Refuge Wessel

refuge Ludwig Wessel (* 9. October 1907 in Bielefeld; † 23. February 1930 in Berlin) was a student of the jurisprudence and SA - storm leader, that worked occasionally literarily.

It wrote the text briefly to the refuge Wessel song, that after its death to the officialParteihymne of the NSDAP, then to the second German national anthem became, which was always sung since 1933 after the Germany song.

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Wessels parents remained also after the November revolution 1918 always imperially gesinnt, beingFather was Evangelist clergyman. Wessel was member in the Corps Normannia Berlin and Alemannia Vienna.

1926 occurred Wessel the NSDAP, starting from 1929 were it in addition SA - storm leaders of the SA storm 5 in Berlin. In the same year it had in the National Socialist magazine The attack for the first time its poem „the flag highly, the rows firmly closed! “publishes, which became later underlaid with a formerly communist melody the refuge Wessel song. - One of the major tasks of the SA storms was the operational readiness level in the townscape for propaganda purposes. For this often marches with bands became, above allby so-called „red quarters “, organizes; an innovation, the refuge Wessel here introduced, was the use of so-called “Schalmeien”. So far these had been used only with communist propaganda marches as music instruments.

Refuge Wessel deceased after long suffering in the hospital at a blood poisoning, after it of Albrecht of hollow, the alleged earlier Zuhälter of its friend Erna Jänicke, a former prostitute, to 14. January 1930 in its dwelling angeschossen was. Since it concerned with hollow a communist, of Berlin gau leader and later realm propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels saw an opportunity here,to create one „heroes from the people “. Accordingly then also the funeral Wessels failed, which was splendidly produced by Goebbels and due to the Wessel then from the national socialists to the martyr for the third realm and to „the Christ socialist “was made a sea protest. The citizen of Berlin urban district Friedrichshain becamein refuge Wessel city renamed, he carried the names from 1933 to 1945. The hospital at the edge of the Friedrichshain, in which Wessel had deceased, received the name refuge Wessel hospital.

To 26. Septembers 1930 became the two mainguilty at Wessels death six and five years penintentiary condemned.

To dig-inaugurate to 22. January 1933 on the Nicolai cemetery (Prenzlauer mountain) 16,000 National Socialist trailers (official estimation) and Chargierte of its two Corps Normannia Berlin and Allemania Vienna (today to Linz) came into Vollwichs. The KPD felt provocative and organized by this marching-up to25. January a counter demonstration with 130.000 participants (own data). The SPD held by 29. January likewise a mass demonstration in the citizen of Berlin desire garden off. Here about 100,000 participants were counted.

Apart from the fact that the Goebbels Ministry for public enlightenment and propaganda the murder politisierte in the context of NSDAP propaganda andfrom refuge Wessel a National Socialist hero made, became the fate of the student of the well-known writer Hanns Heinz Ewers in the novel refuge Wessel (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1932) taken up. This was filmed later, whereby for legal reasons the name of the Protagonisten in Hans Westmar (1933) changedbecame.


  • Jay W. Baird: Goebbels, refuge Wessel, and the Myth OF Ressurection and Return, in: Journal OF Contemporary History 17 (1982), S. 633-650.
  • Jay W. Baird: Ton for the Germany. Heroes into the Nazi Pantheon, Bloomington (Ind.) 1990 (ISBN 0-253-20757-6).
  • Sabine Behrenbeck: The cult around the dead heroes. National Socialist myths, rites and symbols 1923 to 1945, Vierow b. Grab forest 1996 (ISBN 3-89498-006-0).
  • Manfred Gailus: Of the field clergyman of the First World War to the political Prediger of the civil war. Continuities in the citizens of Berlin minister familyWessel, in: Magazine for science of history 50 (2002), S. 773-803.
  • Manfred Gailus: The song, which came from the parsonage building. “The flag highly!” 1933 became the refuge Wessel song the second national anthem. Its history betrays much over the erring of the German protest anti-mash, in: The time No. 39v. 18. September. 2003, S. 86.
  • Heinz Knobloch: The poor Epstein: Like death to refuge Wessel came, Berlin 1996 (ISBN 3-746-68021-2).
  • Imre Lazar: The case refuge Wessel, Stuttgart 1980 (ISBN 3-7630-1194-3).
  • Thomas Oertel: Refuge Wessel - investigation of onePutting one, Cologne 1988 (ISBN 3-412-06487-4).
  • Ralf George Reuth (Hg.): Joseph Goebbels of diaries, Bd. 2: 1930-1934, Munich 1999 (ISBN 3-492-04115-9).

see also

Web on the left of

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| | *  Literature of and over refuge Wessel in the catalog of the DDB



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