Honey

honey (v. althochdt.: honac the Goldfarbene) is a food made by honey bees of the Nektar of blooms or plant louse secretions. Bees store the honey to the food precaution in the honeycombs of their Bienenstockes.

Honey

table of contents

humans honey

already

used sources 11 Web on the left of [work on] history as food, as 9,000 years old stone-temporal cave painting with “honey hunters” show it. Wildly living bee colonies the removed honey became also as seal with the bear huntbegun. The origin of the house bee attitude with planned honey production becomes in 7. Millenium v. Chr. in Anatolien assumes. In 3.000 v. Chr. Egypt honey applied as meal of the Gods in the old person. Around 400 v. Chr. Hippokrates taught that honey albums feverlower and the honey water the achievement of the athletes with the antique olympic plays improved.

name

the German word honey descends from an old indogermanischen term, which “goldfarbenen” it the color after as designation. In the old high German he was called honag together with variants. In the Germanic languages there are related names, e.g. English: honey, Swedish: hone, Danish: honning, Netherlands:honing. In other indogermanischen languages are correspondences two of other names. That is on the one hand Sanskrit madhu “honey, Met”, litauisch medus “honey”, tocharisch B with “honey”. Here also the German designation of the honey wine Met belongs.

In the old Greece the word “Meli” was responsible for honey, which the word trunk for this natural product in many languagesformed, and. A. there are Albanian and Irish correspondences. In latin the word trunk formed “melior”, which meant as much as better, honey-like well. (See. Amelioration = land improvement). Meli still is as derivative in the German words melody and Melisse. The Spanish and French derivative for honey from latin read “miel”.

description

Bienenwabe mit teilweise verdeckelten Honigzellen
bee honeycomb with partly capped honey cells
Entfernen der Wachsdeckel vor dem Schleudern mittels Entdeckelungsgabel
removing the wax covers before that centrifuges by means of Entdeckelungsgabel

honey is a high-viscosity to firm(partly crystallized) substance, which tastes very sweet due to their high portion of fruit and grape sugar. Apart from these and further kinds of sugar contains honey 15 to 21% water (heath honey to 23%) as well as enzymes, Vitamine, amino acids, Pollen, flavour materials and mineral materials. By this composition honey generally applies to the human use as healthier than household sugar (Saccharose). In accordance with European Union regulation and German honey regulation the honey nothing may be added and nothing be extracted. Thus is thatHoney 100% naturally.

The consistency of the honey is enough from highly liquidly over cremig to firm.

The color of the honey results to a large extent from the besammelten blooms or the collected honey rope. Frequently there are to white, lightyellow, yellow, beigefarbenen, brown andgreen-black honey. The taste depends strongly on the plants, from which the bees collected the Nektar or honey rope (see to honey places).

Due to its high sugar and small water content is for a long time durable honey, whereby it can crystallize, which thoseComposition of the honey however does not change. For the inclination to the crystallization the relationship from fruit to grape sugar (the two main parts) is responsible. This is for instance 1:1, like e.g. with the RWS honey, then the crystallization takes place within fewer days. With the Honigtauhonigen,e.g. the fir honey is the relationship for instance 1,6:1 and this honey remains over months or even years liquid. Firmly become crystallized honey can be liquefied by warming up again; Temperatures over 40 °C destroy however important contents contents of (enzymes).

From the honeycomb becomesthe honey in a special centrifuge, a so-called “Honigschleuder “, with ambient temperature won. The term „of the cold-hurled " honey, which is not clearly fixed in its meaning, is disputed. This designation becomes particularly of the honey importers as specialQuality criterion for honey uses. Since in central and Northern Europe however practically all honey from the bee honeycombs with these Honigschleudern is harvested at ambient temperature, all Honige harvested there cold-hurled „". For the preservation of the contents materials in the honey those is more important cools storage. Therefore German honey " characterized honey may not be warmed up over 40 °C in accordance with the German honey regulation with „. In contrast to it Importhonige to 70 may be warmed up °C.

The high sugar and the small water content prevent that itselfBacteria and other micro organisms (z. B.Yeasts) to increase can; they are osmotically decomposed .

production

the harvest of the honey for the human use takes place via beekeepers, who preserve the bee colonies. In Europe the honey harvest took place fromThe Middle Ages to in late 19. Century also by the competitive occupation of the Zeidlers. According to the kind of production the honey divided in:

  • Disk or honeycomb honey consists of unbebrüteten pieces of honeycomb, particularly with heath honey.
  • Seim, dripping, pressing or ramming honey were far common up to arising the Honigschleuder. Becomesthe honey from the honeycombs by running out letting or pressing out under heating up won. Therefore this honey is lower-value as centrifuge or honeycomb honey.

