Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina
Infrarotbild von Katrina am 29. August 2005 um 16:00 Uhr
duration 23. August 2005 - 31. August 2005
maximum ones average wind velocity 280 km/h (175 mph)
Gusts of wind to 344 km/h (215 mph)
deepest central pressure 902 hPa
Total damage estimated 125 billion US Dollar (as per. US firm „Risk management Solutions “to 9. September 2005), of it insures 34.4 billion US Dollar (as per. PC) plus damage to the oil conveyor plants before the coast with approx. 5 billion US Dollar before hurricane Andrew (approx. 20 billion US Dollar) most expensive hurricane of all times
total victim 1,365 to 2,365 direct, 170 indirect
eye of the hurricane Katrina, from a NOAA-P-3-Flugzeug hurricane

Katrina a tropical eddy tower, which caused enormous damages in August 2005 in southeast parts of the USA, was taken up. The hurricane, which reached occasionally the stage 5, is considered as one of the most devastating natural catastrophes in the history of the United States. To the Federal States concerned belong Florida, Louisiana (particularly the region new Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Had formed the gale to 24. August over the Bahamas.

Katrina was the third large hurricane of the yearly 2005 in the Atlantic ocean. By the storm and its consequences altogether 1,239 humans died to data of CNN, after occasionally allegedly over 10.000 victims had been expected.

After two dykes were broken with new Orleans, meters stood deeply under water up to 80% of the city up to 7.60. The situation of the city new Orleans is so fatal, because it is between the brackish water lake Lake Pontchartrain and the river Mississippi; the finally broken dams protected the city - them are under the water level of the river, the sea and that one of the brackish water lake.

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storm process

to 23. August formed with the eastern Bahamas for 12. tropical storm low of the season. Under favorable conditions from it the enormous storm Katrina could form on the next day. To 25. It drew August 2005, briefly after Katrina was classified as hurricane stage 1, in close proximity to Miami over the south point of Florida. Nine humans died thereby. Katrina weakened itself thereby easily and for some hours from the hurricane to the tropical storm was down-classified.

Afterwards it pulled again over the gulf of Mexico. High temperatures and the circular warm Meeresströmung in the gulf supplied rapidly new energy to the storm , as usual with hurricane, and let it fast again to the hurricane erstarken. To 28. August 2005 it was finally classified under stage 5. To 29. It met August with full force the US gulf coast. If one takes the beginning of the weather recordings as yardstick, was Katrina with wind velocities of up to 280 km/h and Sturmböen of up to 344 km/h of one of the heaviest storms in the gulf of Mexico, should be exceeded however only few weeks later by hurricane Rita. About 1.3 million humans left the area approximately after appropriate calls of the local authorities around new Orleans and fled until Texas. In the early morning hours 29. It met August 2005, briefly after he was back-gradated on the stage 4, the south coast of the USA. With the impact the mainland the wind velocity had been reduced to 200 km/h.

there were preparations for

the storm when the impact Katrina Florida only insufficient preliminary warnings, since the storm transformed fast from a harmless tempest into a hurricane.

To 27. August became, before the storm reached meanwhile again the coast and on stage 3 one high-gradated, the state of emergency for the three Federal States Louis IANA, Mississippi and Alabama by US president George W. Bush proclaimed.

Humans flee into supercathedrals

to 28. August should be obligation-evacuated the city new Orleans, Louis IANA and the endangered ranges Louisianas for the first time after plan . New Orleans was particularly endangered of the hurricane, since parts of the city were under the sea level. Stage 3 should have released the Southeast Louis IANA Hurricane Evacuation and scolding ring plan from January 2000. Afterwards clear responsibilities were determined and the evacuation of the autoless population by then the school penalty unused sunk intended. [1]

Persons, who could not leave the city in time, should now in the Louis IANA of supercathedrals, which football stadium in new Orleans, refuge to find. The number of humans, who fled into supercathedrals, lay between 20.000 and 60.000. Also the supercathedrals during the storm heavily one damaged and one included later by the tides, so that it had to be evacuated likewise.

effects

so far were officially confirmed 1,302 dead ones. Ray Nagin, the mayor of new Orleans, assumed first that up to 10.000 humans at the consequences of the storm had died. In the meantime (Conditions January 2006) according to CNN still about 3,200 persons are missed. In the first days many waited on their house roofs for rescue. Drinking water in the region became limited, since the line system was contaminated by the break of a supply line with tide water .

