Hugo Stinnes (* 12. February 1870 in Mülheim at the Ruhr; † 10. April 1924 in Berlin) was a German Industrieller and politician. At the beginning of the Weimar Republic it counted to the most influential personalities of Germany. Was from employer side it substantially onthe agreement with the workers' movement after the First World War takes part. Since it profited from the postwar inflation by the aggressive outside financing of its enterprises strongly, it is particularly as an inflation king in memory.
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ascent in the Empire of
Stinnes became than second son of Hermann Hugo Stinnes and Adeline Stinnes, born Coupienne, into a wealthy entrepreneur family, those already since beginning 19. Century in the trade and mining industry actively was, born. The family Stinnes belonged at the latest since the successful establishment of an enterprise of Hugo Stinnes' grandfather Mathias Stinnes, the 1808 with transportfrom coal and other goods on the Rhine between Cologne and Amsterdam , to the outstanding and wealthy families Mülheims had begun. Already 1839 began the family to invest in mining industry participation. The commercial activity of the family was bundled in the Mathias Stinnes kg, the mining industry participation covered those Kuxmehrheiten at the bills Victoria Mathias, count Beust, Friedrich Ernestine, Carolus Magnus and Mathias Stinnes.
After training stays in the Koblenzer trading venture Carl late and into the Mülheimer bill Wie studied Stinnes at the royal mountain academy in Berlin mining industry as well as chemistry and stepped 1890 as an attorney into the exempt private company Mathias Stinnes kg .
to Hugo Stinnes GmbH
see Unterartikel: Hugo Stinnes GmbH
due to disagreement with the managing director of the Mathias Stinnes kg, its cousin Gerhard kitchens, to which he accused inability and an inclination to the alcohol,Stinnes made itself its own international however already independent at the age of 23 years with financial support of its nut/mother, that sold for this its portion to the Mathias Stinnes kg, under a private firm (1903 converted into Hugo Stinnes GmbH) and began, independently of the exempt private companyTo construct commercial company, which exceeded the past family estate by far. On the basis of the coal trade with South Germany and Switzerland as well as a modest shipping business the Hugo Stinnes GmbH address in completely Europe and overseas opened and forced beside the world-wide coal trade and in and export of iron- and steel products in particular the trade with secondary and Vorprodukten of the heavy industry. Like that the enterprise was also important importer of wood from Russia and the Baltic, used for the mining industry , as well as of Swedish iron ore.
vertical integration of the heavy industry
here showedStinnes as successful a supervisor of vertical entwinements in trade and heavy industry and was involved in the consequence in the establishment of numerous large concerns in the Rhine country and in the Ruhr district, where he aimed at in particular the education of large and efficient units. Contrary to Trusts of anglo-saxon coinage -for example the standard oil company - Stinnes here always tried to reach synergies by vertical integration of the heavy schwerindustriellen production stages. Here he often worked with August Thyssen as well as due to its by the aggressive growth speed of caused enormous capital requirement with bankers such as Waldemar Mueller (Dresden bank), Carl Klönne (Schaaffhausen / Deutsche Bank) and Bernhard Dernburg (Darmstädter bank) together.
Beside the Hugo Stinnes GmbH the emphasis of its business activity was the establishment and the development of the Rheinisch Westfäli power stations (RWE), the Mülheimer of mine association (MBV) as well as the ascent of the Germanof LuxembourgMine and huts AG (German Luxembourg). Besides it was relevant at enterprises like the Saar and Mosel mine society (Saar Mosel) and the HAPAG takes part.
In particular in the energy and traffic sector Stinnes was an advocate of mix-economical beginnings, with which he private employers and thus efficient control with sovereign tasksand national interests to combine wanted. Thereby it became a main initiator of the electrification of the German west, the development west and South German public suburban traffic, the consolidation of the European heavy industry, the creation of more efficient world-wide selling ways for German coal as well as the economic use of gas to the energy production.
