Huguenot

Huguenot is since approximately 1560 the common Name for the French Protestanten. Their faith is strongly affected of the teachings Johannes Calvins.

The Huguenots became in France in 16 in particular. and 17. Century strongly pursues. Particularly pursuitsunder Ludwig XIV. (France) starting from 1685 Huguenots released an escape wave of one quarterly million into the surrounding Protestant countries.

After the end of pursuit and the entry into force of the French condition ever more the designation Protestanten became generally accepted 1791. ThoseDesignation Huguenot is thus actually only justified for calvinistische Gläubige for the time of their pursuit in France.

The French Protestanten represent a small minority in the predominantly catholic France today.

Table of contents

Etymologie

to thatOrigin of the word „Huguenots “is probably an allusion on the French word aignos (oath comrades), that the connections to the calvinistischen center Switzerland points out. Possibly also that stood Geneva freedom fighter Besançon Hugues during the naming godfather, but leaves itself exactthe origin of the word do not deduce. It is safe that the name not as self-designation of the Gläubigen, but when mockery term developed.

Apart from the attempt to attribute the origin of the term to the Swiss „oath comrade “a further derivative is plausible: Flämi Protestanten, thosein the secret one, were called „Huis Genooten “(fellow tenant) studied the Bible. The lautliche relationship to the French „Huguenots “is to be recognized easily and leads finally to the term common in German „Huguenots “.

the Huguenot cross

Das Hugenottenkreuz

the origins of the Huguenot cross, also Saint ESPRIT mentioned, are clarified not completely. Safe it is however that crosses of these Kind were manufactured 1688 ago in Nîmes (Southern France).

The cross corresponds in for instance the Geneva disk. The four triangles of the cross arms (also the four gospels correspond)end in in each case two small balls, which refer to the eight blessed praising of the Bible ( mountain lecture / matte house 5, 3-10). In the tradition the balls apply however also as symbols of the tears, which during pursuit were cried.

Thatfree space between the cross arms is filled out by four lilies (Fleur de read), the coat of arms of the bourbonischen high aristocracy. Diese bekunden einerseits die Verbundenheit der Hugenotten mit ihrem Vaterland. Since the four blooms consist however of in each case three sheets, they standsymbolically also for the twelve Apostel.

The cross was extended soon after its emergence by a trailer. Find both a drop-shaped article as well as a pigeon at a golden ring use. The down-flying pigeon is symbol of the holy spirit.

The drop-shaped article is regarded on the one hand as „tisson “(tappets), and so interpreted that the reformation in France like the salt in a mortar zerstossen was, without at taste to have lost (to matte house 5, 13).On the other hand he can be seen also than „fire tongues “, to the symbol for filling the holy spirit ( Apostelgeschichte 2.1-13 /Whitsuntide), what would correspond to the pigeon.

history

of beginnings of the reformation in France

overthe time, as in Germany by the theses of Lutherthe reformation had begun (1517), gives it in France a situation, in that Luther ideas on fruitful soil to fall could:

Franz I., the France since 1515 governed,at this time the catholic church had converted increasingly to an administrative organ of the state and: Since the concordat of Bologna 1516 it had the right to occupy the high offices of the French church after own will. It used thissent to accommodate around the French high aristocracy in the appropriate positions and it itself in this way too obligate. The infrastructure of the church was for Franz likewise of importance:
Their operational readiness level in all cities and villages, the high range, those thoseMinisters in their municipalities to obtain could, and the family registers, which led the Pfarreien, were elements, which it could clamp for administrative tasks, for example the publication of edicts.

In particular in Paris this secularization led to contradiction of humanCircles, in particular around Erasmus of Rotterdam (Didier Érasme) and Jacques Lefèvre of d'Étaples (Jakob Faber). In order one, in these circles the theses of Luther, begins to discuss 1520 those the holy writing for the yardstick of the faith makes and the separation from stateand church call in. The theological theses of Luther are taken up rather positively first also by the king house: Like that was the sister of the king, Margarete of Valois, and the bishop by Bayonne, Jean you Bellay, as well as its brother Guillaume of membersthe group around Lefèvre.

Franz I., anyway very enlightened and unlocked, in addition probably still by its sister affects, does not show up likewise in relation to the theological aspects of the reformation movement beginning averse. Thus it holds its protecting hand for example over Lefèvre,exerted as against this after a paper over Maria Magdalena a process because of heresy was. The reform of a church is not from the inside out, at least which concerns the theological interpretations, anything that Franz I. to be afraid would have.