Strongest hurricane in the USA
the strength is indicated to 1 “laboratory Day” 1935
892 mbar of 2 Camille
1969 909 mbar of 3 Katrina 2005 920 mbar
of 4 Andrew 1992 922 mbar
of 5 Indianola ” 1886
925 mbar of 6 “Florida
key ” 1919 927 mbar of 7 “
Okeechobee ” 1928 929 mbar of 8 Donna 1960
930 mbar of 9 “ new Orleans “
1915 931 mbar of Carla 1961
931 mbar of source only due to the air pressure in
center rank hurricane season
air pressure: U.S. National Hurricane center

Katrina is the most expensive eddy tower, which afflicted the USA so far. Experts estimated at the beginning of the damage on more than 26 billion euro. Meanwhile this number on at least 125 billion euro was up-corrected. With this damage size it exceeds hurricane Andrew, who devastated 1992 the south of Florida, the up to then largest storm disaster since beginning of the recording of storms in the United States. The damage size exceeds likewise those of the earthquake in the Indian ocean 2004. The hurricane exceeds also the economic damage of the notices of the 11. September 2001 by far.

Damage in Davie, Florida
Fischkutter, those by Katrina on the country was lifted

experts proceeded from one million shelterless humans become. About five million did not have river and estimations went out of the fact that it can last over two months, until this is surface covering available again.

Due to plunderings was tried to proclaim in the States of Louis IANA and Mississippi the state of war and impose the martial law. The laws in the two states do not permit this actually. Rather proclaiming the state of war the actual Kriegsfall remains reserving. New Orleans at the 1 became nevertheless in the city. September 2005 the martial law imposes, and the Gouverneurin of Louis IANA had permitted the national guard to shoot Plünderer.

Among other things also auxiliary convoys were geplündert. Therefore all policemen from new Orleans were withdrawn from the rescue mission, in order to proceed against the gangs. Since the number of Plünderer was very large however and prisons and police act ions were flooded likewise, there were hardly possibilities of holding persons longer.

new Orleans

in new Orleans was broken through two dykes by the up-whipped tsunami on a length by 150 m. It did not succeed to seal the broken dykes with sand bags. It was even suggested plugging the hole with a ship. For this time uncontrolled brackish water from the lake Pontchartrain flowed into the city lain more deeply. Because of the power failure the water could not be evacuated however any longer.

The flooded new Orleans
of the damaged supercathedrals in the midst of the flooded new Orleans
complete under water standing populated area from new Orleans

to the locations of fracture already existing knows the dyke process further places up, in which the Unterhöhlung had begun. The water penetrating without interruption into the city led for lack of evacuating possibility for in the meantime across eighty-per cent flooding of the city, so that the city was not to reach or be left no more over the zufahrtsstrassen. Besides one of the two airports of the city had had to stop its enterprise, since this stood completely under water. The second airport was not totally destroyed by hurricane „Katrina “. Airport building and the landing runway remained intact. Only on radar and soil lighting the pilots had to do without. According to data of the Flughafenleitung the air haven in a the position was to complete approximately 300 flights daily.

Even against the dam failures developed again the crisis managers of the region seemed powerlessly, since both the necessary potential at aids, and the material and the Gerätschaften were missing, to work against the causes.

The Wetteraussichten promised nothing property: For the weekend a heavy weather front was announced, which the unskilled labor would have further made more difficult. If further dam parts would have become fragile, so that water from all sides would be into the city flowed, or it to new strong precipitation come, only the complete flooding of the city would not be the result; it would be considered then also as signal to an expansion of the disaster that also the hinterland with roughly 20,000 there inhabitants would be concerned with rising the flood level. This would have been also organizational for the rescue parties a heavy setback, since from the hinterland the only accessibility of the city would be then no longer smoothly secured by means of helicopters.

