concerning. Infecting of purely heterosexual lieswith 3%. (Epidemiological bulletin, 30. September 2005)

Science and Homosexualität

with the scientific view of the Homosexualität (for example under biological, evolutionary or psychological aspects) frequently always went it around a similar complex of questions. After modern aspect however many of these questions appear asdiscriminating against:

  • Can special factors be constituted, which lead to Homosexualität with humans?
  • Is the Homosexualität with all homosexual humans, or with a part, by innate factors causes?
  • Is it due with all homosexual ones or with a part to acquired factors?
  • Is Homosexualität as entire seeming to classify or however with individual homosexual ones as abnorm or diseased? That would also mean that a healing or a Bekehrung would be possible or necessary.
  • Can Homosexualität be also the result of a free will decision?

Which factors with the particularto Homosexualität to lead cannot be said surely; physical or psychological factors are discovered again and again, which could be occupied however so far in no case empirically.

On the one hand it is maintained that sexual orientation already before thatBirth is put on. Another statement is that Homosexualität would only mint itself by certain identification processes in the early childhood or also special operational sequence in the puberty phase or also later. In addition mixing theories are represented, which mean that a combination ofboth would be present.

The scientific controversy over the causes is very old. So long each homosexual behavior was punishable, was often from the tendency led the argumentations in this controversy to occupy either the “inevitability” of homosexual behavior and thus the demandto justify after its impunity or to mark however it as free decision for “moral purge “, to which with punishment must be worked against.

In the gay and lesbian movement the research is seen often critical according to causes of the Homosexualität, becausethat the study of the cause can serve the purpose, as stifling and/or lesbian assumed Föten is feared to drive off or if necessary. to make genetic corrections.

In addition it comes that an objective cause research would have to include also the investigation of the cause of Heterosexualität. In addition becomesor e.g. became often only after the confirmation of prejudices, i.e. a biological “Verweiblichung” of homosexual men or a “Vermännlichung” of homosexual women searched. Thus does so some investigation seem purposefully after the slogan “which is here probably wrongly run?” to proceed andto lift out during the interpretation of results in plate conceptions fitting things with homosexual humans and ignore with heterosexual humans.

A founded summary and criticism of the more current beginnings and investigations to the male Homosexualität supplied for instance all Brookey to Robert with 2002 with itsReinventing bound the marks Homosexual. The power and Rhetorics OF the Gay of genes.

Homosexualität and biology - homosexual behavior under animals

Australische Trauerschwäne
Australian mourning swans

homosexual behavior is far common under birds and mammals. It leaves itself for example under the Zwergschimpansenobserve, those, which for anthropoids is unusual, a matriarchale social structure do not only have, but also a completely bisexuelle animal species are. Although also to the males applies, the Bonobos is particularly well-known for their Lesbianismus.

Some mourning swans of Australiaform beyond that sexually active male pairs, which steal either nests or temporary three-relations with females is received, in order to arrive into the possession from eggs to. As soon as the eggs are put, the female is driven out. Their common new generation reaches the adult agemore frequently than that of mix-sexual pairs.

In the zoo of Bremerhaven (Germany) momentarily three homosexual pairs of penguins live.

Genetic discussion

in the center 20. Century examined the twin researcher Franz Josef Kallmann human families and in particular twins< ref name= " Kallmann ">Kallmann,F. J. (1952 A):Twin and sibship study OF paints overt homosexuality. In: Amer. J. Human Genet. 4, S. 136-146< /ref>. With a sample of 40 eineiigen and 45 zweieiigen male twin pairs, of those at least one brother itselfwhen stifling it designated it found out that with 100% of the eineiigen twins the other brother was also stifling and that with the zweieiigen twins these resembled the general male population in this point. Other one like want-hard S. Schlegel found something similargenetic Komponmenten of sexual orientation, these work was rejected however into the 1960er years, because they did not correspond to the then dominant spirit of the time, which planned punishments for homosexual actions, which would have been with difficulty compatible with a hereditary assessment (see. also BVerfGe< ref>BVerfGE 6, 389 - homosexual ones </ref>).

1993 discovered the American researcher Dean Hamer a range on the X-Chromosom, which he brought with Homosexualität in connection< ref name= to " Hamer ">Quark & cost. - A gene for Homosexualität?</ref>. It acts therebyaround a genetic marker in such a way specified, which somewhat more probably occurred with a certain type of Homosexualität than with others. The acceptance was confirmed first, because eineiige twin brothers, who carried this Chromosomenabschnitt, were stifling both.

