of these articles is occupied particularly with the human as world view. To the human as an epoch see yourself to Renaissance human as well as philosophy-historically philosophy of the Renaissance and the human

human is a philosophy and a world view, at the interests, that Values and that one oriented in particular individual humans. Tolerance, force liberty and freedom of conscience are considered as important principles of human living together.

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interpretation of the term

it gives differing interpretations of the term. Thus differentiatesone for example between liberal-democratic, Marxist-Leninistic, Evangelist biblizistischem human and many other interpretations.

There is the Humanismusbegriff since the antique one, approximately with Cicero. One speaks for the Renaissance time of a Renaissance human as well as a Humanismusbegriff in the clearing-up, represented toExample of Goethe, Schiller, Herder, with whom one means humanity, and who in historicism. The Humanismusbegriff of William of Humboldt differs fundamentally from that the clearing-up in the position, which takes history in the science concept.If it was in the clearing-up the philosophy, which was regarded as the fundamental science, it is conditionally also by political factors and in the course of the Prussian reforms of 1810 with the establishment of the citizens of Berlin university history. On thisSoil comes 1858 George Voigt to the development of an epoch term of the human. A subspecies is the so-called Bible human.

On the human as root of the socialist idea the socialist SED in the paper that published together with the SPD appointed itselfControversy of the ideologies and common security. Intention behind these efforts was apart from the internal political agitation the Suggestion of a historical inevitableness in the development of German socialism. In opinion of the right-conservative Politologen Konrad Löw this succeeded lastingly.

human as epoch term

Albrecht Dürer, Selbstportrait as human (1500)

in the special one become as human the progressive, from the Middle Ages turning away mental climate 14. to 16. Century designates. Generally one differentiates today between the Renaissance as thatcomprehensive cultural and social change between the Middle Ages and modern times, and the human as the education movement, which is the basis it. The most famous and most influential human of the early modern times was Erasmus of Rotterdam. The human as education movement in his multilayeredness hadbefore Jacob Burckhardt still George Voigt recognized.

The term of the human appears only very late. It is derived from latin humanitas, which already occurs with Cicero. In the German clearing-up Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schiller speak of Humanity. They actually mean with it humanity. In the difference for this there are already in 15. Century a self understanding formed of circles, which understand themselves humanistae in such a way and call, thus as human. This stands in connection with studia humanitatis.

The actual term human appears only 1808 in the writing of Friedrich Immanuel riveting hammer the controversy of the Philanthropinismus and human in the theory of our time. This current, which one also the German new human tends to call, servesRiveting hammer for the characterisation of an older Pädagogik, which is confronted to one from the clearing-up adult at the practical and the social needs and on direct usefulness oriented Pädagogik.

early human

  • Dante Alighieri (* 1265 in Florenz - †1321 in Ravenna)
  • Francesco Petrarca, (* 1304 in Arezzo - † 1374 in Arquà)
  • Giovanni Boccaccio, (* 1313 in Florenz or Certaldo - † 1375 in Certaldo with Florenz)
  • Coluccio Salutati, (* 1331 in stairs nano with Buggiano- † 1406 in Florenz)
  • Johannes of Tepl (also Johannes of Saaz or Johannes of Schüttwa), (*1342 or 1350 in Westböhmen - † 1414 in Prague)
  • Nikolaus of Kues, (* 1401 in Kues to the Mosel - †1464 in Todi/Umbrien)
  • Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (Pope Pius II.), (* 1405 in Corsignano with Siena - † 1464 in Ancona)

human of the early modern times

human of the modern trend

  • Albert Einstein, (* 1879 in Ulm -† 1955 in Princeton, the USA)
  • Albert Schweitzer, (* 1875 in Kaysersberg/Oberelsass - † 1965 in Lambaréné/Gabon)
  • Erich pious, (* 1900 in Frankfurt/Main - † 1980 in Locarno)
  • Bertrand Russell, (* 1872 Ravenscroft (Monmouthshire), Wales -† 1970 Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales)

human and religion

secular human

the modern human begins in the time of the clearing-up and sees themselves as a way to regard among other things questions of the ethics independently from religions to.In particular supernatural explanations are rejected; one speaks of the secular or lay human, sees also: secular Humanism (English).

