of these articles treats the international company IBM; for the upper-Austrian place IBM in the Austrian Innviertel, see: Eggelsberg
IBM Logo

internationally Business Machines (IBM) is one the oldest IT - enterprises, which at first with punch card sorters and later with large computers, z. B. the series of 360, took a dominating the market position. The company headquarters is in Armonk with North Castle in the US Federal State New York.

Table of contents

firm history

IBM goes back on from Herman the Hollerith 1896 created Tabulating Machine company. This company placed at that time by Herman Hollerith developed the machines to the counting and collection of by Punch cards entered data ago. In addition also machines to counting out the voting cards counted with elections in the USA. The production of such machines adjusted IBM however, after the manufacturing firms for by their machines were made liable not counted voices. 1924 took placethen renaming the company in IBM, since a majority of the product range consisted now of machines for the use in companies, like punches, examiners, sorting and tabulating machines. These were as a rule not sold but were not rented. IBM had in the areathe standardized punch cards and their evaluation world-wide a monopoly-like position. In Germany IBM was represented until 1949 by the productive subsidiary DEHOMAG.

IBM Selectric

Thomas J. Watson (1874 - 1956) became 1914 boss of the Computing Tabulating Recording company, one of the companies, outthose IBM came out, and led IBM until 1955. It coined/shaped a special firm culture with a strong selling orientation. Great importance was attached to absolute loyalty of the coworkers.

In the year 1943 Watson is to have said the following memorable sentence: “I thinkthere is A world for maybe five of computer market. “(“I think, it give world-wide a market for perhaps five computers. ”). The author Kevin Maney tried to fathom the origin of this quotation could however neither in the speeches Watsons norfind a reference to it in other documents.

In and the early sixties fifties first computers (701 and 1401) and the associated periphery (magnetic disks - and drum storage, tape stations) were developed, as well as printers.

In the year 1964 a new cameLarge computer generation, the S/360 on the market. Which is the basis architecture was today evolutionary continued to develop until (S/370, S/390, zSeries, system z9). To it the operating system OS/360 over OS/VS1 , MVS/370, MVS/XA, MVS/ESA became parallel and OS/390 to the current z/OS continues to develop.

The blue Logo of the company led Blue to the pointed name bends Blue also MON ago or.

The first IBM-PC, the model IBM 5150

in the year 1981 brought IBM then the first IBM-PCas competitors to Apple the II on the market. The standards and interfaces developed at that time by IBM coin/shape still the today's computers. Therefore one speaks also of IBM-compatible, even if of IBM meaning in the PC market by countless reproductions and advancementsother companies decreased/went back clearly. This became by a false estimate of the market on the part of IBM and thereupon took place release from interface and standard specifications made possible.

From the work in the laboratories (alone four from the IBM research lab Zurich in Rüschlikon) roundaround the world several physics Nobelpreise came out. The winners were:Leo Esaki (1973, experimental proof of tunnel phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors), Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (1986, for the invention of the raster tunnel microscope) as well as Johannes George Bednorz and KarlAlexander Mueller (1987, for the discovery of the high temperature superconductors). 2005 were world-wide IBM the three tenth year in consequence the enterprise with most patent applications.

In February 2001 the American Author Edwin Black published the book IBM and the Holocaust.In this he accuses IBM during the third realm over its subsidiary DEHOMAG with the Hitler regime to have co-operated and by the supplies of the Hollerith computers and the punch card technology the Holocaust in such a way have made logistically possible. Before it was IBMGermany GmbH already the remuneration fund for LV forced laborers joined. Complaints of the GIRCA (Gypsis internationally Recognition and Compensation Action) against IBM are from Swiss courts because of incompetence (Geneva in the years 1933 to 1945 company headquarters IBM was not there) and/or.Verjährung rejected.

Since end of the 1990er uses itself years IBM substantial for the development the open SOURCE projects, then Linux under participation of IBM strongly developed and to a server system became developed, which is suited for application of enterprises also.Other open SOURCE projects, which were strongly supported by IBM, was for example the Eclipse project. These efforts were not however also always completely unproblematic, then the company sued SCO Group since 2003 IBM because of alleged copyright infringement into thatCode, which IBM contributed to Linux.

As reaction to changed customer needs with large computers the enterprise was radically transformed in particular since the nineties-years: The portion of consultation and services was strongly increased, summarized organizational and last by the additional purchase of PwC Consulting (approx. 30,000 coworkers world-wide) in October 2002 contentwise and personnel further developed.

In December 2004 IBM decided to the door from the business with PCs and sold those to PC - section to the 1. May 2005 for 1.75 billion US Dollarto the Chinese computer manufacturer Lenovo. Before it the non removable disk section was already sold at Hitachi.

In the year 2004 IBM with world-wide 329,001 coworkers in 170 countries reached a conversion of 96.293 billion US Dollar and a net profit of 8.448 billion US Dollar. IBMthereby the world-wide largest offerer is in the range information technology (hardware, software and services).

Since March 2002 is Samuel J. Palmisano CEO of IBM. SAM Palmisano is the successor of Louis Gerstner Jr.from 1993 to 2002CEO was. With Louis Gerstner Jr. the post of the CEO was not occupied for the first time by its own coworker.


