the Hopi are the westernmost group of the Pueblo Indians and live in the northeast Arizona, the USA, in the midst of the reservation of the Diné (Navajo) at the edge of the Painted the ore in 12,635 km ²large reservation. In former times they were called also Moki or Moqui.
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the Hopi speaking a dialect from the uto aztekischen language family. The linguist Helmut Gipper examined the time term of the Hopi and found that these space designations use, in order to express temporal. The Hopi languagethus quite names for yesterday, today, morning and the times of day have, against a wide-spread simplification of Benjamin Whorf.
it gives today about 18,000 Hopi, those in their typical terrassierten Pueblobauten from stone and Adobein a number of independent places distributed live. Most of their settlements lie on high Mesas, which up-rise up out of the Colorado plateau. The country of the Hopi is a dry high land level, in which except them nobody could live. But succeeds to the Hopiit, this inhospitable soil a great many agricultural products, above all corn of the most diverse sorts to wring out.
The Hopi distributes itself on eleven autonomous villages, which on a surface of 56 kilometers extent, which is appropriate for Black Mesa:
|First Mesa||second Mesa||Third Mesa|
the villages exists partly since centuries, others gives it only since 1910 and forms the homeland of humans, who are closely connected by tradition and blood gang,however linguistically and politically differ.
the excessive quantity
of the Hopi the spirit in a boundless area lived history [work on] named Tokpela before the Erschaffung of the earth. At present the earth creation should the spirit human shape accepts and the creators determined those, which should begin the terrestrial life. But already soon many bad humans developed and ignored the instructions of the creator. Therefore the first world was destroyed by fires and itsurvived only the good ones, which had adhered to the requirements.
The second world developed, but again humans became badly. Again the creator destroyed the world, this time however with ice and snow. There a new, those developed Third world. It was not as beautiful as the past, but content humans lived in it. However also these humans became sometime badly, fought against each other and did not hear no more on the creator. Some good humans wanted in oneother world refuge look for.
They found finally the fourth world, which was our current world, in which Masaw, which lived guardians of the world. Masaw permitted to remain for them, warned it however before the difficulties, which were approaching for them. Itlived at many places, before they achieved their current homeland (*). The new country was so unfruchtbar that only prayers could bring them rains and with it food.
(*) Actually the archaeology discovered that some abandoned Pueblos, like Sikyatki and Awatowi, once inhabited by Hopis are.
the time of the Spaniards
as into the year 1540 Francisco de Coronado from the south marched, already lived the Hopi for centuries on the Mesas and had the meager soil corn,Beans and melons wrested. On its search for gold and heidnischen souls the Hopi was subjected by the Spaniards. They buried the Kivas of the Indians, forbade their heidnischen ceremonies and made them slaves. The suppression of the Hopiand the other Pueblo Indians led finally to the Pueblo rebellion of 1680. Also those actually friedliebenden Hopi took part in the revolt. They killed all monks in their villages and destroyed the mission buildings. The Hopi reacted hostilely to all SpanishAttempts to establish a new mission. Only the village Awatobi was called the Spaniards welcomely and in the future by other Hopi Pueblos was attacked and destroyed. The survivors found refuge in different Hopi villages.
The Hopi maintained good relations with mostother trunks and far distances put back, in order to carry on trade with them. Their Web goods are very in demand in the Rio Grande Pueblos. In times of extreme Dürre they left the Mesas and lived then with the Zuni and Havasupai. Those Diné (Navajo), from which it to sometimes attack became, regarded it as their traditional enemies.
the Americans come
the influence of the Spanish and the Mexican government to the rebellion any longer the remote Hopi villages had not reached. Sothey lived relatively peacefully, until the Americans on their course disturbed their peace to the west. In the center 19. Century were pushed toward the American expansion member of the Diné on the territory of the Hopi. This incident solved a controversybetween both trunks out, which this very day expenditure-fenced becomes - however in the congress and before the courts.