First of all may thusgain a foothold around 1520 the reformatorische thought also in France. From the human finds it also rapidly its way in the elevated middle class, where the existing extensive trade relations not only goods, but also ideas fast spread help.

pursuit beginning

very fast uses however a catholic reaction: The office-holders of the church begin, around its Pfründe worry themselves to make: 1521 are exkommuniziert Luther by the Pope, those Paris University of Sorbonne condemn his teachings.

Franz I.comes thereby increasingly under pressure, for two reasons:

First is nature relating to domestic affairs: After 1520 it becomes fast clear that the reformation is evenly not only a theological history, which makes itself broad in the studies of the scholars, butthat the theses the existing klerikale (and closely associated also the lay) power structure to attack begin. Franz cannot have interest in the fact that the Reformer saws now at the chair of that aristocrats, who he straight church offices, and sources of income providedhad, and which represent a substantial support of its control of France.

To second is Franz I. said to this time with the having citizens, more exactly with that German emperor Karl V. in a heavy conflict. France is over those The Netherlands, Germany and Spain of the having citizens into the pliers taken, in north Italy France is in the open war with the having citizens. Became Franz of the reformation in France leave free run, then it would have also still Rome against itself,and Karl V., who had imposed 1521 over Luther the realm eight, did not have to be held - then supported by Rome - from an invasion of France any longer. Also this consideration with regard to foreign policy forces itself Franz to it, more and more from the protest anti-mash todissociate.

Thus it comes increasingly to Repressalien against the Protestanten, who expand to a pursuit at least the public protest anti-mash: The first execution of a French Protestanten is for the 8. August 1523 occupies, as the Augustinermönch Jean Valliére in Parisat the stake one burns.

underground church

that protest anti-mash becomes increasing until approximately 1530 into the underground pushed. A part of the Protestanten flees, among other things into the reformed places of Switzerland, where Ulrich Zwingli about is, thosecatholic church completely to entmachten. Pushed in the political out, the Protestanten from the underground arise however increasingly more provocatively: On posters the fair of the catholics is called Götzendienst (1534), Marienstatuen are verunstaltet.

Approximately at 1533 Johannes Calvin closesin of Paris the protest anti-mash on. Up to this time also it would be to be called rather catholic human as reformation. After one Protestant colored speech of Nicolaus copilot, the rector of the University of Paris, those most likely under participation Calvinsdeveloped, must both from Paris flee.

But despite the suppression the movement receives still to inlet: 1546 form in Meaux the first Protestant Municipality in France. 1559 take place in Paris the first Nationalsynode of the reformed Christians of France. Onedischarges a church order and a Glaubensbekenntnis. 15 municipalities sent their envoys, to which next, who two years later takes place, are at one time around the 2,000 municipalities represented. At the beginning of the 1560er years have the reformed underground churches about two millionTrailer, which corresponds to the French total population in approximately ten per cent.

These reformed municipalities are not lutherisch coined/shaped however any longer: Pursuit let develop for close gang of the French reformed ones to the Calvin living in Geneva. Between 1535 and 1560 penetratesincreasingly the Calvinismus the French Protestantentum, and the Calvinismus is provided it, for the these simmering ducks inlet. Now also the name arises „Huguenots “.

the Huguenot wars

1547 Franz I., and its son Heinrich II. dies.mounts the throneFrance. It continues the repression without reduction opposite the Huguenots. Approximately at this time begins have-castle-reach into a multiplicity from small states to zerbröseln: Emperor Karl V.the reformation does not get any longer under control, and the compromise „of the Cuius regio,eius religio “a remaining did for splitting the empire.

Heinrich II. would like similar conditions as in Germany in each case to prevent. Increasingly have themselves now also aristocrat the Huguenots attached, and an agreement according to Augsburger the principle for Francewould have under Franz I. successfully running centralization of France heavily damages. With it finally the political discrimination of the protest anti-mash in France begins.

One new mechanism and three edicts are enough, in order to suppress the Huguenots more and more: There is only oncethe mechanism of the chambre pool of broadcasting corporations duck in Paris, a chamber, which pursues the huguenot parliament delegates. This chamber furnishes Heinrich already in the first year of its regency. In June 1551 this principle in the edict of Châteaubriant becomes then also on the province parliamentsexpanded. The edict of Compiègne follows in July 1557: „the order in any way disturbing “ Protestanten are subordinated to the lay jurisdiction; the condemnation because of shed they still leaves Heinrich in the hands of the church. It sets the point of conclusion then to 2. June 1559 in the edict of Écouen: From now on the courts for shed they may impose only the death penalty. Briefly after the edict Heinrich dies.

