Horatio Nelson

Horatio Nelson

Sir Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson OF the Nile, K.B., 1. Duke of Bronte (* 29. September 1758 in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England; † 21. October 1805) was a British admiral, who achieved some remarkable naval victoriesand/or. of it had crucial portion:1797 pc. Vincent (before the coast of Portugal), 1798 Abukir, 1801 Copenhagen, 1805 Trafalgar. Its vigorous procedure brought in the French pointed name for it „fougueux admiral “, impetuous admiral. Because of its schmächtigen Statur, 1.65 m largely and 60 kg heavily,it the Spaniards called „Señorito “, Herrchen.

Table of contents

lives

childhood and youth

Horatio Nelson became to 29. September 1758 in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England born. Its father, Reverend Edmund Nelson, was clergyman of the Anglikani church, like already many of its ancestors. Its nut/mother, Catherine Suckling, was a large niece of RobertWhale poles, 1. Earl OF Orford, the first British prime minister. Nelson was nine years old, when its nut/mother died and him and in the Obhut of his father left his seven brothers and sisters. It visited the Norwich Grammar School in Norwich and the Paston Grammar School inNorth whale shame. Sails learned he in bar clay/tone Broad in the Norfolk Broads and as he twelve was, hired he with the Royal Navy on. Its naval career began at the 1. January 1771, with the entry into the crew list of the Raisonable of Maurice the Suckling,its uncle mütterlicherseits, one kommandiert. It began the service as Midshipman in March. Its uncle transferred later one of the most important functions to the Royal Navy and promoted the initial at the beginning of its nephew very strongly. There the Raisonable already after short time again deactivatedbecame, it segelte on a Frachtsegler of an English shipping company for one year into the Karibik, returned to it however to the Royal Navy. 1773 he took part in one, however unsuccessful, arctic expedition for the study of the northeast passage. Nelson on the frigate spent the next three years Seahorse in waters of India, before it returned 1776 due to heavy attacks of malaria critically ill to England. 1777 he took his second lieutenant examination and segelte on different warships in the Karibik.

first commands

the first employments as a commander of a warship took place 1778 on that Schoner Little Lucy and the Brigg Badger. In June 1779 it was promoted to captain (post office captain). First it kommandierte the frigate Hinchinbroke. Nelsons successor on the two latter ships became its lifelong friend Cuthbert Collingwood.

1780 he got thatInstruction to accompany troop transporters to Nicaragua. The goal was to conquer the Spanish fortress El Castillo at the Río San Juan. Still before the occupation of the fortress to 24. April had to return Nelson from health reasons to England. Possibly it had itself in the tropical jungle also Yellow fever infects. After one year in England he transferred in August 1781 the command over the frigate Albemarle on which it by June 1783 first in the Baltic Sea, later before Québec and New York as well as to the Karibik segelte.

The 1783 closed peace betweenEngland and France used Nelson to a stay in France in that, however unsuccessful, to improve effort its knowledge of the French language.

In this peacetime Nelson received 1784 the command over the frigate Boreas equipped with 28 cannons with which it in waters forwards Antigua crossed. In this time it acted large annoyance with the English Kolonisten on Antigua by the strict observance „navigation of the act “in. The abtrünnigen American provinces were not allowed to carry on according to English law with the British colonies into the Karibik trade. The trade becamehowever of the British authorities, which earned to it well, waits. Nelson seized many American ships, which offended to its opinion after against the law and became thereupon from the shipowners because of illegal seizure of the property sues. The complaint was supported by the dealers of Nevis, sothe fact that Nelson threatens, from arrest eight months on board the Boreas to remain had. Only one declaration of solidarity of the English government protected Nelson against financial harm.

In this time he became acquainted with the young widow Frances (“Fanny”) sneeze-prayed, which he at the 11. March 1787, for the end of itsMission in the Karibik, on the island Nevis married. The marriage should remain childless. After the return to England Nelson took the parting as an active naval officer and lived with its wife on half pay for five years in the parsonage building of Burnham Thorpe.

Horatio lord Nelson, Portraitby John Hoppner

reactivation and first fame

as itself the French revolution over the borders of France spread, had that the formation of a war coalition of the European monarchies to the consequence. The declaration of war of France at Great Britain took place at the 1. February 1793. Nelson applied immediatelyover a new command and transferred the newly built Agamemnon equipped with 64 cannons in February. With this ship it justified its historical fame.

