Hong Kong

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
Hong Kong Special administrative region OF the People's Republic of OF China

special administrative zone Hong Kong of the People's Republic of China
Flagge von Hongkong Wappen von Hongkong
(detail) (detail)
office languages Chinese (Cantonese and high-Chinese spoken)
and English
Chief Executive Donald Tsang
surface, country 1,103, 72 km ² (conditions 2004)
Surface, fill of it 67.39 km ² = 6.1% (conditions 2004 since 1887)
surface, sea 1,651, 32 km ² (conditions 2004)
surface, totally 2,755, 03 km ² (conditions 2004)
population 6.898.686 (conditions 2005)
population density 6.380/km ²
currency Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
national holiday 1. October establishment day People's RepublicChina
1. July day of the delivery to the VR China
religion predominantly Buddhisten, Konfuzianer and Daoisten
time belt UTC +8
geographical coordinates 22°18' n.Br., 114°10' o. L.; between 22°08' and 22°35' n.Br., between 113°49' and 114°31' o. L.
Internet TLD .hk
Int. Preselection +852
Übersichtskarte zu Hongkong. Dicht besiedelte Gebiete sind braun gefärbt.
Lage von Hongkong innerhalb Chinas
geographical location in Southeast Asia
Klimadiagramm Hongkong
Climatic diagram Hong Kong

Hong Kong (chin. 香港, Xiānggǎng „smelling port “; Cantonese: Heunggong) is the name of a special administrative zone at the south coast of the People's Republic of China. Finance -, business and cultural center is been appropriate for Victoria town center, in the north of the island Hong Kong. Largest city of the area is thoseitself in the south that new Territories finding city Kowloon. At the delta of the Perl river on a peninsula and over 200 islands territory lain was until 1997 a British crowning colony and became stipulated at the 1. July 1997 returned at China.

In the context of Deng Xiaoping developed doctrine a country, two systems remain the democratically free market system of Hong Kong at least 50 years apart from the communist system of the People's Republic of China existing, so that of Hong Kong remains secured role as one of the financial centers of Asia. This autonomy permits it to Hong Kong, its own laws, Tariffs as well as its own currency to have, yet the government interferes in Peking frequently into the home policy. Thus the Chief Executive is selected by of the VRC determined choice committee.

The name Hong Kong leads itself from the Cantonese discussion Heunggong (about Höeng gongto speak) off. The official designation reads special administrative zone Hong Kong of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 (traditionally) , 中华人民共和国香港特别行政区 (simplified) Tondokument ? / License; English : Hong Kong Special administrative region OF the People's Republic of OF China).

Table of contents

work on

] geography Hong Kong because of the coast of the southChinese sea at the delta of the Perl river in the sea and extends over one very irregularly formed peninsula as well as 235 islands, from thosemost important Hong Kong Iceland, Lantau, Cheung Chau, Lamma, Peng Chau and Tsing Yi is. The territory is divided into Hong Kong Iceland , Kowloon , new Territories and pre-aged islands (outlying Iceland).

From 1,102 km ² surface are only about25% urbanize. This is particularly because of the very hilly relief with many steep slopes; only in the north to that new Territories are larger levels. The highest collection is the Tai Mo beautiful with 958 m, the Victoria peak is with 552 mnot the highest, but most well-known mountain of Hong Kong.

The climate of Hong Kong is tropical damp with an annual average temperature of 22,5 °C, a precipitation sum of 2,409 mm and 10 humid months. The winter from January to March is cool and rainy, the summer from April to Septembers, during the autumn (Octobers until Decembers) is hot and rainy warm and drying is. In the summer regularly Taifun exists - danger; a Taifun to 18. September 1906 with simultaneous Flutwelle cost the life to about 10,000 humans.

population

Hong Kong is regarding the total population thosethird biggest Metropolregion of the People's Republic of China. The territory of Hong Kong belongs to the most closely settled areas of the world, whereby the population density of the entire territory is with approximately 6,700 persons per km ².

The population verzwölffacht itself in the last 60 years (of 600.000 1945on 7 million 2005) and in 160 years vertausendfacht (of 7.500 in the year 1841), which is to due particularly to the immigration from China. The Chinese in child politics do not apply however in Hong Kong and the population growth lie today with approximately 1.26% (2002); the average life expectancy belongs with nearly 80 years to the highest world.

From 1.000 inhabitants estimations (2002) are according to 7,76 immigrants. 95% of the population are ethnical Chinese. Important groups at foreigners are Philippinas, Indonesierinnen, Thais or Indian, asHausangestellte in Hong Kong are active. Live about 30,000 US-American, in each case 20,000 Canadian, Australian, British and 10,000 Japanese citizens in the territory, besides also 3,000 Germans, 1,200 Swiss and 300 Austrians.

Despite the high population density Hong Kong is one the greenest Metropolregionen Asia, which again onis appropriate for the hilly topography of the area. A majority of the surface is so hilly and steep the fact that it is not cultivatable and is therefore with bushes and trees covers. The largest portion of the inhabitants lives in usually very small dwellings in Wolkenkratzern; Single family houses are prohibitiv expensive.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1891 it concerns around estimations, afterwards usually census results (¹).

Year Inhabitant
1841 7,500
1851 33,100
1861 119,300
1871 124,200
1881 160,400
1891 221,400
1901 ¹ 283,205
1911 ¹ 456,739
1921 ¹ 625.166
1931 ¹ 849.751
Year Inhabitant
1941 1.640.000
1945 600,000
1951 2.265.000
7. March 1961 ¹ 3.133.131
9. March 1971 ¹ 3.936.630
9. March 1981 ¹ 4.986.560
15. March 1991 ¹ 5.522.281
15. March 1996 ¹ 6.217.556
14. March 2001 ¹ 6.708.389
1. January 2005 6.983.938
1. January 2006 7.013.832

1 census result

living situation

Wohnblöcke aus den 1970er Jahren in Kowloon
of blocks of flats from the 1970er years in Kowloon

the population of Hong Kong must already give itself for decades with very small dwelling contently, since the houses stood very close together.