A re-examination of the yearly 1999 on46 other eineiigen pairs of twin brothers related however these results, because only with approximately half of the this time examined twin pairs in both cases Homosexualität was determined. As result it remains however that eineiige twins have a significantly higher agreement because of sexual orientationas humans with different hereditary property.

When all these investigations it is to be noted however that by the still strong social proscription of the Homosexualität an existing homosexual inclination cannot be determined surely objectively. Pro gangs can bend to it, an existing homosexualTo conceal orientation from shame. In addition it can be that they did not have yet their internal Coming Out and their actual sexual orientation are yet not at all conscious. That leads to the fact that the number of the homosexual pro gangs in appropriate studiesappears regularly smaller, than it is actual and so the results are substantially falsified by studies. In addition it comes that the samples were only very small in all these studies.

It seems to be like that that it probably no individual gay genegives. On the other hand it can being secured accepted than that a genetic arrangement exists to the Homosexualität. As largely the influence of the genes is actual, is still unknown, it can however be excluded that the genes do not play a role. Conceivablly are underother one a combination of different hereditary factors, a combination of hereditary factors and hormoneal coinage during the pregnancy or also a combination of genetic and social factors.

Other causes

a theory, which decreases/goes back on research work of the German Endokrinologen and Sexualwissenschaftlers Günter Dörner, is,that stress hormones are responsible for Homosexualität in the pregnancy. With male Föten they prevent that their brain, which has first no differences to a female gets a male sex by certain hormones. This the brain of modifying hormones “male” the brainthe male baby normally in the pregnancy in three phases, of which everyone can be disturbed by stress. To the lesbian plant a similar statement, i.e. is that these are the product of very relaxed mothers, their male hormones not throughStress were missing.

However object critics of these and similar theories that it concerns with the acceptance that gays would have to somehow be “more female” men than heterosexual, or lesbian women “male”, only a heteronormative postulate, which is not under any circumstances proven.It does not explain likewise, why gays of men should prefer another “woman-light” man over a “man-light” woman than partners. (See also Straight acting)

evolution-theoretical and social use of the Homosexualität

in the science gives it in the meantime to conceptions that Homosexualität thatKind preservation serves, thus also in the sense the evolution theory a use has, since it ensures that a larger number of humans can worry about a newborn child. Here that homosexual assessed no own children witness, however their is subordinatedalong-supply nephew and nieces, whereby in the long run also their genes used genetically near a chance continued on has (see also:The egoistic gene).

According to further investigations it suggests itself that genetic assessment for male Homosexualität could make female relatives more fruitful.

Another entrance to the Sexualitätsthematik is the question, why there is and everything else as deviation is seen at all the standard of the Heterosexualität. In certain Gender Studies it is analyzed that the Heterosexismus and Heteronormativität Grundpfeiler of our society are and thoseHomosexualität a soziokulturelle construction represents.

In newer studies of Homophobie it was noted that the suppression of homosexual ones and a proscription of the Homosexualität take place particularly in societies, which raise a strict separation of the sexes to the standard mostly with the goal,to secure the rule of the men over the women. One could draw from the fact the conclusion that homosexual ones take a kind bridge function between the sexes by their personality. Their biological task would be it then, to the mutual understanding and to the mutual acceptanceto contribute from man and woman.

This theory subordinates however again an objectively different personality compared with heterosexual humans as well as a standing between the sexes to from the beginning homosexual humans, thus no certain male or female sex identity.

Homosexualität and Transgender

Homosexualitätoften with Transgender and Transsexualität in connection one brings; it concerns however two in principle different phenomena. With the Homosexualität concerns it around the desired partner, with Transgender feeling the own sexualness. This mistake has several reasons:

  • Deer field summarized homosexual ones and Transgender as a third sex ; this idea of the third sex has itself, if not in the science, so nevertheless socially until at least into the 1970er years held. Today both groups and/or everything become as QueerHumans, who offended against heteronormative rules, understood.
  • Socially was often the lesbian gays subculture the only place, at which Transgender in their felt sex were accepted.
  • There itself a large part of the Transgender to another than the felt sex moved, leads this feels to relations with humans of same anatomical sex, who are then felt subjectively as heterosexual, outward however homosexual often works.

Above all the latter is the reason, why the use of the word is homosexual problematic, if onethe partner Transgender is. Which according to outward or anatomical criteria (= equal sexually) would be homosexual, one or both partners feel perhaps heterosexually - or naturally in reverse.