Under Heinrichs son Franz II. driving out begun continues. 1562 attacks catholicSoldier with Vassey Protestanten during a service. The Bartholomäusnacht 23. /24. August 1572 in Paris releases renewed numerous streams of refugees. Important Protestant personalities are murdered. The number of the victims amounts to in Paris about 3,000 and in the country between 10.000and 30.000. Finally 1598 bring the edict of Nantes a temporary calming to the situation, which continues however only up to the conquest of La Rochelle (1628). After death cardinal Mazarins takes over „the sun king “ Ludwig XIV. 1661 the governmentand a largely put on introduces connected systematic pursuit of the Protestanten, whom he connects due to the using refugee waves 1669 with an emigration prohibition with Bekehrungs and Missionierungsaktionen and which finally in the notorious Dragonaden 1681 find their high point. Leave despite prohibition500,000 refugees their homeland.

In the edict of Fontainebleau 1685 Ludwig XIV recalls the edict of Nantes. Who now as a Protestant recognizablyis, with detention or Galeerenstrafe one occupies. Thereupon go many into an underground church and partly carry out inthe Cevennen resistance (Camisarden). There it comes in the years 1703 to 1706 to the civil war, on which Ludwig XIV. over 400 villages equal the ground to make leaves. The Psalmensingen and Bible vintages are occupied with high punishments. Many humans stepobligatorily to the catholicism over to also escape in order the feared Dragonaden. But that protest anti-mash cannot be exterminated, because the pursued and punished Protestanten as martyrs is admired.

There the members of the Protestant Oberschicht, under it most clergymen, abroadflee, the church by layman ministers one leads, who feel destined by a göttliche intuition. Therefore prophetische and ekstatische forms of the Religiosität arise. They become effective in the motion of the inspired ones in completely Europe.

In the neighboring countries those foundpossessionless Huguenots become, who ranked among the most efficient layer of the society, with who rulers ready admission, privileges and credits, which released lack of understanding, envy and meeting with hostility in the remaining population again. Particularly they discovered as reformed ones Lutheraner, so that themembodied again a religious minority.

Among the countries, which became for approximately 250,000 Huguenots a new homeland, rank Switzerland, the Netherlands, England, Germany and America. Thus 29 became with the edict of potsdam of. October 1685 thosereformed Huguenots taken up in lutherischen Prussia.


Meanwhile they particularly provided for a bloom of the economy and the agriculture, brought the silk crawler-type vehicle breed also, opened for the cultural and spirit life far horizons. Only under Ludwig XVI. the tolerance edict created 1787 onenew possibility of Protestant life in France.

Huguenots in Germany

1685 flee 44,000 to 50,000 Huguenots to Germany. The majority - about 20,000 - established themselves in Brandenburg Prussia . In each case 3000 to 4000 Huguenots moved to Hessen Kassel, Franconia, Württemberg, in Rhine Main - area and after the Kurpfalz with two-bridges. The Hanseatic cities and Lower Saxony a new homeland became for approximately 1500.


addresses in Germany today

today exist huguenot municipalities in the following places(Enumerating not completely):

independent one huguenot waldensische municipality reestablishments in the old circle Franconia mountain:

independent one huguenot waldensische municipality reestablishments in the today's district Kassel:

in the old circle Wolfhagen settlement of Huguenots in existing the already hessian city Zierenberg and the municipality thorn mountain

in Bath Karl port gives it a Huguenot museum, the German Huguenot center with a genealogischen research establishment as well as the library and picture archives to the German Huguenot company.

In the Oderbruch today still the place names Vevais , Beauregard and Croustillier remind of in Brandenburgsettling Huguenots.

acquaintance Huguenot

Musée you Désert

the French museum for the history of the protest anti-mash is in the Weiler Le Mas Soubeyran:

MUSEE YOU THE ORE LeMas Soubeyran F 30140 MIALET Tél: 04 66 85 02 72 fax: 04 66 85 00 02 [1]


literature

  • Henri Bosc: La Guerre of the Cévennes. 6 volumes. 1985-1992.
  • Pierre Joutard: Les Camisards. 1994.
  • Pierre Joutard: Lalégende of the Camisards. 1985.
  • Pierre roll and: Dictionnaire of the Camisards. 1995.

see also

Web on the left of

 

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