As in the year 1949 the ChineseCivil war with proclaiming the People's Republic of China ended, began a large migration wave from China into the British crowning colony at that time Hong Kong. The Migranten mostly without means settled in large areas with huts out of wood and sheet metal, which developed generally speaking for territory scattered. The safety andHygiene conditions were catastrophic, and it came again and again to fires. After a fire, which broke raged several days off to Christmas 1953 in Shek Kip Mei (northern Kowloon), and made about 55,000 humans shelterless, decided the colonial administration to resettle the hut inhabitants into mehrstöckige concrete houses over bothto improve the fire protection and the hygenic conditions. This was practically the beginning publication IC housing - of the program in Hong Kong. The first Mark i - houses were already at the end of of 1954 posed. They offered a dwelling of approximately 20 square meters, the sanitary appliances to each family had with other familiesare divided and cook opportunities were outside of the dwellings. Until end of the 1960er years became numerous such houses established, whereby the improved versions offered Marks of II and Marks of III only little more comfort. Practically all life on the roads took place, whereby these forthe numerous Verkaufsbuden was used.

At the end of the 1960er years shaken heavy, partly communist the territory inspired unrests. The protesting recruited itself particularly from the youth the over-populated publication IC housing - quarters. In the consequence the colonial administration called a program in the life, which dwelling for approximately1,8 million humans to create should. First many of the houses Marks of I-III were reorganized and the dwelling by the fact was increased that two dwellings were folded up to one. This proved however as expensive and inefficient. One began thus into the early 1970er years, mark IV - multistoried buildings to establish,in the ground floors the place for business and shopping centres offered. Here each dwelling had its own sanitary appliances and its own kitchen. According to this pattern to today blocks of flats is established, whereby the standards in punkto floor space, infrastructure and equipment of the dwellings to have constantly increased. Thatpublication IC housing - Program is until today the most important producer of dwelling; in some areas of Hong Kong the portion of the dwellings, which were created by publicly the housing Authority , lies well over 70%.

Despite high building activity for the dwelling creation it succeeded only in the early 1980er years to dissolve the last hut quarters. The Mark I III - Houses were replaced meanwhile nearly completely torn off and by multistoried buildings; the few remaining copies are inhabited again by immigrants nearly without means from the People's Republic.

After in the last decades the level of income of large parts of the populationstrongly, turns into those rose publicly housing Authority increasingly to make the tenants of the dwellings owners. One hopes to give by property at its dwelling that ever older becoming Hongkongern to more security.

history

Live Prähistori

time after archaeological research, which began into the 1920er years, for approximately 5,000 years humans in this region. Excavations brought neolithische artifacts to day, which on the influence north Chinese Steinzeit - cultures refer to, for example the culture of the Longshan. So one hason Lantau and Lamma Iceland tools and weapons from bronze found. Stone engravings, which were found at eight different places in completely Hong Kong, are dated on the Bronzezeit (Shang dynasty). Other artifacts, from that the 6. to 3. Century v. Chr. (Time of the arguingRealms) to come would be allowed to do, prove that the inhabitants of the region were culturally to the inhabitants of the neighbouring Guangdong related.

Chinese empire

during 2. Century (Han dynasty) the area today's Hong Kong von Han became - Chinese settles, which by the excavationan antique funeral place with Lei Cheung Uk into Kowloon to day came. While the seaweed dynasty was the region around canton an important commercial centre and the region of Hong Kong and the today's Shenzhen served as port, salt production and bead breed experienced a first bloom. Nevertheless remainedsettling first very thinly. The first strong migration from northern China inserted during the Song dynasty between 970 and 1279 , which again excavations occupy, with which coins and tools from the Song time was found.

After the conquest of China by the Mongols those fledSong ruler into the region of the today's Kowloon. In the year 1276 the Song capitulated, while two Song princes under age with their yard outlasted 1279 up to the year. In the battle of Yamen the Mongols destroyed the last remainders of the Song army, according to which itself a high civil servant of theYard with the two princes into the sea to have fallen is. After the Yuan dynasty had taken over power also over Hong Kong, the immigration from direction the north strengthened again, still remained the region however relatively partitioned and lived from fishing and the bead breed.

in the year 1517

the Portuguese dealer Fernão Pires de Andrade at the southChinese coast landed trade relations with Portugal, in order to negotiate with dealers from canton. From recordings at that time it follows that the fleet of the Portuguese went on an do Mun island ashore andkilled some native ones, whereby this doing Mun might lie in today's Hong Kong. The fact that from originally purely agricultural settling meanwhile considerable villages had developed occupies maps from that time, in which some larger settlements are drawn in in the territory.

After the case of the Ming dynasty and thatDestruction of the exile Ming on Taiwan under Koxinga fell the region today's Hong Kong to the district of the Xin'an (新安縣 pinyin xin1 an1 xian4). Emperor Kangxi let attachment plants and military camps furnish, in order to be able to defend the coast better.

British crowning colony

historical map (around 1888)

After the Portuguese in the neighbouring Macao had already furnished a commercial post, 1699 the English east India company ( British East India company) arrived for the first time to China. The trade in Hong Kong, predominantly with the English buyers (merchants), grew from there on enormously andin the year 1711 a firm trading base in canton was created.

Goods from China were very much in demand in Europe, whereas the British found only few goods, which one could sell to the Chinese. Thus the British began to introduce Opium to China. When the imperial government tried, thatOpiumhandel to prevent, came it to the first Opiumkrieg, that with a defeat of the Chinese ended and to the occupation of Hong Kong by the British to 20. January 1841 led. One year later became the area with the contract of Nanking officially by China to the Besatzerretired, whereby Hong Kong became the crowning colony. To 9. June 1898 became the area north Kowloons up to the Shenzhen river (those new Territories) as well as further 235 islands leased on 99 years to ensure over the supply of the crowning colony with water and food and around the areato secure militarily.

By the trade liberalisations, which had been implemented after the Opiumkriegen, Hong Kong developed to an important foreign trade zone in Eastern Asia, not only for the British, but also for American dealers. The rapid development suffered by the outbreak of the dent plague in south China into the 1890erYears an harsh setback.