There are give movements, which believe to determine a need after ceremonies and rituals in humans, and an organization develop, which the latters obtain. See also: Free philosopher, free bricklaying.

modern human in the religion

in established religions are frequently human directions, whereby faith conceptions and traditions are taken over here and supplemented by elements of the human.


firstSigns of an human in Christian abendländischen history develop already in the 11. Century. The question of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), why God became humans (cur deus homo), leaves humans in its relationship with God in another lightappear and the effort develop to already attain before the jenseitigen welfare desired in the terrestrial world similarity with God. On this first turn to a virtueful this life and people its is based the Christian human, - because of its tyingat antique writings among other things the Aristoteles and the Plato also as Christian Sokratismus (recognize you, Christian) designates - of a new sin term, from which moral of the intention proceeds and interiorlooks to leads.


in the Islam is the life after God aligned its and like that is completely z. B. in the Islam the entire legislative activity only God permits. A philosophy, which moves humans into the center of the view, becomes fast thereby as polytheistisch (Schirk) seen.

see also

Wiktionary: Human - word origin, synonyms and translations


  • Augustijn, Cornelis: Human (row: The church in their history 2, supply number 2), Goettingen 2003.
  • Fallow, Karl Dietrich: Purge and progress in thinking the early Roman Kaiser era: Studies for the time feeling and historical conciousness of the century after Augustus, vienna Cologne Graz 1987.
  • Bend, August: Human: its European development in documents and representations, Freiburg Munich 1987.
  • Bend, August: The Italian human,in: Manual of German education history, hrsg. of Notker hammer stone, Bd. 1: 15. to 17. Century. From the Renaissance to the end of the faith fights, Munich 1996, S. 1-56.
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar: Human and Renaissance, hrsg. of hitting a corner hard Kessler, Munich 1980.
  • Kuhr, Rudolf: Growth at humanity - human as basis, (ISBN-3-933037-06-9)
  • LOD TIG, Perdita: The Renaissance picture of German historians 1898-1933, Frankfurt/Main; New York 2004.
  • Pointedly, Lewis W.: Humanismus/Humanismusforschung, in: Theological material encyclopedia Bd. 15, Berlin - new York 1986, S. 639-661.
  • Todte, Mario: George Voigt (1827-1891): Pioneer of the historical Humanismusforschung, Leipzig 2004. ISBN 3-937209-22-0


  • Garin, Eugenio: The Italian human [after the manuscript into German transfer from Giuseppe Zamboni], Berne 1947.
  • Ferguson, Wallace K.: Renaissance Studies,Ontario 1963.
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar: The Italian human and its meaning, Basel Stuttgart 1969.
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar: The Classics and Renaissance Thought: [Lectures], Cambridge/measure. 1955.
  • Baron, Hans: The Crisis OF the Early Renaissance. Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty inAge OF Classicism and Tyranny, revised one volume edition, Princeton 1966.
  • Ferguson, Wallace K., The Renaissance into the Historical Thought, Five Centuries OF interpretation, bad clay/tone 1948.
  • Ullman, B.L.: The Humanism OF Coluccio Salutati, Padua 1953.
  • Ullman, B.L.: Studiesinto the Italian Renaissance, Rome 1955.
  • Newald, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations: Humanitas, human, humanity, meal 1947.
  • Rüegg, walter: Cicero and the human: Formal investigations over Petrarca and Erasmus, Zurich 1946.
  • Cutter, Josef. P.: Investigations on the relationship ofhumanitas rightfully and justice with Cicero, Diss. Freiburg i.B. 1963.
  • Burckhardt, Jacob: The Cultur of the Renaissance in Italy, Leipzig 1860. (Numerous ones by other revised editions also in translations).
  • Martin, Alfred of: Salutati and the human life ideal,Leipzig 1916.
  • Riveting hammer, Friedrich Immanuel: The controversy of the Philanthropinismus and the human in the theory of the educating instruction of unsrer time, Jena 1808.
  • Voigt, George: The revival of the classischen Alterthums or the first century of the human, 2 Bde.3. Aufl., Berlin 1893 (first edition in a volume, Berlin 1859).

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