Service and assistance for homosexual humans

of lobby federations for lesbians and gay


  • lesbianand gay association in Germany - largest citizen right, self-help and welfare organization for lesbians and gay in Germany.
  • BEFAH - Federal association of parents, friends and members of homosexual ones.
  • Lambda - stifling-lesbian youth federation of Germany


  • HOSI - the homosexual initiatives of Austria


  • Pinkcross - national roof federation of the homosexual men in Switzerland
  • LOT - lesbian organization Switzerland
  • Edigonal - national roof federation of lesbischwuler youth organizations

advisory boards

it gives pink telephones in very many cities, around humans concernedto advise and member. The consultation takes place anonymous. Most have federally uniform the number 19446.

The moreover one there are also frequently Coming out groups, also particularly for young people.

In some cities there are also assault telephones so mentioned for victims of anti-homosexual force. Thosemost have federally uniform the number 19228.

A great importance has meanwhile on-line consultation. It is offered by different carriers.

Advisory boards, which believe against the dominant opinion in a variability of sexual orientation, are rather rare. They belong usually to thatex-Gay-movement so mentioned , which was created of Christian fundamentalists in the United States as part of a “culture fight “against the “propagation of the Homosexualität”, in the meantime in addition, in Germany by the Laienseelsorgeorganisation desert stream on is represented. Due to its “potential, damageto cause " (American Psychological Association) many larger psychological and medical professional associations before a participation in such programs warn. Some participants report of change of their Sexualität, but these expressions are extremely critical of seeing. Jeremy Marks, 14 years long onethe Wortführer of the Christian ex-Gay-movement in Great Britain, revised its opinions over the “welfare barness” from Homosexualität. Marks expressed that he never was able to change its sexual orientation or the orientation of other humans. “None of humans,which I cared for, its sexual orientation changed, no matter how much trouble and prayers it also invested ". The honest way brings a larger use. - Even the probably most well-known representative of the change theory in Germany, Markus Hoffmann, Leiter thatLaienseelsorgeorganisation desert stream, grants that he has still homoerotische feelings even after longer and substantial change efforts. - Günter tree, the predecessor of Markus Hoffmann as leaders with desert stream, says today: “Wears itself in all the years with desert streamdo not mean gays feelings anything changed. I really gave myself much trouble ". The therapies are like a hair hue: “One can lubricate oneself as much blond in the hair as one wants - the actual hair color comes again and again through”.

In more scientificRegard appoint yourself many of these groups to the following study:Robert L. Pointedly, “CAN Some Gay Men and Lesbians CHANGE Their Sexual Orientation? 200 Participants reporting A CHANGE from Homosexual ton of Heterosexual Orientation ". Presentation RK the American Psychiatric Association AnnualConvention. New Orleans, May 9, 2001. Subsequently published in Archives OF Sexual Behavior, 32 (5), 403-417, October 2003.

Financial assistance for groups and initiatives


Homosexualität and society

  • B. R. Castle (Hrsg.): Gay Warriors: A DocumentaryHistory from the Ancient World ton the Present. New York 2002. ISBN 0814798861.
  • Martin Dannecker; Reimut realms: The usual homosexual one: a sociological investigation on male homosexual ones in the Federal Republic. Frankfurt A. M. 1974. ISBN 3100148010.
  • Victory mouth Freud:Over the Psychogenese of a case of female Homosexualität (1920). In: Victory mouth Freud: Expenditure for study. Volume VII. Frankfurt A. M. 2000.ISBN 3108227270.
  • Hartmut Lühr: Finally normally? Gay change in Germany. Radio feature 2005.
  • Stephen O. Murray: Homosexualities. Chicago;London 2000.ISBN 0226551954. (Sozioethnologi overview of different cultures)
  • Norbert Zillich: Homosexual men in the working life. Frankfurt A.M.: Campus publishing house 1988. ISBN 3593339927
  • Thomas's Grossmann: A love like every different one. Reinbek: Rowohlt paperback publishing house 1981. 980 ISBN 3499184516