Hong Kong became the place of refuge for former Taiping, monarchists (after establishment of the republic 1912) and communists (after Chiang dock sheks pursuit 1927). The total population rose 1851 - 1931 of 33.000 to 879.000 inhabitants, of it 95% Chinese.

The colony remainednevertheless until 1949 in the shade of the larger Shanghai, where 1921 the communist party was created and 1925 large strike movements took place. In addition, the economic ascent of Hong Kong was disturbed after 1919 repeated by strikes and revolutionary nationalistic efforts among the workers and sailors.

See also: List of the governors of Hong Kong

the Second World War and Chinese revolution

Central District, 1955
cent ral District, 1955

immediately after the outbreak of the Second World War in Eastern Asia, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was attacked Hong Kong by the Japanese under Sakai Takashi. The defenders,among them beside the British also Canadians, Indian and Hongkonger, were in the Unterzahl and could the territory not for a very long time hold; to 25. Decembers 1941, after two and a half weeks fight, had to result the British under governor Mark Aitchison Young the Japanese. New governor became thatJapanese Isogai Rensuke.

At the end of the Second World War Hong Kong was a heap of rubble and a poorhouse, afterwards the civil war raged in China to 1949. At the 1. Octobers 1949 proclaimed the victorious communists the People's Republic of China. Hundredthousands fled thereupon from China to Hong Kong, manyforeign companies shifted their agencies from Shanghai to Hong Kong.

difficult relations

at the beginning of the 1950er years came the crowning colony however first into a further economic crisis, because a restaurant embargo against the straight created People's Republic made the bridgehead function first redundant. After the abolition of theHong Kong experienced and became embargoes owing to the liberal economic policy a boom an industrial centre on smallest area. The immigrants placed partly capable and educated entrepreneurs, partly cheap workers, what made the economy of Hong Kong one for the most efficient world.

As a result of the culture revolution broke inthe 1960er years social conflicts by force out, whereby the protest movement fought on the one hand for the rights of the workers, it was on the other hand coined/shaped by communist ideals. The movement was by force suppressed.

After death Mao Zedongs began its successor Deng Xiaoping the economical opening of China in relation to the foreign country.One of the key measures was the establishment of special economic zones. For Hong Kong thereby the Shenzhen an important role following north played itself. For the 1980er years therefore nearly all production enterprises from Hong Kong moved away to China. The Hongkonger economics had to therefore again orient itself and Hong Kongbecame a handels and a service center.

negotiations for reintegration

in the year 1982 began discussions between the prime ministers of Great Britain and China over the future of the territory. The British side under Margaret Thatcher had originally hoped that the policy of the opening in China in additionto lead it could that China accepted the British rule over the area. The opposite was the case, China required not only the return for 99 years of the leased area, but also the return of the territories retired in the contract from Nanking, there it the contract as unfairrejected. This point of view had been confirmed already ten years before by a resolution of the general assembly of the United Nations.

Deng Xiaoping, the most powerful man of the People's Republic of China at this time, had however recognized that an integration of Hong Kong into the People's Republic not so simply possible andabove all not in the interest of China was and developed therefore a doctrine, which admits two systems as a country , is. This doctrine opened the way to Sino British for Joint the Declaration, to 19. December 1984 between China and Great Britain was signed. It planned thatHong Kong at the 1. July 1997 to a special administrative zone of China (Special administrative region (SAR)) would become. After signing of this agreement a first emigration wave of Hongkongern broke out, which faced a seizure of power by China rejecting. A second wave of the emigration gave it after the Tiananmen massacre, thatthe Hongkonger society in a per-Chinese and a per-British camp split. Zielländer of the emigration were above all Australia, Canada, Singapore and the USA.

In July 1992 began with Chris Patten the last British governor Hongkongs its office. It was firstprofessional politicians in this function. It strained the relations with the People's Republic, by introducing liberal-democratic reforms (for example the number of directly selected members in the legislative bodies increased), above all however the political consciousness of the Hongkonger strengthened.

Hong Kong becomes special administrative zone

to 1. July 1997 transferred the People's Republic of China in large ceremonies an act control of Hong Kong of the British. Since then Hong Kong is a special administrative zone. This means that of China will not be used socialist economic system for the next 50 years into Hong Kong and thatit within all political ranges, excluded outside and defense policy, a high measure of autonomy enjoys. However the government in Peking tried repeated to scoop out this autonomy. Most salient example of it was article 23 of the Hongkonger of Basic Law, the anti subversion - Paragraf, against some halfMillion humans demonstrated and the resignation of the unpopular Chief Executive Tung at the same time Chee hwa required.

politics

the special administrative zone Hong Kong have a Chief in such a way specified Executive as a head of the government. This office became up to 12. March 2005 exercised by Tung Chee hwa, since that 1. July 1997, thus the day of the return of Hong Kong at China, officiated. The Chief Executive was selected at that time by a committee, whose 400 members were appointed by the People's Republic of China. Tungs re-election to a second office period took place in July 2002 via a representative choice committee.Chee hwas successor was first Donald Tsang to it to 25. May 2005 withdrew, around itself on the forthcoming elections to 10. To prepare July 2005. However it is considered as surely that it is selected of the 800 members of the choice committee, there the choice committee of thatCentre government in Peking is ordered. Its term of office would be limited nevertheless for the time being to the two years of the office period of Tung, remained. Up to the elections chief of finances Henry seaweed will take over the rudder.

Formal head of state of Hong Kong is a president of the People's Republic of China. At present is it Hu Jintao.

The legislation takes place via the legislation Council OF Hong Kong on basis of the Hongkonger of Basic Law (Hong Kong basic Law). This legislative meeting has 24 members, that are selected directly; the other 30 members become direct from choice committees or by thosePeople's Republic of China appointed. The elections to this body in the years 1998 and 2000 were called free and democratically, on the other hand one there was discontent on the part of several politicians, who deplored that relatively few Hongkonger are citizens enfranchised. In addition, the Hongkonger deplores missingDemocracy. At the 1. July 2003 came along it over 500.000 demonstrators to one of the largest demonstrations in the territory, since Peking wanted to introduce a safety law, that and. A. Pressefreiheit and protection of the dwelling would have introduced abolished as well as the prohibition of free groups of religions. At the same time one demanded thatResignation from Tung Chee hwa. One year later repeated itself the demonstration, since the People's Republic did not want nevertheless to introduce for Septembers the set free elections now.

