Stroke

of these articles concerns itself with medieval farmsteads and units. Information to the horse hoof under hoof.

When stroke (also hooves) an agricultural holding or a farmstead with sufficient field became - since the early Middle Ages and pasturelands designates, which a family could work on and nourish itself of that it. The word originates from the Franconia realm 8. Century (latin. huba) and changed itself around 1200 to German stroke (schwäb. hueb, huebm, hooves). In the course of colonizing the country had originally taken place to management „lent “, those with the Rodung from gentleman seats and Meier yards - see the designation forest hoof village.

To table of contents

history

in the course of the time for instance starting from that 15. Century - a mischgrösse from square measure and Ertragfähigkeit of the soil became from the stroke, on which also the taxes depended to the basic rule and possible services. Accordingly the surface varied depending upon country and type of soil from approximately 5 to 30 hectares (10-50 „day-build “or yoke). A description from Kärnten of 1780 reads z. B.: Land stroke is after old deflecting 16 building of days, a Mahd, as well as in some pasture, wood and Ströb to exist. A building of days is in the flat country 4-5000 m ² - that surface, which can be worked on with four horses on one day.

In South Germany and Austria those meant stroke rather - due to the alpine area - a larger farmstead with sufficient agrarian surfaces. By it the farmers of horses could hold a certain independence instead of course oxen, as well as. In Saxonia they were called Pferdner or Hüfner and had - like also elsewhere - usually portion of the village municipality corridor.

In the Bavaria 17. Century and in Württemberg (taxed) one rated the yards „after this mode of the yard foot… equivalent 2 strokes (half yards) or equivalent 4 Lehen “(H. Peetz 1880), whose surface varied however strongly. One equated elsewhere 2 or 4 strokes the value of a dairy-farm (Frankish Meier or property yard).

A special form were forest strokes, the service seat of sovereign Forstbeamten.

In Austrian countries (upper Austria to Württemberg) developed in the last centuries the following designations, until today (also in some surnames - Huber, stroke (e) more ner, hoof (f) ner, Huemer etc.) away-work:

Farm (large farmer) 2 strokes (double Lehen)
complete farmer, Huber (Hueber, Huemer) 1 stroke to pay duty 2 Pound or more
half (ge) farmer ½ stroke, 1-1.5 Pound
of lodging < ½ stroke, instead of cattle of sheep/goats
quarterly farmer ¼ stroke, under 1 Pound, supplementary income
Kleinhäusler (farmhand) under ¼ stroke („Keu “)
Zulehner of properties without building
stroke hunter hunter with forest stroke as service property
stroke master landesfürstl. Civil servants of the chamber property

from the Rhine to East Prussia are stroke sizes of 15 to 160 local morning proven. Since is often unknown, like largely these mornings (approx. ½ building of days and/or. Yoke/Juchart) in individual cases was, is only difficult accurate metric comparison mass to calculate.

Hooves is the north German name for stroke, until approximately 1810 the yield measure common in Austria Hungary, Switzerland and South Germany, and corresponds - regionally differently - to about 15 to 20 hectares.

Contrary to the stroke, whose surface constituted depending upon country about 6 to 25 hectars, varies - used particularly in Prussia and Poland - the hooves because of the flatter area and even soil quality somewhat less. The hooves served thereby also as calculation unit for the collection of the herrschaftlichen deliveries and services.

At the same time the hooves marked also the full farmer place actually. Farmer on such a place was as Hufner fully qualified member of the village community and could in the context of the right valid in the village solely responsible keep house and in the rural autonomy take part. In many areas the hoof condition of the villages in 18 kept. Century and was only waived with the Verkoppelung.

details well-known mass

1 flämische stroke 16.80 hectars (about average value all strokes)
of 1 Prussian hooves 16.5 hectars (approximately 66 Prussian mornings)
1 Frankish stroke 23.9 hectars, more rarely 27.19 hectars
1 Saxonian stroke 19.92 hectars (than hooves also = 12 hectars)
1 hoof (Brandenburg) 17.0215 hectars (30 large mornings, 400 square rods)
of 1 H. 30 mornings

6.0752 hectars (Frankfurt/Main)
60752.40 m ² (Frankfurt/Main)

1 H. (Mecklenburg) 13.007 hectars (10 load = 100 Scheffel sowing)
1 stroke 30 mornings = 5.531 hectars (Fulda)
1 kulmische hooves 17.3387 hectars (Prussia, ~67 preuss. Tomorrow)
1 oletzkosche hooves 15.648 hectars (Prussia/Poland 1720)

(in Prussia starting from 1813 officially only hectare and acre)

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Stroke - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)