With the evacuation supercathedrals, to which an emergency accommodation for numerous humans represented, a helicopter was fired at, so that the evacuation was suspended. Approximately around supercathedrals garbage cans were set in fire. Also the evacuation with penalties, already started, was suspended, after the first penalty at astrodomes had already arrived at Houston. The astrodomes should hold as replacement for supercathedrals and evacuated humans as emergency accommodation serve. But already to 2. September was overcrowded the astrodomes and could accept no further refugees more. Reports on shots on Rettungshubschrauber became meanwhile of a Federal aviation administration - spokeswoman disclaims.

A renewed attempt of the evacuation of the supercathedral at the 3. September was broken off, because still too few at the disposal were to penalty. The evacuation found then to 4. September instead of.

In the city lawlessness seemed to prevail, and the police and the military tried desperately to bring the situation under control. Occasionally all rescue missions in the city were broken off, since it had come repeated to attacks on the rescue parties. According to data of witnesses also two hospitals were occupied by Plünderern. Into the Convention centers had likewise fled 10,000 to 20,000 humans. These were neglected perfectly however in the first days after the disaster. Thus were there humans more badly than in supercathedrals, since they had to get along completely without supply. There are reports that gangs raped and killed young people in the Convention center at the night. At the 3. September was exposed therefore the evacuation supercathedrals, in which at the time between 2.000 and 5.000 humans were, in order to evacuate the Convention centers.

A destroyed bridge from the air Force One regards

the danger of epidemics by the dirty water, in which corpses, wastes, chemicals and excrement floated, rose once per hour. Particularly bacterial intestine infections and hepatitis A were feared. In the meantime some cases were announced by Ruhr. The risk of an outbreak of Cholera and typhoid fever was classified still as relatively small.

On the east bank of the city it came in the morning 2. September to two detonations. At the 3. September reported CNN of two large fires in the industrial area at the Mississippi.

According to statements of the mayor Ray Nagin it should last between three and four months, until humans could return again to the city. It is however also considered giving the city up completely or at least partially. A republican congressional representative said, was senseless to invest into a city which lies below the sea level.

see also

reaction of president Bush

on the return journey of its Ranch (where it was after abating the hurricane still 3 days) after Washington flew over Bush, in the president machine air Force One, the inundated new Orleans in the low-altitude flight. In a speech president Bush promised that all necessary help is rendered and that each using the emergency situation is, it fuel usury or plunderings, is punished. The New York Time criticized its reaction in unusually clear words as late and inadequate. Bush put in the meantime 10.5 billion US dollar to emergency aid at the disposal.

Ray Nagin, mayor of new Orleans, practiced likewise violent criticism at Bush and the government that the assistance from the government had to zögerlich come. Kathleen Blanco, Gouverneurin of Louis IANA, followed the criticism meanwhile. Bush expressed thereupon that the assistance inadequate and inakzeptabel is.

After violent criticism Bush has to 9. September 2005 the boss of the federal authority for the disaster control (FEMA), Michael Brown, relieved of its suburb co-ordination work. He remains however a boss of this authority.

Like that surprising, as the president said, was not the extent of the disaster. Already in October 2001 the magazine brought an article to Scientific American, in which the scenario was accurately described (unfortunately only the summary is freely available). The German version is in Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Ausgabe January 2002.

energy crisis

gas station without roof

in the gulf from Mexico are some hundred drilling rigs and offshore construction works. By means of a quarter of the American oil and natural gas in this region one promotes. The there refineries represent the majority of the US capacity. Large oneOil companies had to quiet-put some conveyor plants endangered by Katrina. Eight refineries remain further closed and a further work only with small capacity. Many pipelines were destroyed likewise. This led to increases of the crude oil price at that New Yorker stock exchange on historical maximum conditions of over 70 dollar per barrel. Because of the failed refinery capacities those rose Fuel prices world-wide strongly on, since world-wide increasing of the promotion capacity is no longer possible (see. Peak oil). In the USA that climbed Gasoline price of well $ 2 gal (approx. 0.43 €/l) on approximately $ 3/gal (approx. 0.65 €/l). In some places the price rose occasionally on up to $ 8/gal (1.72 €/l).