Private video of the demonstration of the 1. July 2003
information to the switching system
information to the elections to 10. July 2005

administration

the special administrative zone Hong Kong possesses a unit administration and is divided into 18 districts (districts). Cities and municipalities are not intended as own right subjects. The borders of Victoria town center and Kowloon, the largest city in Hong Kong, were specified by law, butalso these two areas do not possess right status. The district organization follows mountain courses, the coast or roads and does not consider not the borders of the cities and municipalities. Victoria town center and Kowloon are called in official documents two cities - or also as twin cities -.

Districts of Hong Kong

Districts:

infrastructure

Ausblick auf Kowloon und Hongkong Island aus der Luft
view on Kowloon and Hong Kong Iceland from air

the airport Chek Lap Kok is one of the most important airports of Asia and from numerous airports of Europe is out directly approached. It is homeland airport of several airlines, under it Cathay Pacific and Dragon air. Chek Lap Kok was opened in the year 1998, in order to replace the earlier airport dock TAC. The establishment cost about 15 billion euro, with which also the costs were covered for the binding of the airport to the city centre (air haven express). Thus is the travel timenot much longer than after dock TAC, although dock TAC was in Kowloon, in the middle in the Victoria Harbour, while check Lap Kok lies far outside of the city on Lantau. Some travelers does it to wrong that by the locking of dock TAC the spectacular approach flight overthe roofs of Hong Kong was void, whereas there is to be Hongkonger, which do not divide this opinion.

By ferry Hong Kong is connected with a large number of coastal towns of south China as well as with cities at the Perl river. The connection most important for visitors is that one after Macau, from severalEnterprise is offered.

By railway Hong Kong is tied up to the Eisenbahnnetz of the People's Republic of China; there are courses to Peking, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Dongguan. The main station lies in Kowloon and is called Hung Hom.

city traffic

Causeway Bay on Hong KongIceland, with the 100 years old streetcars

Hong Kong sees itself as a traffic center for the south of China and has therefore a outstanding traffic infrastructure, from which the special administrative zone expects a strategic competition advantage. For the inhabitants therefore the bus is one of most important means of transport. ThousandsDouble and many single stick penalty drive on innumerable lines, which tie up also the last angle of the territory. The connections are usually efficiently and favorably, for visitors however are the high number and unclear sign-posting of Buslinien rather deterring. Beside the double-deckers short lines of mini bus become sen(actually collecting taxes) taken off, a whose travel goal is on Chinese written down frequently only. These do not have except their final stops fixed stations separate to hold everywhere Handzeichen or desire of the passengers. Fünfsitzige taxes gives it likewise in a large number and the prices is compared to GermansStandard very favorably.

At the 1. October 1979 open Hongkonger underground is called MTR (measure transit Railway), it wrongly on a 43.2 kilometers long net with five lines and connects the seal-settled areas. From all means of transport the underground with distance carries mostPassengers. It is because of their good air conditioning, cleanliness, favorable prices of transportation and particularly because of their high speed much likes; regardless of the daily collapsing traffic it operates depending upon time of day all 2 to 4 minutes. Iceland LINE crosses the island Hong Kong von West after east,the Tsuen Wan LINE leads from the island Hong Kong to the residential areas in the hinterland of Kowloon and the Kwun Tong LINE connects the southernmost part of Kowloon Yau mA Tei with the east of Kowloon and ends following the Tseung Kwan O LINE.Beside the MTR is there the air haven express, which runs parallel to the Tung Chung LINE and with airport Chek Lap Kok, which was taken after the deactivation old dock of the TAC because of its unfavorable situation in enterprise, connects Hong Kong and Kowloon to the new.Further means of transport are the KCR, which than KCR East of Tsim Sha Tsui at the Südzipfel of Kowloon toward the north leads and whose last station the border represents to Shenzhen, a branch course bind since at the end of of December 2004 mA on beautiful and important areasfrom Shatin . A further KCR line connects Mei Foo and doing Mun than west Rail.

Hong Kong Tramway in the northern part of Hong Kong Iceland is a streetcar, since 30. July 1904 over the same tracks rumpelt and somehow not at all inthe High carouse picture of Hong Kong to fit wants. The Tram on the island Hong Kong, driving on a 23.8 kilometers long net, where they are not only popular to actual the tickets with tourists very cheaply - grants interesting views during the travel on driving in the roads.However the peak Tram, an endless rope haulage system on the Victoria peak serves purely routistic purposes.

A by far faster and more modern streetcar equipped with air conditioning system operates since 17. September 1988 between the cities doing Mun and Yuen Long in the west that new Territories. Ofthe Kowloon canton Railway claimant KCR Light Rail drives on 31.7 kilometers is enough for net, is however on sections relatively slow.

Blick über den Victoria Harbour auf Central
The pre-aged islands serve view over

the Victoria Harbour of cent ral ferries, besides there are age-old ships of the star Ferry - society, the one transportation of passengers between Kowloonand the island maintain Hong Kong. Since the port, which lies between Kowloon and Hong Kong, is traversed meanwhile by several tunnels, to have the ferries their in former times enormous meaning lost, them are particularly interesting for those, which would like to save (the driving tickets are very cheaply approx. 0,20Euro for each travel) and also for tourists, who want to make photos from the Skyline of Hong Kong.

economics

Hong Kong is considered as one the most liberal market managing of the world. So each Hongkonger is responsible for its illness and age precaution; a rearrangement of the incomes, like thisin many welfare states one practices, is unknown in Hong Kong. Nevertheless the characterisation of the economy of Hong Kong is considered as absolutely free free-market economy only at first sight: Both during the British rule and after the delivery the government affects the economy for example by the land assignmentor also by the confession to the firm rate of exchange regime with Currency board between the Hong Kong dollar and the US Dollar.