The Hopi villages autonomous units were original. In recent time its majority organized itself into structures more up-to-date. They have itself to that Indian Reorganization act held and the Hopi became officially a trunk. One accepted a condition and introduced a democratic system of government on master level.
the Hopi are well-known as a deeply religious people. The religion is so inseparably with the daily life it links that one cannot regard it isolated. The masteroldest believe that they took over the administration and the protection of the nut/mother earth as inheriting. The secret federations, Wuutsim take over this task mentioned. Itlead religious ceremonies, which secure the terrestrial and religious well-being being issued of all humans and good relations with the environment and the spirit develop.
The most well-known of all Hopi rituals is every two years at the end of of August the accomplished queue dance, in that the participants, thosemost experienced Hopi, with living queues in the mouth dances. The spectators see only a short, however to exciting actual cutout of a longer ceremony, by which most is secretly celebrated in Kivas.
Both sexes begin its ceremonies career soon after the completedsixth Lebensjahr with the introduction to the Kachina cult (Katsina cult). Hopi Kachinas are masked imitations of a large number of Gods, spirit, died ancestors and clouds, who are explained by men. Women participate rarely actively with ceremonies, except as freiwillige of membersin one of more than three female secret federations. But in each village men have the possibility of stepping a large number of secret federations under it also such, which arrange a strict master admission and which an annual winter sun turn (Soyal) celebrate. The Soyal is so importantly that its leader is always entrusted with a high public office, usually that of the village chieftain.
some the most beautiful work in the southwest with the pottery, with the decoration and basket lichens come from the Hopi. Upthe first Mesa particularly good potteries without Töpferscheibe are manufactured. For painting with complicated samples brushes become from Yucca - fibers and natural colors uses. The second Mesa and third Mesa are famous for their Flechterzeugnisse from Yuccafasern and Weidenruten. Upall Mesas carves one Kachina dolls from the roots of the Cottonwood tree, a Pappelart. The silver silberschmiede in special edition technology specialized. Also inserting work with half jewels, like door gravel, makes a number of talented artists Koralle and Perlmutt .
Lebensweisein former times and today
in the trunk in former times the matrilineare transmission was the rule. Oraibis population for example was usually in 30 or 31 matrilineare Klans divided, which were grouped in nine larger social units or Phratrien, of those it many todayno more does not give. Besides the Hopi was in former times strictly matrilokal, that mentioned, the bride remained in the house of its nut/mother. This custom did not become generally accepted however.
The Hopi supplied itself by agriculture and sheep breed. At most corn was cultivated,but they planted also beans, Kürbis, melons and a number of further vegetables and fruits. The men worked on the fields and at the herds, additionally built them houses, organized most ceremonies, manufactured Mokassins and wove articles of clothing and covers.The women were responsible apart from the usual housework for the Korbmacherei and pottery, them got water, took part in the garden work and with the building of houses.
With the end of the isolation an increasing number of Hopi the way of life of their ancestors left.Imprisoned during a process of the fast cultural change they direct their attention no longer inward toward their Pueblos, but outward on the villages, cities and the restaurant, as well as health systems of the white man. Farm work and cattle breeding are stillimportantly, but the Lohnarbeit becomes increasing the main source of income. No more other trunk produces work relating to crafts than the Hopi, which are sold both in the villages and outside of the reservation.
The reservation of the Hopi always is since the 1960er-Jahrenagain strongly threatens, since there are requirements on the Bodenschätze there present by white large-scale enterprises. However the Hopi could oppose so far this pressure also by a very good public work. The attitude of the Hopi opposite tourists is very much reserved, butpolitely. A visitor center at the beginning of the reservation points out politely that driving on is actually no longer necessary, but nevertheless in principle permitted.
The policy of the Hopi in relation to the American government is very consistent and almost compromiseless. The US Government triedto affect therefore over assigned managers the exclusive decisions of the masteroldest.
- William C. Sturtevant (Hrsg.): Handbook OF North American Indians, Smithsonian institution press, Washington D.C.
- Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian of impulse, KC Publications, read Vegas 1995
- John Gattuso (Hrsg.): Indian reservations U.S.A., APA Guides, check valve travel and traffic publishing house, 1992
- franc Waters: The book of the Hopi
- Hanna Johansen: Backafter Oraibi (novel after the authentic life history of a Hopi)
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