topic European Ethnologie

  • Alan Bray: Homosexuality in Renaissance England. New York 1982. ISBN 0231102895.
  • Andrew Calimach: Lovers' Legends. The Gay Greek Myths. New Rochelle: Haiduk press 2002. ISBN 0971468605.
  • Kenneth J. Dover: Homosexualität in the Greek antique one, translates v. Susan Worcester.Munich: C. H. Beck publishing house 1983.ISBN 3406073743 (for the first time English: 1978)
  • Lilian Faderman: Surpassing the Love OF Men: Romance Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance ton the Present. New York 1998. ISBN 0688133304.
  • Michel Foucault: ThatWill for knowledge: Sexualität and truth; Bd. 1. Frankfurt A. M. 1993. [Frz. Orig. La Volonté de savoir, 1976]. ISBN 3518283162.
  • John C. Hawley (Hrsg.): post office colonial, Queer: Theoretical intersections. Albany, NY 2001. ISBN 0791450929.
  • Jonathan Ned Katz: Love Stories: Sex between Men before Homosexuality. Chicago; London 2001. ISBN 0226426157.
  • Mary McIntosh: The Homosexual Role [1968]. In: Steven Seidman (Hrsg.): Queer Theory/Sociology. Cambridge, measure. ; Oxford 1996. ISBN 1557867402.
  • Michael skirt: ForbiddenFriendships: Homosexuality and of marks Culture in Renaissance Florence. New York; Oxford 1996. ISBN 0195122925.

Topic history and Homosexualität

  • Lutz van Dijk: Homosexual one: Between death penalty and emancipation. Munich 2001. ISBN 357014612X.
  • Stifling museum (Hrsg.); Academy of the arts, Berlin (Hrsg.):Goodbye ton Berlin? : 100 years gay movement; an exhibition of the gay of museum and the academy of the arts, 17. May to 17. August 1997. Berlin 1997. ISBN 3861490625.
  • Bernd Ulrich Hergemöller, introduction to the historiography of the Homosexualitäten, Tübingen: edition these cord 1999, ISBN 3-89295-678-2
  • Burkhard Jellonnek: Homosexual one under the swastika. The pursuit of homosexual ones in the third realm, publishing house F. Schöningh, Paderborn, 1990, ISBN 3506774824
  • of Peter, January Henrik: Pursued and forgetting: Homosexual one in Mecklenburg and Vorpommern in thirdRichly, given change of Falk Koop on behalf the regional organization of the lesbians and gay Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania - Gaymeinsam registered association, Ingo cook publishing house, Rostock 2004. ISBN 3-937179-95-X
  • Andreas Pretzel and Gabriele Rossbach: Because of the high punishment which can be expected. Homosexual pursuit in Berlin 1933-1945,given change of the culture ring in Berlin registered association, publishing house pink angle, Berlin, 2000, ISBN 3-86149-095-1
  • Hans George Stümke: Homosexual one in Germany: a political history. Munich 1989. ISBN 3406331300.

Topic Homosexualität and biology

  • Robert Alan Brookey: Reinventing the marks Homosexual.The Rhetoric and power OF the Gay of genes. Bloomington 2002. ISBN 0253215129.
  • Simon LeVay: Queer Science: The Use and Abuse OF Research into Homosexuality. ISBN 0262621193. Cambridge, measure. ; London 1997.
  • Florian Mildenberger: ... in the direction thatHomosexualität spoiled: Psychiatrist, Kriminalpsychologen and forensic pathologist over male Homosexualität 1850 - 1970. Hamburg 2002. ISBN 3935596154.
  • Vernon A. Rosario (Hrsg.): Science and Homosexualities. London 1997. ISBN 0415915023.
  • New type character of the AG science to the Homosexualität

service and assistance

  • inchesBass; Kate Kaufman:We love, whom we want: Self-help for lesbian, gays and bisexuelle young people. Berlin 1999. ISBN 3929823624.
  • Marcel Begere : I love pink Stuttgart 234 sides ISBN 42-7456-045-2
  • Wolfgang Dinkelberg, EH Gundermann, Kerstin Hanenkamp and ClaudiaKoltzenburg (Hrsg.), which break silence. Violations of human rights due to sexual orientation, 3.Auflage 2001, ISBN 3-89656-071-9
  • Jonas Diefenbach: Stifling, well and? Reinbek with Hamburg 1994. ISBN 3499191091.
  • Pia Werner; Barbara Wörmann: Jane loves Julia: the Coming Out book for lesbians. Munich 2000. ISBN 3426774496.
  • Dorit tin: My son loves men. Frankfurt A. M. 1992. ISBN 3596112605. Also in Turkish translation Oğlum erkekleri seviyor, ISBN of 975-7836-10-9
  • films with more lesbian and gay topic are in the book “Out in the cinema. Lesbian gays the film encyclopedia " of Axel shock and Manuela Kay (transverse publishing house 2003)
  • Marcel Rudolph Reiländer: My second I Frankfurt 2001. ISBN 34654856367.


<of references/>

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