Blick vom Victoria Peak über Central
View of the Victoria peak over cent ral

the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head of the population amounted to 2004 about 23,880 US Dollar, which is comparable with Western European Ökonomien in for instance. The economic developmentdepends strongly on the export and thus on the world economic situation. Until 2002 the economy of the territory was therefore in a recession, partly because of the aftereffects of the Asia crisis, taking several years, partly because of SARS. During this recession both the incomes of the inhabitants sank as well asthe consumer prices.

In order to achieve a stronger economic growth, the government of Hong Kong sets China on a stronger economic co-operation with the People's Republic. Thus in the middle of was signed 2003 the Closer Economic Partnership arrangement, entrepreneurs from Hong Kong preferential admission to the Chinese markets, the gradualfor foreign companies to be opened, grants.

After the recession, which met southeast and Eastern Asia completely after the asiatic financial crisis, the Hongkonger economics grew again, up to beginning of the yearly 2003 SARS broke itself off, which fell the economy again into a crisis, from that the cityhowever in the meantime again recovered. In the year 2003 the economic growth amounted to again about 2.8%. In the year 2004 unemployment sank again.

Hong Kong is one of the most important Finanzplätze of Asia, the index of the stock exchange is the slope Seng index.

industry

tointo the 1980er the industrial production an important role in the economic growth of the crowning colony at that time played years. Dominating sector was the light industry, one exported household appliances, toy, electronics articles and textiles. In the last years the majority of the industrial companies moved away however to China and the Hongkonger economics hasitself changed over to a service economics. The portion of the industry of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT amounts to today only more scarcely 15%, that High carouse enterprises have the largest portion. The industrial production sinks annually around approximately 9%. Goods in the year 1998 about 5 million Chinese of the Perlfluss Deltas of paged out HongkongerEnterprises busily, this number increased up to the year 2004 to nearly 10 million worker. Motorways, large, navigable rivers and 5 large airports let the towns with millions of inhabitants in the delta grow together to a megacity, which counts more than 40 million humans. The monthly income is attached herethe migratory workers between 40 to 100 euro, with the native population between 200 and 600 euro. Higher positions are remunerated with more than 1,000 euro. In Hong Kong the minimum hourly wages are with approximately 1.20 euro per hour in restaurants, monthly for instance about 450 euro. Hausangestellte havea minimum wage of approximately 320 euro per month. Higher employees in Hong Kong earn however with 4.000 to 12,000 euro in the month importantly more. Unemployment in the year 2004 is small with approximately 6 to 7%. After the Grundstückscrash and the SARS crisis 2003 has 1997the economy in Hong Kong recovers again good.

service sector

Blick auf das Gebäude der Bank of China
view of the building of the bank OF China
Boote in traditioneller Aufmachung im Aberdeen Harbour
boats in traditional opening in the Aberdeen Harbour

Hong Kong possesses little natural resources and depends strongly on the international trade. The port of Hong Kong, that originally thatlarge interest of the British had aroused, was long time the most important place of transshipment for manufactured products from Hong Kong and the People's Republic China. For this status the Hongkonger port must fight to Shenzhen, Guangzhou in the last years however, because the ports of the mainland, above all or also Xiamen make increase competition and the envelope of the Hongkonger of port sink.

Hong Kong is one of the most important financial centers of Asia, it had one of the most advanced information and telecommunications infrastructures of the world and also the Reputation acquired themselves, a solid, to have well supervised bank system.For this above all the Asia crisis contributed 1997, while that the currencies of the neighboring countries had to be strongly devalued, which could be gotten over however of Hong Kong relatively intact, which is attributed particularly to the quality of the bank system.

The tourism is an important source of income with increasingMeaning. One strives particularly for visitors from the People's Republic of, their number since the implementation individually of the Visit Scheme (in the middle of 2003), which tourists the People's Republic permits to travel individually to Hong Kong strongly rises.

Also the newly built airport Chek Lap Kok is as important junctionthe air traffic to an important restaurant factor ascended.

agriculture

Hong Kong has nearly no agriculturally used country, equally it is missing at fresh water. Only into that new Territories is operated to limited extent agriculture; the portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT does not however even constitute 0.1%.A heavy impact the agriculture of Hong Kong suffered besides by the outbreak of the bird flu into the 1990er years. The largest portion of the food is imported from the People's Republic of China; Hong Kong produces only something vegetables, poultry and Schweinefleisch.

A somewhat higher meaning is attached to the fishery,however also their portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is infinitesimal small.

culture

Hong Kong and the Hongkonger have far away the image of the culture desert, in which one worries only about the money making. In order to advance toward this opinion, there is a rising number of museums in Hong Kongand cultural events, which are subsidized by the government. Also on cultural education of the youth more importance is attached.

Ironically in the High carouse city Hong Kong kept more traditional Chinese culture than in many areas of the People's Republic of China. This is above all because of the fact that itfrom confusions of the culture revolution remained exempted and as place of refuge for culture-creative served at the same time, which were threatened in China.

language

the two office languages of Hong Kong are English and Cantonese, which are belonged to the Chinese languages and written with Chinese characters.In Hong Kong however as in Taiwan, in contrast to China and Singapore, traditional characters are used. The Cantonese of Hong Kong differs from the Cantonese one, which is spoken in Guangdong, because it possesses a high number of Anglizismen. English far away, considers one is understood however,that Hong Kong was until recently a British crowning colony, then it surprises frequently, how little English is particularly common under the older population.Finds high Chinese more and more spreading by the immigration from China and by the intensified integration with the mainland. Apart from EnglishJapanese is a popular and language learned of many; other European languages enjoy a very small popularity.

one practices to religion world largest Buddhastatue ,

Lantau Iceland in Hong Kong nearly each religion. Under the Chinese population the Buddhismus and the konfuzianistische world view are tomost common, more than 10% the inhabitant (mostly ethnical Chinese) are Christians. Accordingly there is also a large number of religious places of all different world views, from which however only few are really worth seeing.