Rheinisch Westfäli power stations
see Unterartikel: RWE
the 1898 created Rheinisch Westfäli power stations established their first power station on the area of the Stinnes bill Victoria Mathias. Stinnes was since establishment member of the supervisory board. 1902 acquired Stinnes as well as August Thyssen and bank groupunder participation of the German bank, the Dresden bank and the Disconto society during the so-called. Energy crisis the majority at the RWE. From 1903 to its death Stinnes functioned as a chairman of the supervisory board. On operation of Stinnes the RWE began under the executive committee shank his familiar Bernhard Goldenbergan aggressive expansion by the conclusion of exclusive power supply contracts with municipalities and districts in the Rhine country and into Westphalia and the buying up of suburban traffic enterprises in south and West Germany. Thereby the electrification in Germany was substantially accelerated. To the financing of growth as well as for the acquisition of the necessary concessionsand permission the RWE became as mix-economical enterprise with private and local and/or. national shareholders organizes. Above all the influence Stinnes' on the power supply was seen often critical here by authority side. Like that the establishment of the VEW was originally a preventive measure of anxious land advice and competitors approximatelythe rapid propagation of the RWE.
to Mülheimer mine association
see Unterartikel: Mülheimer mine association
common with Thyssen and the banker Leo Hanau (Rheini bank) combined Stinnes 1898 several, usually little efficiently working bills approximately around Mülheim at the Ruhr into the MBV,by it one of the largest German bill enterprises became and by the physical union of several bills substantial synergies to realize could. From 1898 to its death Stinnes functioned as a chairman of the supervisory board.
mining industry corporation peaceful neighbour
Stinnes became 1898 chairmen of the pit executive committees thatBills peaceful neighbour and Baaker hollow in Bochum lime trees. 1899 was combined the bills, Stinnes let the bill peaceful neighbour starting from 1899 develop and modernize. 1904 were taken over also the bill hare angle. To 19. May 1904 took place the transformation into the corporation mining industry corporation peaceful neighbour with plant manager Carl Knupe as a director. It Germanof Luxembourg-mine shortly thereafter with and hut-gnaws combined.
Germanof Luxembourg mine and hut-gnaw
see Unterartikel: Germanof Luxembourg mine and hut-gnaw
starting from 1901 built Stinnes and Bernhard Dernburg from several deficit eras mines in the Ruhr district and huts in Differdingen (Luxembourg) one the largest vertically integrated German Montankonzerne up. Than the RWE German Luxembourg a prime example for Stinnes' growth strategy was still stronger. Although the enterprise was always very weakly kapitalisiert, German Luxembourg expanded the access to Vorprodukte by constant acquisitions, around itself either toosecure or even capacities of the following processing production stages to construct. Substantial acquisitions were original the Dortmunder Louise foundation engineering AG (1908), the Dortmunder union (1910), those from Stinnes and August Thyssen developed Saar Mosel (1910/1916) as well as the North Sea works.
Stinnes was from 1906 to its death of chairmenthe supervisory board of German Luxembourg.
1920 were combined the enterprise as well as the Bochumer association and the Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks-AG (GBAG) into the community of interests Rhine Elbe union. This was extended likewise still 1920 under participation of the Siemens enterprises to the Siemens Rheinelbe Schuckert union.
further one substantial mandates
- Bochumer association: Chairman of theSupervisory board 1920-1924
- GBAG: Member of the supervisory board 1904-1924
- Phönix: Member of the supervisory board 1907-1908
- Rheini bank: deputy chairmen of the supervisory board 1902-1915
- Rheinisch Westfäli coal syndicate: Member of the supervisory board
- Saar Mosel: Supervisory board 1900-1919, chairman of the supervisory board 1916-1919
- Westfälisch Anhalti explosive AG: Member of the supervisory board
as well as oneMultiplicity of memberships in pit executive committees, for example with the family-own bills Victoria Mathias, Mathias Stinnes, Carolus Magnus, count Beust and Friedrich Ernestine.
first world war and expansion in the Weimar Republic
in the First World War became Stinnes, also by the extensive Ammunition production of the Dortmunder union, to one of the most important war suppliers for the German army. In co-operation with German military places like the war raw material department it expanded metal processing industry in the energy and the metal production as well as the chemical and that, for example by establishment of the Erftwerkes and by development ofRaw material occurrence of the friendly Central Powers Romania and Turkey, in addition, by the aggressive “Germanisierung” of the Belgian raw material occurrences.
In response it already lost a majority of the possession of the Hugo Stinnes GmbH, in particular the merchant fleet, with beginning of war and by the German defeat in the war the possessionits Montankonzerne into the Ententemächten and the handing hurrying separated by the Versailler contract, which affected in particular the French ore and the lothringischen coal occurrences of German Luxembourg. In addition Ruhr occupation concerned the largest part of his enterprise conglomerate.