In June Nelson segelte in the Mediterranean around itself the command of lord Hood to subordinate. A goal was the blockade of Toulon, at that time the most important French war harbor in Southern France. In August the port was conquered by English troops. In order additional troop reinforcement too gotten, lord Hood Nelson sent into the Kingdom of Neapel allied with England. Thus it came along in September 1793 for first meeting Lady Hamilton, the woman of the English Ambassador. After the return of the Agamemnon after Toulon Nelson in secret mission segelte after Tunis and had thereby to be first larger combat with a small hostile naval force. Since Toulon had been back-conquered in December, the interest arranged itselfEngland on Korsika. In July 1794 Nelson with its crew and cannons of the Agamemnon intervened ashore in the attack on Calvi. It came to 10. July to the first heavy Verwundung Nelsons. Sand whirled up by a cannon ball and small fragments met itsright eye, which caused a large loss of the sight. Optically the injury was not visible and against some representation never carried for Nelson an eye flap.

To at the beginning of of 1797 Nelson was active in different employments in the Mediterranean, which had won by the war entrance of Spain at strategic meaning.He was appointed in the time the Commodore, kommandierte except the Agamemnon the Captain. On this ship it segelte to 14. February 1797 into first of altogether four meaning sea-battles, which should bring in in its English homeland a unsterblichen fame for it. Owing toits ingenious tactical abilities and conscious ignoring of an instruction of the commander in chief admiral John Jervis the battle of pc. became. Vincent, before which coast of Portugal terminates, victoriously. Jervis, to which as a kommandierenden admiral main earnings/services at success were lent awarded and, praised Nelsonafterwards for its along-thinking procedure. Nelson was appointed the Knight OF the Bath.

transport to the admiral

in the February of the yearly 1797 it the Rear admiral OF became the Blue, which carries ninth-highest rank in the royal navy. During a unsuccessfulExpedition at the end of the yearly, with which a Spanish cargo boat should be gekapert with Santa Cruz de Tenerife, was hurt Nelson by a mash ketene ball at the elbow, whereupon it the right arm up to the shoulder had to be amputiert.

In the battle at the Nile delta (also as Battle with Abukir designates) at the 1. August 1798 he achieved a further glorious victory over the Frenchmen. Further ambitions Napoleons against the united kingdom were for the time being prevented thereby. The troops brought from Napoleon to Egypt were encircled Napoleon and had under large expenditure to Franceare returned. Nelson became for this victory to 6. November of the titles and those was lent baron Nelson OF the Nile and OF Burnham Thorpe. In the case of occupation Neapels by the Frenchmen it saved the neapolitanisch Sicilian king family to Sicilies. At the there yard in Palermofell in love it with Emma Hamilton - the young woman of the British Ambassador in Neapel.

Die Seeschlacht von Abukir in einem zeitgenössischen Gemälde
The sea-battle of Abukir in a contemporary painting

1799 it became Rear admiral OF the talks (seventh-highest rank in the royal navy), its flagship became the Foudroyant. InJuly supported it with its armed forces back conquest Neapels as well as the re-instatement of the king Ferdinand IV., for which this it those became a duke of Bronte lent and the pertinent Ländereien on Sicilies transferred. Its Mätressenschaft to lady Hamilton provided in the domestic England for headlines.1800 were zurückbeordert Nelson with Hamilton to England. Lady Emma bore it in January 1801 a daughter, who was baptized on the name Horatia. It separated a little later from his Mrs. Fanny (it took place however no divorce) and granted themselves it a substantial annualIncome.

At the 1. January 1801 it became Vice admiral OF the Blue (sixth-highest rank of the Royal Navy). To 2. April 1801 he fenced the sea-battle before Copenhagen, in which he switched the fleet off of Denmark, around the “armed neutrality” of Denmark, Sweden and Russia too, the British handels and interests of power break threatened. When the combat situation became ever more muddled, it received enduring commander in chief Sir Hyde Parker the instruction from its at safe distance to the battle place with the remainder of the fleet to stop the fighting which however before the pipes of the batteriesthe loss of many ships as well as a clear defeat would have meant. Nelson did not obey the instruction. Later it should out-talk itself thereby that it led the telescope to its eye, however no signal flags to recognize could (it was however the blind eye). In order to triumph, serveditself Nelson of a ruse: it offered the Dane the honest surrender, which these accepted and also resulted him despite the situation actually proceeded. Its refusal to obey orders was accepted in a well-meaning manner by the admiralty, the restraint and false estimate Parkers in the battle by the appointment Nelsonsto the commander in chief over the fleet in the Baltic Sea abgestraft. Additionally the king raised it to 22. May to the Viscount Nelson OF the Nile and OF Burnham Thorpe. Since it did not have conjugal children, it kept the title baron Nelson OF the additional in AugustNile and OF Hilborough with special claim (see also: Earl Nelson).