The most important buddhistische temple of Hong Kong is the temple the ten thousands Buddhas in Shatin, to which one must mount a hill from the railway station, which in the damp-hot climate can be somewhat more arduous. The walls of this temple are decorated with approximately 12,800 Buddhas, which were donated by Gläubigen and on those twelve craftsmen ten years to have long worked.Interesting also small temples, which in cent ral or Kowloon lie between the Wolkenkratzer in-squeezed, are as for instance the one Mo temple, which is dedicated to the taoistischen Gods of the literature and the martialen art and lies in one of the most traditional quarters of the island. The Tin strike temple lies inNorthwest Kowloons and is geweiht the sailors, whereas the enormous Won Tai Sin temple is appropriate for something north of Mongkok and is because of its miracle sound forces the usually-visited temple of Hong Kong. On the island Lantau lies the pole in monastery with the world largest Buddhastatue.

The most important mosque of Hong Kong lies in Kowloon,directly at the south end of the Kowloon park, whereas with sp John' s Cathedral the largest anglikanische church cent ral District lies, it and is today in the midst of of trees in the shade of the bank OF China was built for 1849.

Contrary to mainland China the Christian must Religious communities not in patriotic combinations organized its (see also: Chinese catholic patriotic combination).

architecture

Hong Kong consisted with the establishment of the crowning colony only of a few fishing villages without considerable architectural achievements. The area did not have any meaning within the Chinese Imperiums. Thosea dominant Britisher established then also a city in colonially coined/shaped architecture, the Chinese influences was limited to the residential areas of the Chinese inhabitants.

The rapid population growth since beginning 20. Century to the fact it led that for the new immigrants in great haste dwelling had to be created. Sincethe 1950er years this was organized by the colonial administration. Result of these hasty construction measures were unattractive buildings with bad equipment, from which to today only few exist. On the other side the restaurant boom and the strongly rising plot prices led those to the outline of many buildings of colonial,then by multistoried buildings were replaced. Thus by the opulenten architecture of the turn of the century remained not much remaining. Compared to Xiamen, Qingdao or above all Shanghai nearly nothing is received from Hong Kong of European Vorkriegsbausubstanz. The outline were not abandoned for instance the anglikanische pc. - John's cathedral, the 1912 builds former supreme Court (today seat legislation of the Council) or the former French residence.

In the modern architecture of the city traditional Chinese influences are not outwardly obvious. It belongs however absolutely to the good clay/tone, with which conception of buildings is, and it the ultramodernsteOffice building to consider the rules of the Feng Shui. An example of it is Hong Kong and Shanghai bank.

museums

Hong Kong is not necessarily a place, which one visits its museums because of, however gives it a handful of mechanisms very worth seeing. The entranceto many museums is very favorably or even completely free.

In the Kowlooner quarter Tsim Sha Tsui, directly beside the terminal the star Ferry, is Hong Kong Cultural Centre with concert hall, galleries and the art museum Hong Kong museum OF kind, thatits emphasis on Chinese works puts. Near by spectacular Hong Kong space museum with a virtual Planetarium lies. Few blocks north lie Hong Kong museum OF History and Hong Kong a Science museum, which is very modern presented both.

The LeiCheng Uk Branch museum in Mongkok was built, after in the year 1955 with construction work a burial place was discovered from the time of the Han dynasty. This is the most important excavation in Hong Kong and proof for the fact that the peninsula is settled for at least 2,000 years already. Beside thatExcavation are also the pictures from the 1950er years interesting, which make an interesting comparison possible between the Mongkok of the 1950er years and the multistoried building landscape today. The SAM Tung Uk museum in Tsuen Wan is a reproduction of a Hakka - settlement, those of a round wallis surrounded, as those settlements, which it gave Territories new into the 1970er years into that, and from which only a genuine is received.

On Hong Kong Iceland in Hong Kong park is the museum OF Tea commodity, in Flagstaff House, which oldest still received colonial buildings, is accommodated and issues about 3,000 articles, which document the history of the tea in China.

For culture-interested visitors the probably most interesting is the Heritage museum in the district Shatin, which presented over modern continuous and itinerant exhibitions orderedand with alive represented topics over the history of Hong Kong and its culture shines again and again. The museum is not contained relative again and therefore in some travel guides.

Pure art collections are kind the museum the Chinese University, the Tsui museum OF kind and that University museum.

celebrations and meetings

Eindringling in die chinesische Festkultur: Schneemann im Hong Kong Park
intruder into the Chinese fixed culture: Have Schneemann in Hong Kong

park for the inhabitants of Hong Kong both western, above all however Chinese celebrations a high meaning. The traditional Chinese celebrations become in Hong Kong, not least due to largerProsperity, at higher expenditure celebrated than in other regions of China and is worthwhile oneself, to be than visitors in Hong Kong, while one of these celebrations takes place. It pay attention that the data of the Chinese celebrations are computed after the Chinese moon calendar and therefore in the Gregorian calendar move.

To the most important celebrations belongs the Chinese New Year celebration, which falls in January or February. There are two weeks after the lantern celebration (also Chinese valence in day called). Further are the Qingming - celebration, the kite boat celebration, the moon celebration and the young remote celebration of importance. Only upder InselCheung Chau wird jährlich das Knödelfest gefeiert, bei dem in großem Volksfestrahmen tausende von chinesischen gefüllten Knödeln gedämpft und als Pyramide aufgehäuft werden.

Die Hongkonger Regierung versucht, mit diversen Veranstaltungen das Kulturinteresse bei seinen Einwohnern zu wecken und Touristen in die Stadt zulure. In addition Hong Kong kind festival ( annual February until March) belongs, to which each year hochkarätige artists and orchestras are invited and who are to offer a stage to also local artists. Hong Kong Food festival (annual February until March) aims particularly at asiatic tourists,for those irrefutably to each journey belongs to costs of local specialities. The Asian kind festival strikes to a large extent into the same notch as Hong Kong kind festival, takes place however only each second year in October. Further annually that becomes from March to April Filmfestival organizes.

As well as regular cultural events also outside of the festivals find in the Academy for Performing kind and kind to Centre, in the town center resound the Cultural center instead of. These are above all concerts, theatre demonstrations or also Cantonese operas.

night life

Hong Kong offers oneone finds sumptuous selection of taverns, Discos, clubs and restaurant, this in the boroughs Lan Kwai Fong, Wan Chai and Soho Toho. Besides there is each day at 20 o'clock a Lichtshow which one from the Avenue OF of star to very beautifully regard can.