Despite these losses Stinnes in the Weimar Republic controlled after thatInitial confusions by its private enterprises as well as in particular over its different participation and communities of interests, above all the Rhine Elbe union, a considerable part of the German economy. Mainly in realm Mark foreignfinanced invested Stinnes here into the processing industry, the machines - and construction of vehicles, shipping companies, cellulose factories and the Zeitungswesen.It thereby in particular the scarcity of raw materials caused by the consequences of the First World War benefitted in the German Reich, that on the one hand the relative value of the mining industry opposite the processing industry increased and on the other hand in the economically unstable surrounding field constantly by the supply of necessary Vorproduktenfighting following production stages a union with raw material suppliers to appear desirable left. He judged 1923 in a letter at Eberhard Gothein: “The Vertikaltrusts, which one attributes to me as preferential children, was naturally products of their time: Consequences of insufficient production and working capital lacking. “
Stinnes died 1924 only54-jährig at the consequences of a Gallenblasenoperation, to which it had undergone due to chronic stomach complaints. In the year of its death it was involved in 4.554 enterprises with nearly 3,000 manufacturing plants. Already one year after its death disintegrated its Firmenimperium, there its to inheriting the challenges of the endthe hyperinflation underestimated and the pending credits any longer to serve could not. Its widow Cläre Stinnes, with which it was married since 1895 and its seven children, everything in front Hugo Stinnes jr., knew only a small part of the fortune, in particular the maritime trade of the HugoStinnes Corp.save, which was lost however in the Second World War.
Stinnes as a politician
political restraint up to the First World War
before the First World War remained Stinnes politically rather reservedly and was less traditionally coined/shaped than comparable Ruhr ruhrindustrielle. Both thosefrom it in the coal syndicate to conditions of work and protectionism represented positions and the international relations and addresses of the Hugo Stinnes GmbH aroused rather the impression of an world-open entrepreneur, who did not have with the positions of the restaurant aristocracy too much in common. This changed with ofStinnes with confusion taken up beginning of the First World War, which extracted the Hugo Stinnes GmbH the implicit basis of contracts in the international trade. Briefly after beginning of war began Stinnes, comprehensive annex ion plans, in particular opposite Belgium to support and showed against earlier convictions sympathies for the allGerman federation under the Krupp- Manager Alfred Hugenberg. The change probably essentially is at an economic cost use expense, also regarding its own business situation to lead back: If war were already led, then also an appropriate return should develop for the “victims”. Thus he expressed himself 1915 opposite realm chancellor Bethmann Hollweg: “The whole people [...] is victim willing up to the extreme one. It expects however that the price of the victory [...] then also the bloody victims, that are brought, and which economic damages, which were borne [...] correspond. It must with peace treaty under all circumstances[...] to be worked there that also achievements secure to face, those for extraordinary fiscal charges, with many billions at annual interest, which can be expected, the future of our native country militarily, politically and economically [...] “.
Opposite Ludwig Quidde he meant: “I am vorm August 1914 the most sincere trailer of onepeaceful communication without each conquest desires [...] been, became me however today [… one] criminal carelessness guilty keep if I not, if attainable, for an extension of the borders in the extent of the borders marked by the economical federations occurred ".
1919 secured Stinnes of the peace negotiations rejecting And Eduard Stadtlers took part a German native country party the support of the coal syndicate by conservative Industrielle in the October of the same yearly in the initial promotion of antibolschewistischen propaganda.
political ascent after the November revolution
Stinnes' ascent to the important and influential politician carried out itself finally inthe paging phase between end of war and development of the Weimar Republic. When from the Demobilmachung concerning and economical key figure for the maintenance of the employment in the civil service he was relevant after the November revolution substantially in the negotiations and reconciliation with the workers' movement takes part, among other things as a member of the central working group. As a negotiator of the employers it was 1918 considerably involved in the Stinnes Legien agreement. With the agreement, in order to repel large demands for socialization, recognized and the eight hours' working day introduced the trade unions to Germany. Likewise it represented the interests of the German economy to the conference of Spa as well as in Reparationsverhandlungenand as a presidency member of the realm federation of the German industry. During the Ruhr fight, the French occupation of the Ruhr district 1923/24, he was one the negotiator for the Ruhr ruhrindustriellen (MICUM agreements).