IBM global Business services (Umfirmierung of the consulting branch after assumption by PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting)

IBM ThinkPad R51

with consulting experts inover 160 countries IBM is global Business services the largest management consultation of the world.

IBM of system and Technology Group

IBM STG is responsible for the development and the selling of IT infrastructure solutions with the eServer systems, total STORAGE memory systems and pressure systems.iSeries with the operating system i5OS is used as integrated computer system frequently in the middle class range. pSeries with AIX is the Unix based system. xSeries with Microsoft Windows are the Intelsysteme IBM. zSeries with z/OS and/or. z/VM or z/VSE is the Mainframesysteme. UpeServern further different Linux distributions is to all at the disposal. To IBM the memory solutions belong the disk subsystems DS300/DS400 (Low ending), to DS4000 (avoiding rank) DS6000 and DS8000 (High ending) as well as the volume systems 3590, TS1120 or VTS, optical systems and SAN infrastructure components.

With the announcement thatIBM of system agenda are renamed gradually the products of the systems and Technology Group. Outrider is here the Mainframe flagship IBM system z9. Further products equivalent renamed e.g. in IBM system STORAGE DS4000 etc.

IBM software Group

IBM softwareGroup consists of the marks

IBM global Finance

with business activity in over 40 countries represents global to Finance world-wide the largest IT Finanzdienstleister. One of the operating fields is the leasing business for software, hardware andServices of the company.

IBM global services

with an annual turnover of USD 46.2 billion (2004) global in the last years as an important component of the enterprise established in that additionally far more than half of the coworkers their field of activity has itself servicesfind. Beside the consulting branch mainly the numerous service offers find it at home in this Berich. An example of possible achievements represents the range Strategic outsourcing, which offers the partial or complete assumption of IT-departments.

Operating fields from global Serivces are inParticular:

  • e-business Hosting services
  • Integrated Technology services
  • IT Strategic outsourcing
  • Technical support services and maintenance
  • IT management Consulting

IBM Germany

the seat IBM Germany GmbH is in Stuttgart.

IBM Germany of 31,100 coworkers employed 1990(2006 is it only about 25,000) and gained an annual turnover of 13,324 billion DM.

Today's subsidiaries:

  • csg computer service GmbH
  • IT-services and Solutions GmbH
  • SerCon of service concepts for information systems GmbH
  • IBM Germany development GmbH
  • IBM Germany credit bank GmbH
  • IBM middle classGmbH in
  • the Dotcom Boomjahren IBM and their subsidiaries
  • in many German cities addresses had opened systems

GmbH IBM Business services (BS) for GmbH IBM Application services (AS). After 2000 however many were again closed and/or. folded up.

One the first outsourcing - projectsIBM in Germany the assumption of the EDP was department of FAG ball Fischer. The address in pig ford, developed from it, was closed 2005 by IBM and the work abroad was shifted. The way of the location locking has many IBM coworkersdisconcerted.2003 were taken over the European computing centre of the German bank of IBM and IBM Business services GmbH was based, in which all outsourcing efforts IBM were summarized. In addition among other things the former daughters DVO and IBB belong.

Operating systems

IBM began together with Microsoft OS/2 as Desktop operating system for IBM-compatible PCs to develop. When Microsoft stepped out of this business, in order to concentrate completely on Windows as operating system for IBM-compatible computers, IBM developed the operating system further alone. Despitetechnical superiority could not OS/2 opposite ms Windows with final users become generally accepted, which led for adjustment the advancement. Mainly with banks, in addition, when insurance, airlines and in the manufacturing industry OS/2 is to be still found nowadays.

With the large computers IBM operating systems dominate(z/OS) the market.

IBM announces in February 1999 for the first time officially to support Linux as operating system platform and belonged already soon to its largest promoters. the company invests 2000 about a billion US Dollar into the development of the free operating system. Among other things a possibility was created, Linux on z/Series - computers of operating, alternatively directly or as guest system under the operating system z/VM. Thus server consolidations on the Mainframe become possible. Most Linux distributions is today also for z/Seriesavailable.

On the power processor based workstations and Enterprise servers (e.g. RS/6000 or pSeries) of IBM AIX , an Unix developed by IBM runs - derivative. IBM makes a selection available for AIX before-compiled from usually by Linux well-known free software.In addition there is the AIX in such a way specified Toolbox on the web pages by IBM. Also a pure 64-bit Linux can be used on all modern pSeries servers.

Further the power CCUs become into the i5 - servers uses, those beside the IBM-own operating system i5/OS also Linux, AIX as well as over special plug-in cards (IPCS; Integrated PC server) also Windows as operating system in a machine integrated to implement can.


of IBM developed computer processors:

firm culture

  • 1935 becamethe first woman with IBM as a specialist employed. The director at that time of the company Thomas J. Watson SR. wrote in addition: “Men and women will perform the same work for same money. They are directly treated, the same responsibility to take andthe same development chances receive. “
  • 1953 committed itself the company in an explanation that the company would employ Fachkräfte only due to its ability, “without consideration for race, skin color or Glaubensbekenntnisse”. 1984 were taken up sexual orientation to this anti-discrimination rule.
  • To 10. October 2005 made IBM as a first multinationally operating company a declaration, in which it obligated itself to use neither in the framework of new employment nor for other personnel decisions genetic data of the coworkers or applicants.

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