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Spare time and recovery

Illusion von üppiger Natur: Die Vogelvoliere in den Zoological & Botanical Gardens
illusion of sumptuous nature: The Vogelvoliere in the Zoological & Botanical Gardens

Hong Kong possesses a set of parks, which are very maintained and clean between its Wolkenkratzern. The largest and most important are Hong Kong park and the Zoologisch Botani garden in Cent ral, directly beside of Hong Kong financial center. In Hong Kong park lies with the Flagstaff House the oldest colonial building of the territory. Likewise on Hong Kong Iceland, however in Causeway Bay lies the Victoria park. In the south Kowloons is appropriate the Kowloon park, in the north for that“Kowloon whale LED town center park” in the old style with remainders of the old city gates. Large temples like the Wong Tai Sin temple, the Chi Lin Nonnenkloster, the 10.000-Buddha-Kloster and dozens of other temples in the hinterland offer beautifully maintained plants with many statues. It is common to all parks that it on the early morning of nativeSchattenboxern to be frequented and men their Vogelkäfige walk to carry.

The largest entertainment park is the Ocean park in the west of Hong Kong Iceland, with one enormous, accessible, vierstöckigen atoll reef and 5,000 fish, one Delfinshow, two pandas, penguins, sea-seals, many roller coasters, bird houses and other attractionslures and millions of tourists, particularly from China, enthusiastically. Hong Kong Disneyland on Lantau was opened to in the middle of September 2005.

Uhrenturm am Hafen von Hongkong
To clock tower at the port of Hong Kong

beside the geschäftigen centers one finds in Hong Kong surprisingly contemplative areas, particularly from recovery-looking for native ones lives orPopulated areas for to realms represent. Hong Kong offers over 800 kilometers coastal line with its 235 islands and Inselchen. Moving ways and Fitness ways with thousands of grill places tighten annually over 15 million visitor. Bicycle-drive, Mountainbiking, Rollerskating into parks, kite pastes or Paragliding are mostly forbidden, there a great manyHumans on the way are. The Wilson Trail at 50 km, the MacLehose Trail at 100 km, the Lantau Trail at 70 km and the Hong Kong Trail at 50 km are the most popular distances. Flora and fauna are unbelievably rich with 400 tree species, 250 kinds of butterfly, more than 30 Korallenarten andover 100 fresh water fish types. Idylli areas are Aberdeen, Stanley, Cheung Chau, Repulse Bay or Sai Kung. The islands Lamma and Lantau are retreat areas for many foreigners, who work in Hong Kong. Most calmly Lantau with the principal place is Mui where. The island is explained as the half as the protected area. The other half is opened however, in the north lies the airport and the newly built borough Tung Chung, in the west in a hidden bay Disneyland is already built. One now already sees the lock in the center. The underground stop becomesin June 2005 and serves then also the Resort Discovery Bay opens.

catering trade

the local kitchen of Hong Kong is very similar to the Cantonese kitchen. It on absolute freshness added the largest value put. Particularly with herbs, extremely sharp is pepperedCourts are less common. A Unikum within the Chinese kitchen is the spreading (sweet) of the dessert; this is a custom unknown in other China. For the breakfast and the lunch Dim Sum is very popular. One finds it in numerous small high-speed restaurants, kitchens and hotelsfrom early in the morning to approximately 16 o'clock. The restaurant landscape is very international, beside specialities from all regions of China gives it numerous Japanese, Korean, Indian and Southeast Asiatic restaurants. Despite the enormous number at restaurants it comes frequently to queues before the Etablissements, straight in are. Indeterminable is also the large influence of western Fastfoodketten on the local Esskultur.

buying

Hong Kong is due to its low taxes a Einkaufsparadies particularly for tourists from Japan, for whom the numerous glitzernden shopping centres are a reason, to Hong Kong toocomes and this is an important restaurant factor for the territory. Long time was considered the city also as ideal place to the favorable acquisition of electronics articles, which related itself however long.

The numerous markets are interesting, on which absolutely fresh food is acted or approves ofClothes to the housewife are brought. Examples of it are the Ladies' Market in Mong Kok or the Temple Street Night Market in Kowloon. For visitors the Jademarkt is interesting. Feil is in each case attached; falsified or robbery-copied products are still frequentto find.

In Hong Kong there is no law regulating the closing time of shops. In the tourism center most shops opened 24 hour. Purchase shops in tourist-further areas mostly close against midnight and open against 11 o'clock again.

films

Hong Kong is also quite well-known as a film metropolis. In the meantime became farmore produces than 4,000 films in Hong Kong.

The first Hong Kong film was Zhuangzi examines its wife (Zhuangzi ski qi) from the year 1913. In confusions of the Chinese civil war many directors fled, above all link or socially engaged, before the Kuomintang under Chiang dock shek afterHong Kong, which contributed substantially to of Hong Kong later meaning than film metropolis. The Shanghai had been before. A large development made the film industry however only after the Second World War. If well-known directors are Wong Kar Wai (2046, in The Mood For Love) or John Woo (A Better Tomorrow), admittedActor Leslie Cheung (Days OF Being game, far-wave tons of My Concubine, Happy Together, A Better Tomorrow), Maggie Cheung (in The Mood For Love, Hero), Tony Leung (2046, in The Mood For Love, Happy Together), Andy Lau (Infernal Affairs), Chow Yun Fat (A Better Tomorrow, Crouching tiger,Hidden Dragon) and Jackie Chan. The Hong Kong films coined/shaped considerably the category of the Martial kind film.

During the 1990er the Asia crisis led years also in the film industry of Hong Kong to a decrease. During this time many involved ones began to make Jackie Chan strengthened in Hollywood of films , so, John Woo or Chow Yun Fat. When 2003 straight two of the largest filming acre died, i.e. Leslie Cheung (at the 1. ) And Anita Mui ( in December, at the consequences of cancer) some pessimists already spoke April, Selbstmord of the fall of the film metropolis Hong Kong. Around the crisis inthe film industry to meet, the government of Hong Kong started the film Guarantee find in April 2003. On the bank promenade in Tsim Sha Tsui shows the Avenue OF of star the names of popular filming acres on a star way. A film museum collects the works and closes also meetingsold American and European films.