A quality criterion for honey hurled the designation “cold”, although beekeeper this term because of its misleadingness among the honey consumersdo not love at all. Thus, that is meant after the harvesting and production process with a max. Temperature of the Bienenstocks no more further heating up took place. Beekeepers in Germany take the “warm” honeycomb (37 degrees) and centrifuges the honey from the bee colony thenout. The honey the bee colony temperature possesses only so long, can be completely removed these from the honeycomb!

 Honigschleuder mit Bienenwaben im Schleuderkorb; ausgeschleuderter Honig läuft durch ein Sieb in den Honigkübel
Honigschleuder with bee honeycombs in the Schleuderkorb; ejected honey runs by a filter into the honey excavator bucket

in contrast to it takes place with industrially “packed” honey - for examplefrom South America - warming up to relatively high temperatures, in order to könnnen the viscous honey EN mass in transport containers and later in final customer bundle racking. Traditionally working beekeeper small firms against it do not heat the honey up.

use

honey applies in Germany as Food. Since more jeher in the people medicine a great importance comes to it:

food

in the Pharaonengräbern of the old Egyptians was already found honey as grave with gift. Before sugar was won industrially from sugar beets, honey was more important,often also the only one, süssstoff. Today honey is used as healthy food. The per-capita consumption amounts to in Germany about 1.3 kg per year.

Honey should not be heated up over 40 °C, if on its enzymes and flavour is put materials value.

cures

beside other bee products honey also used in the naturopathy e.g. Manukahonig. It may not be called however with the marketing in Germany from the law cures.

Honey works easily entzündungshemmend, so that swelling,increased temperature and local pain decrease/go back. It promotes the growth of fibroblasts, whereby the wound heals evenly and it comes to less scar formation. It is used approximately as Wundauflage, since it works due to the high sugar content easily antisepticand in wounds existing dead fabric diminishes. This is probably done via the activation of body-own Metalloproteinasen, besides still further contents materials become in more recent time (e.g. Inhibine) with positive effects investigates, those among other things for Methicillin - resistant staphylococci and Vancomycin - resistant Enterokokken kill.

allergies

bloom polling are, although in small quantities, typical components of the honey. To the consumption of honey it can come therefore with polling allergy core to hypersensitivity reactions.

Isolated it is however reported that by the consumptionby honey from the own region, a desensitization was reached. Perhaps the regular admission of smallest quantities bloom dust over the mucous membranes and the digestive tract leads thereby to a slow habituation of the body to these materials.

Honey places

Honige of different botanischer origin do not only differ in taste, smell and color from each other. Also the spectrum at active substances is typical for each Nektar or honey rope producing plant.

If the honey is provided with a botanischen indication of origin, then that must Honey outweighing, i.e. to more than 50%, which come of to described source. This becomes and. A. over taste, polling content (Melissopalynologie) and electrical conductivity determines. In order to win such typical Honige, it is usually necessarily, the bee colonies tooto transport appropriate locations. see.Move (bees).

bloom honey

bloom honey is called the honey from the Blütennektar of many plants. It has usually a bright color and a mild taste. Practically all German Blütenhonige crystallizes after tosix weeks. An exception forms z. B. Acacia honey, which remains often twelve months liquid. The consistency of the honey can be affected by intensive agitating before the racking in sales bundles. From agitating sugars of crystals will smash and it resultfeincremiger, soft honey.

RWS honey is a cremiger or also firm honey. Color knows to ivory. Characteristic mild flavour.
becomes in Germany von Robinienwäldern (wrong acacia, Robinia pseudoacacia L.)) harvested. Much moderate, lovely taste. Very well toSweet one suitably by dte. Remains extremely for a long time liquid. Light (aqueous) to gold-yellow color.
can be harvested only by locations, at which Raps or fruit trees does not flower at the same time. Very more strongly, more aromatically, quite sweet taste. Typical yellow color.
Characteristic, strong taste. Smells somewhat harzig. Typical lightyellow to orange-yellow color.
strong flavour. The granular consistency for the heath honey is typical.
extreme more sweetly, typically fruchtiger taste. Greenish-white, sometimes also yellowish color.
moderate taste. Color knows to ivory.
very strong, harsh somewhat honey bitter in the aftertaste. Typical location in Germany is the Pfälzer forest, which is existed to large parts with Edelkastanien. The Nektar collected thereby only partially from the blooms, other partly originates itfrom the Blattachseln (extraflorale Nektarien). The honey has a red-brown color and remains some months liquid.

honey rope honey

Entdeckeln einer Wabe mit sehr dunklem Wald- oder sogar rötlichem Tannenhonig
Entdeckeln of a honeycomb with very dark forest or even reddish fir honey

honey rope honey is produced by bees, which thosezuckerhaltigen eliminations (honey rope) of plant lice collect. This honey has usually a clearly darker color than honey from Blütennektar and remains for a long time liquid.