In Germany the gasoline rose within days around 18 Cent/l and reached thus at the 3. September a highest level of approximately 1.45 € (2.21 Fr.) per litre of super. In Switzerland the Bleifrei-95-Preise rose around approximately 14 Rappen/l, which depending upon region and mark record heights between 1,69 and 1,83 Fr. (1.10 € - 1.20 €) per litre constitutes. V-power of Shell scratches at some places to the 2-Franken-Grenze. In Austria the regular grade fuel costs approximately 1.20 € (1.83 Fr.). At least in the USA an energy crisis exists by the hurricane. For example 13% of the daily kerosene need because of the storm no more cannot be covered.

In order to contain the energy crisis, the US Government suspended the regulations for the cleanliness of gasoline, which adjust the sulfur content in the gasoline, since the cleaning of the gasoline lowers its usable quantity.

assistance

A truck of the national guard with auxiliary goods
Boeing C-17 Globemaster of US Airforce when unloading auxiliary goods in Mississpipi, 31. LCAC hovercrafts,
heavy equipment into the strongly devastated Biloxi US soldiers
Landungsschiffe der US Navy, darunter  LCAC-Luftkissenboote, bringen schweres Gerät in das stark verwüstete Biloxi
of the 82 bring August to 2005 US coast guard on the search for survivors in new Orleans of landing ships of US
US-Soldaten der 82. Luftlandedivision patrouillieren in den Straßen von New Orleans
Navy, under it. Airborne division patrouillieren in the roads of new Orleans
Verlauf von Katrina
process of Katrina
Satellitenaufnahme NOAA 28.8.2005
Satellitenaufnahme NOAA 29.8.2005

the assistance for the time after the storm started already before the storm. In particular the Federal Emergency management Agency made preparations, which reached from the storage of auxiliary goods up to the mobilization of a mobile mortuary on cooling load cars. More than 20,000 soldiers of the national guard and 7,200 soldiers in the active service render and carried in the disaster area help out.

On request of US president Bush granted the senate so far 10.5 billion dollar emergency aid.

In the evening messages NBC divided news at the 1. September 2005 also that the United States rejected the offers of help of other states.

international assistance

of numerous states international assistance, among them also many developing countries or developing countries in such a way specified was offered. Among them poorest states such as Bangladesh and Afghanistan or also the ore rivals of the USA (Iran, Cuba, Venezuela). After initial hesitating the USA were ready to accept foreign assistance. However the offered goods frequently several-day-long still stored on the airports of the offering state or the USA, since the co-ordination of the assistance ran unsatisfactorily.

The red cross and other organizations called to donations, which were passed on to American partner organizations. The Federal Republic of Germany had aids of the technical welfare organization (THW or technical welfare organization) after new Orleans sand removing, since that the 9. September 2005 with 15 large pumps assistance carry out. Begeleitet was supported and the THW of a medical team of the Johanniter - accident - assistance, which worried about the medizinsiche and notfallmedizinsiche supply of the task forces of the THW. Allegedly because of BSE - danger has the US agrarian Ministry to 10. Septembers 2005 the import of emergency rations of the German Federal Armed Forces forbade. German auxiliary supplies may not be distributed thereby no more.

national guard

the first mobilization of the Nationalgardisten was obstructed, because for instance a third of the national guard Louisianas is used at present in the Iraq, among them also equipment like flood-firm Humvees, which would be useful in flooding areas. To reconciliation Louis IANA already requested intergovernmental assistance in the preparatory phase in the form of troops and equipment and received. Since passages of the hurricane became in Alabama, Mississippi, Florida and Louisiana more than 10,000 guard soldiers mobilized.

coast guard

the United States Coast Guard had pulled as many helicopters together as possible in the disaster area. 500 reservists were called up, and from the whole country smaller boats were sent to the assistance.

navy

the United States Navy began likewise fast with the assistance. Several ships made themselves on the way, under it the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman, which is to serve as command posts for the naval operations in the disaster area, and which amphibious attack ships USS Bataan and USS Iwo Jima with their groups of supports. These ships carry transportation helicopters of the types CH-53 Sea Stallion and SH-60 Sea Hawk as well as landing and transportation boats, which can accrete at almost any beach and therefore outstanding for assistance in favor of destroyed coast regions are suitable, which they already proved in January 2005 after the Tsunami in Sri Lanka. In the meantime the USS Bataan before the coast of Mississippi lies before anchors and the USS Iwo Jima as swimming control center at the jetty in the port of new Orleans.