Nelson could however its again acquired not for a long time would enjoy. Napoleon intended an invasion of the British islands and the Royal Navy and/or. Nelson came the task to defend the English Channel andto destroy after possibility the French fleet. At the 27.März 1802 however an armistice between Great Britain and France was negotiated and Nelson, which down-lay ailing, returned to England.

last reactivation and death in the battle

death Nelsons in a contemporary representation

The peace from Amiens was not however from long duration and leads out Nelson in such a way in the year 1803 again. It was carried commanders in chief of the Mediterranean fleet and to the Vice admiral OF the White, the fifth-highest rank of the navy, its flagship became the HMS Victory, upwhich it to 18. May 1803 its flag set. With it it participated first in the sea-blockade of Toulon and set only two years later again a foot on the firm country. After the French fleet could break by the numbers of the Englishmen, with courseon the westIndian islands segelte and the pursuit to be broken off had, again withdrew themselves Nelson for health reasons after Merton into England.

Two months later he was called however again to the weapons. To 14. September 1805 it segelte on board the Victory ofPortsmouth off and reached to 28. September the English fleet before the Spanish coast. It faced thereby the French and Spanish fleets, which had united and in the port of Cádiz (Spain) under the command of admiral Pierre de Villeneuve waited. To21. October 1805 succeeded it to it to place in terms of figures superior opposing fleet to the fight. In the developing battle of Trafalgar it used the tactics of breaking through the hostile ship line and struck so the napoleonische fleet destroying. Of the ball of a French snipermet, he still died on the same day, after the overwhelming victory was announced to him over the opposing fleet. The destroying defeat of the napoleonischen fleet led to the fact that France was switched off as sea power and secured the supremacy of Great Britain on the Weltmeeren. The expansion of the imperial Franceto overseas one stopped in such a way.

Its corpse was transferred to London, where it under large sympathy of the public in a state funeral, of 5. - 9. January 1806 persisted, in the pc. Paul's cathedral was buried.

Successor as a commander of the Mediterranean fleet became admiral Lord Collingwood, thatalready with the battle of Trafalgar its deputy had been.

Nelsons effect

Nelson was admits for the fact that he inspired his Untergebenen with ideas and took of them the best out: This formed the British expression “The Nelson Touch”. It already was during lifetimesa celebrity, of its contemporaries reached only John Churchill, the first duke of Marlborough, and Arthur Wellesley, the first duke of Wellington, a similarly large celebrity.

Inschrift des Nelson-Denkmals in Portsmouth
Inscription of the Nelson monument in Portsmouth

Nelson had crucial portion to the fact that the British navy inthe coalition wars almost as desired the Weltmeere to control knew. Its victory in the battle of Trafalgar secured the British superiority to sea and made a French landing on the British islands finally inconceivable. The united Kingdom of, the main opponent Napoleon in the coalition wars, became thereby almostindisputable.

The Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument present at it are nowadays well-known points of London. Nelsons monument in Dublin was blown up by a terrorist attack. The Victory exists this very day. It is the flagship of the second sea-lord and is today in the second dry dock of the naval basis of Portsmouth, England, to admire.

Since it did not have male descendants, William was lent to its brother at its instead of the titles Earl Nelson. To the Nelson titles: See under Earl Nelson and Herzog von Bronte.

After it the Nelsonkotelett is designated.

Literature

  • Jann M. Joke: Horatio Nelson - triumph and Tragik of a sea-hero. Charcoal burner publishing house company, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-7822-0925-7
  • Barry Unsworth: Horatios shade. William Goldmann publishing house, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-442-54510-2 (a novel, but with many historical facts)
  • Friedrich William Pohl: Lord Nelson - a triumph course by Europe.Charcoal burner publishing house company, Hamburg, ISBN 3-7822-0799-8

representative of hundred English books concerning lord Nelson:

  • Carola Oman: Nelson. Naval of institutes press, Annapolis, the USA 1996, ISBN 1-55-750618-3
  • Tom Pocock: Horatio Nelson. Pimlico, London 1994, ISBN 0-7126-6123-9
  • Alfreds Thayer Mahan, Joseph F. Callo: The would run OF Nelson: The EmbodimentOF the Sea power OF Great Britain. Naval of institutes press, Annapolis, the USA 2001, ISBN 1-5575-0484-9
  • Terry Coleman: Nelson: The one and the putting. Bloomsbury, London 2001, ISBN 0-7475-5685-7

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