Stinnes as a realm tag delegate
Within the DVP Stinnes applied for DNVP particularly which can be led by its various contacts to the conservative-national camp and - exponents as at the right edge of the party standing. For internal-party opponents such as Stresemann Stinnes provided here a mortgage not only in the public perception, but also inthe daily policy, since Stinnes could be added hardly a political grouping durably. Stinnes' political opinions were always coined/shaped of German (and also personal) economic interests instead of its. This led often to it that Stinnes endorsed a more realistic, more pragmatic policy, for example in the question thatConditions of work, but often also radical and interspersable opinions did not represent, for example with the decided refusal of the Reparationsforderungen and in his ideas for the refinancing of the German state household.
This contradictory attitude showed up also in its personal relations with politicians of different Couleur. Thus it stood for example for that Cut Putsch, which he regarded as “inexcusable ” and “perishable enterprise ”, rejecting opposite, condemned it however publicly and did not offer Wolfgang cuts in its Swedish holiday house in ASP exile. Likewise Stinnes of time life of inspired trailers remained of Erich Ludendorff. Sails his shipping company were however both afterLudendorff and Hindenburg, and after the trade union leader6 Carl Legien designated. Stinnes' economic expert knowledge was in demand by all governments of this time and it as a candidate for offices for Minister was several times acted, but its usually radical refusal of the fulfilment politics (it meant, it was “alwaysfor fulfilment politics been, however only in the borders of the reason and in the borders for our national economy of the bearable "), its Primat of the economic policy before all other topics and against all specific obligations, as well as its private diplomacy with French, claimant at the government, British political opportunen pastand Russian politicians it ensured in the long run for the fact that Stinnes was not successful as politicians.
altogether belonged to Stinnes roll ago like its business and political adversary respected highly of it Rathenau to the enemy pictures both extreme political linking and the extremepolitical rights, whose Antisemitismus and völkischen restaurant concepts were likewise incompatible with Stinnes' Primat of the economic policy. In particular for communist and socialist contemporaries however Stinnes placed vertical socialization” by its obvious Verquickung of political and economic power as well as due to as “ Verstinnesierung” and to “the felt expansion of its companiesin the time of inflation the classical capitalistic enemy picture, which to today strongly the picture by Stinnes affected (see for example the caricature of George Grosz in Web on the left of).
In the public perception as economical and nearly schäbig dressed described Stinnes was considered usually asincalculably and power-hungryy. Both trade unions and conservative politicians criticized the fact that its political opinions would be exclusively economically driven and subordinated it conspiracy theories and Opportunismus. TIME judged: “Its goal is the rule over the European steel industries, and like all those mysterious figures, itself in the no man's landthe international policy move, he it will in such a way furnish that he wins, equal which side the upper hand keeps. “
Stinnes' acquisition of the governmentnear Germans general newspaper in May 1920 solidified this critical picture. The satire magazine joke citizen of Berlin day sheet showed in the same month a caricature ofStinnes as a capitalist with cylinder and cigar and the signature “Stinnes buy everything” on the frontispiece - to see were beside hotels, ships, newspaper printering and factories also politicians, voting cards and a Wahlurne (see Web on the left of).
- Gerald D. Feldman: HugoStinnes. Biography of a Industriellen 1870 - 1924, Munich (C.H. Beck) 1998 - ISBN 3406435823
- Manfred rapid, Gerald D. Feldman (Hrsg.): August Thyssen and Hugo Stinnes. An exchange of letters 1898-1922, Munich (C.H.Beck) 2003 - ISBN 3406496377
- Wolfgang Ribbe, Wolfgang chess: The Siemens city - history andArchitecture of an industrial site only publishing house, Berlin 1985 ISBN 3-433-01023-4
Web on the left of
caricatures and pictures
- caricature joke of 21. May 1920: Stinnes buys all
- caricature of George Grosz (1920): The secret emperor
- Cover time magazines of 17. March 1923: Coaland My right
| | * Literature of and over Hugo Stinnes in the catalog of the DDB
- biography on the web pages of the German historical museum
- deduction in archives for Christian democratic policy of the Konrad Adenauer donation (Scrollen to No. 601)
- Dynastydynasty dynasties inNorth-Rhine/Westphalia: The Stinnes Imperium (WDR)
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Stinnes senior, Hugo|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of German entrepreneurs|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12. February 1870|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Mülheim at the Ruhr|
|DYING DATE||10. April 1924|
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|