  • Forest honey
honey rope honey of spruces, douglas firs, Kiefern, often in addition, of deciduous trees such as z. B. Oak andMaple. More strongly, easily harsh taste, light to dark-brown.
  • Fir honey
thereby is designated generally the honey by the white fir. There are larger existence in the Black Forest and in the Bavarian forest. The honey harvested of it has a strongly spicy taste andis greenish. Z. B. 2003 gave it to rather reddish fir honey.
White fir honey remains several months, sometimes liquid even for many years.

honey from all world

in France (Provence) produced honey with clear Lavendelaroma, ofis due to the Lavendelfeldern. It is a speciality also there.
in Australia the tasmanische leather wood honey becomes estimated due to its unique taste.

Nährwerte

of Nährwerte by 100g,Percentage figures refer to the Recommended DAILY Allowance (RDA). Natural products are subject to fluctuations.

Post quantity of RDA
kilocalories of 285 kcal -
1194 kJ
protein 0.4 g -
fat 0 g -
coal hydrates 69.8 g -
of it sugar 66.3 g -
ballast materials 0 g -
Fatty acids
satisfied fatty acids 0 g -
simple insatiated fatty acids 0 g -
repeated insatiated fatty acids 0 g -
Cholesterin 0 g -
Vitamine
Vitamin A 0 mg 0%
Vitamin C 2.6 mg 4.3%
Vitamin D 0 mg 0%
Vitamin E 0 mg 0%
Vitamin K 0 mg -
Vitamin B 1 0 mg 0%
Vitamin B 2 ,0.1 mg 6.3%
Vitamin B 6 ,0.2 mg 10%
Vitamin B 12 0 mg 0%
Biotin 0 mg 0%
Folsäure 0 mg 0%
Niacin 0.1 mg 0.55%
Panthotensäure 0.1 mg 1.7%
mineral materials
calcium (approx.) 5 mg 0.63%
chlorine (Cl) 18 mg -
potassium (C) 46 mg -
magnesium (mg) 6 mg 2%
sodium (well) 7 mg -
phosphorus (P) 18 mg 2.3%
sulfur (s) of 1 mg -
trace elements:
Copper (cu) 95 µg -
iron (Fe) 1209 µg 8.6%
Fluor (F) 40 µg -
manganese (Mn) 27 µg -
iodine (J) 0 µg 0%
zinc (Zn) 361 µg 2.4%
amino acids
Alanine 16 mg -
arginin 22 mg -
Aspargin 2 mg -
Asparginsäure 39 mg -
Cystein 7 mg -
Glutamin 3 mg -
glow amine acid 74 mg -
Glycerin 17 mg -
Histidin 7 mg -
Isoleucin 15 mg -
Leucin 23 mg -
Lysin 15 mg -
Methionin 7 mg -
Phenylalanin 19 mg -
Prolin 21 mg -
series 21 mg -
Threonin 15 mg -
Tryptophan 5 mg -
Tyrosin 7 mg -
Valin 22 mg -

particularly dangerous the pathogen Clostridium

can survive danger for babies by honey some bacteria botulinum in the honey , is, which a Toxin sets which free to paralysis features lead can. By fully the Darmflora not developed yet are supposedBabies by bacterial infection more strongly endangered as if arise. Despite intensive medicine is to be usually counted with an infection with babies on this bacterium on a permanent damage. The physician chamber Baden-Wuerttemberg recommends for this reason with babies under 12 months completely upto do without the gift from honey to. However the Säuglingsbotulismus is very rare and does not arise with adults because of the very small quantity of exciters.

definition from honey to European Union standard

definition from honey to European Union standard:

Honey is the natural süssstoff, which is manufactured by honey bees from Blütennektar or isolations of living plant parts or eliminations plant-eye-planting eye that insects on living plant parts, which collect the honey bees, by mixture with specific own substances to change, deposits, thickens, stores and in Honigwabento mature leave.

1. Bloom honey is honey, which originates from the Nektar from blooms.

2. Honey rope honey is honey, which originates mainly from eliminations plant-eye-planting eye that insects (Hemiptera) from living parts of plants or of isolations of living plants.


see also

Wiktionary: Honey - word origin, synonyms and translations


sources

  • Fleming R et al.: Investigations of bee honey on Cl. - Botulinum Sporen. Archives for food hygiene 31 (1980): 179-180
  • Josef Lipp, Enoch Zander, Albert Koch: The honey, ISBN 3800174170

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Honey - quotations
 

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