Cantopop

Cantopop is the abbreviation for Cantonese pop music, a music form originating from Hong Kong, which is successful over Hong Kong in large parts of Asia out. Cantopop (or Hong Kong Pop) developed from the mixture of traditional Chinese music alsodifferent western music styles (jazz, Rock'n'Roll, Rhythm and Blues, electronic music, Western pop music). The texts are very important. First large star into the 1970ern SAM Hui and novel were the Tam, also often Godfather OF Cantopop mentioned. Like alreadythe name mentioned, is actually Cantonese the language of the Cantopop. In addition, partially English, Mandarin becomes, Japanese etc. sung. The large time of the Cantopop was into the 1980er years, with star such as Alan Tam, Anita Mui, Danny Chan and Leslie Cheung.In the last years however so-called Mandarin Pop becomes ever more important (by the opening of the People's Republic) and one doping OI singers such as Jay Chou become successful beyond China. Are in Hong Kong the Cantopop and the film industry verwoben closely. Many Cantopop singers are (or were) also successful actors(z. B. Leslie Cheung, Anita Mui, Faye Wong, Danny Chan, Andy Lau) and many Cantopopsongs were composed for TV-series or films from Hong Kong.

,

in contrast to the People's Republic China, Pressefreiheit prevails to media in Hong Kong. This is fixed in article 27 of the Basic Law.Besides there is a set of regulations, which set up the fundamental rules for the medium landscape. The medium landscape of Hong Kong it is to be been characterized thereby that it is nearly completely private and must contents therefore align itself to meet the mass taste in order profitable. Thatit leads to the fact that a large part of the Hongkonger is not content population with the ethics of the reporting.

printed media

to newspapers and magazines there are both on English and on Chinese, whereby place the latter majority, also some bilingual printing elements gives it.Altogether about 50 appearing daily publications exist. All publishing houses are not private, a system of the press promotion give it. As respectable the South China Morning post office and The standard ( both English) is considered, to Ming Pao and Economic journal (both Chinese). However Apple DAILY one experience the highest edition and Oriental DAILY one, both Chinese, which are not criticized frequently for their sensation journalism and on the Privatsphäre of persons of the public life as for instance also by accident victims consideration to take.

Foreign newspapers are easy in many places of Hong Kong to get.

radio

Hong Kong has a relatively high number at radio stations, under what a public transmitter is. This transmitter belonged however not the government and is not also controlled by this; one reproached to it already repeatedly to be too government critical. Most stations send on Chinese(Cantonese), some also in English.

television

all Hongkonger Fernsehstationen are private and show a corresponding program, have however to other countries of Asia a certain model effect. The dramas, which are produced for the Hongkonger television, are radiated also in the entire chinesischsprachigen area. Besidethe Hongkonger stations one can receive also numerous foreign transmitters, among them many stations of the People's Republic of China as well as all large foreign stations.

education

it gives a compulsory schooling for all children between 6 and 15 years. There in the Chinese society education one very muchhigh value possesses, most children at the age from 3 years in preparatory schools are already sent. The primary education begins at the age of 6 years and takes 6 years. The Gymnasialbildung is divided in junior form (3 years) and senior form (2 years). About 90%the children go through the school up to the entire Gymnasialbildung, in order to be able to participate in a national examination (HKCEE), after their existence one a Certificate OF Education gets. In order to get university education, one must first still two years Gymnasialbildung complete and afterwards a number Clausus - examinationfor the admission into the University of placing.

For the 1970er years the obligation education is free in Hong Kong, for all other educational facilities results quite high fees; for the obligation education there are likewise numerous private institutions, which promise a higher education quality at higher price.

Instruction language is general Chinese (Cantonese), there are however also many High Schools, on which the Chinese children on English are informed.

Since the economy of Hong Kong competes with the People's Republic of China and other asiatic Ökonomien, the Hongkonger government sees a high education level as only possibility, the high standard of livingto keep upright in Hong Kong. There are therefore plans that with the year 2010 about 60% all occupation A RISEr are to have university education.

Hong Kong has 8 universities and 2 Academy institutes, which offer also Bachelor Degree study. Because of the high demand for university formation it gives however meanwhilea large number of other institutions, which offer university courses, which are however less respectable than the conclusions of traditional universities. The universities are called as follows:

  • Chinese University OF Hong Kong
  • town center University OF Hong Kong
  • Hong Kong Academy for Performing kind
  • Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Hong KongSons and daughters
  • of the city left
  • Ka Shing, billionaire, #10
  • on Forbes
  • “World's People smells
  • institutes OF Education Hong Kong
Polytechnic University Hong Kong

University OF Science and Technology


literature

  • dock of argue-matte: Caution, head draw in! Hongkonger luck knight, Picus, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3854529058
  • franc Ching: The left dynasty: Hong Kong aristocrats, Hong Kong [among other things]: Oxford Univ. Press 1999, 269 S., ISBN 0-19-590904-6
  • Werner Lips: Hong Kong, Macau and Kanton, Travel know-how publishing house, Bielefeld 2002 (ISBN 3831710295)
  • Hans Wilm container: Hong Kong, Macau, Mairs geographical publishing house 2004 (ISBN 3829701349)
  • geo Special, Hong Kong, the Green and. Year 1995
  • that national geo graphics Walker Hong Kong, Mairs geographical publishing house 2003
  • Endacott, G.B.: A History OFHong Kong. The standard work for the history of Hong Kong.
  • Han Suyin: All glory on ground connection (original title: A Many Splendoured Thing), a auto+biographic novel over Hong Kong in the years 1949-1951, appeared 1952, ISBN 3-87585-940-5.
  • Stefan Carpenter: E-Government in Hong Kong - digitization of the administration ina Chinese metropolis, Ibidem, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3898213382

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Coordinates: 22°18' n.Br., 114°10' o. L.

 

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