The military hospital ship USNS Comfort equipped with 1.000 beds was beordert into the region and lies meanwhile in the port of Pascagoula, Mississippi.

The command over all military auxiliary operations has as per. Towards. Trunk L. Honoré of the United States Army in Camp Shelby, Mississippi.

non-military employment

the Federal Emergency management Agency (FEMA) sent ten teams from the whole country, which are to look for survivors, as well as 23 medical teams. With the help of the transport ministry 1,700 truck charges water, ice and finished courts were brought here. Further 390 trucks brought water, tents, living containers and fork-lift trucks. After passages of Katrina with high pressure one worked to be able to open the Louis Armstrong new Orleans internationally air haven for auxiliary flights again.

A credit card program for tide victims - the delivery of maps, which entitle to the purchase of 2.000 US Dollar per household - was stopped and is resumed after initial announcements only for the evacuated persons in astrodomes. The boss of the FEMA, Michael Brown, ordered this idea as an assistance co-ordinator in the disaster area among other things. Recently it - obviously due to its incompetence - was relieved of this task. Navy admiral Thad everything takes over now this job.

The radio amateurs, who closed in the Salvation Army team Emergency radio network (SATERN) and in the west Gulf of ACRE Emergency Net together, place additional communication ways with their amateur radio places to the order around brisk information flow to make possible. Restaurant governments from the whole USA sent assistance in the form of rescue cars, search teams and auxiliary goods. To up after Utah dwelling for refugees was created.

criticism

on the third and fourth day of the disaster moved increased displeasure at the organization of the assistance. Beside the government the national assistance co-ordination department Federal Emergency management Agency was particularly criticized hard, it had e.g. according to speaker only at the 1. Septembers experience that beside that supercathedrals also the Convention center a goal of approx. 15,000 refugees had been. These endured there several-day-long without support. Medical Unterversorgung and health-endangering hygenic conditions came to dead ones by force, Wassermangel. The criticized FEMA referred to the unusually large dimension of the disaster. The Congressional Black Caucus, a non-partisan committee in congress of US for the agency of the interests of the black ones in the USA expressed itself to 2. Septembers 2005 concerned over the assistance lacking, in emergency are obviously above all arms, old persons and citizens of black skin color. It cannot be that these factors decided on the fate of the victims. Also new Orleans mayor Ray Nagin turned in an emotional speech to the press and complained the insufficient measures of the government and the relief organizations sharply on. RWSby Kanye the west used a donations' collection transmission on NBC to unabgesprochenen, sharp attacks on the US Government. He saw racingism in the representations of the media, which on captions to photos of plunderings white ones as „persons, who supply themselves with the most necessary one “, black ones against it as „Plünderer “characterized.

In media it was discussed whether there would be a hidden racial segregation and a pronounced class separation in the USA further. While wealthy humans could flee within shortest time from the disaster area, the without means ones had to remain in the city new Orleans. A renewed discussion over such unequal conditions and the associated consequences with disasters are called in in the meantime by many representatives on the political stage of the USA.

In Washington 4 became to. September the flags on half-mast set, around to 3. September at cancer chairman Richter of the supreme Court died to honour William Rehnquist. The victims of the hurricane were however not appreciated officially.

The press coined/shaped for the omissions of the government Bush the term Katrinagate and provides thereby for pressure on the presidents.

The flooding of far parts of new Orleans is discussed not only as natural occurence, but also as result of political false estimates by the US Governments. The magazine national geo graphics warned already in the autumn 2004 in an article (English) before a disaster.

hurricane Rita

only few weeks after the occurrence of hurricane Katrina was again affected by a strong hurricane the region at the south coast of the USA with hurricane Rita. Many, which had fled before Katrina after Texas, had to be evacuated by this renewed hurricane again, besides retarded in new Orleans by the renewed dam failures the clearing up work.

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Wikisource: August 28 2005 10:11 AT the CDT NOAA bulletin - source texts
 

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