Industrial union colors

industrial union colors is the common abbreviation of industrial union dye industry AG, the formerly largest German chemistry enterprise, which was formed 1926 from a multiplicity of chemistry enterprises and 1946 were dissolved by resolution of the allied control council.

Table of contents

establishment

the community of interests 1904 based of

therefore was called it also three-federation. The industrial union was limited first to exchange of experience and renouncement of competition by common products. Modelin addition Trusts were - trusts in the USA, e.g. Standard oil. Trusts were central corporations, developed by the combination of several corporations, which kept formally their existence, actually each independence lost. The elimination of the competition permitted maximization of profit and simplerIntersperse own interests.

the First World War

during the First World War (1916) the enterprises Cassella

  • ( Leopold Cassella & cost, GmbH, Frankfurt) closed
  • chem. one. Factory Griesheim electron, Griesheim
  • chem. one. Factories pre-mounts. Weiler ter seas, Uerdingen
  • most pre-mounts (inking attachments.Master, Lucius and. Brüning, most A. Main)
  • Kalle (Kalle & cost. AG, Wiesbaden Biebrich)

for the extended community of interests of the German tar color factories on. The enterprises remained however legally independent. Enormous profits could be ensured by this Kartellbildung on the one hand and powerful war guidance on the other hand. ThoseProduction of poisonous gas agents, in addition, the ammonia synthesis as raw material for the explosive after the Haber-Bosch-process, which reduced raw material dependence (Salpeter) strongly, are as most important products of the I.G. at this time mentions.

the industrial unionDye industry AG

the head office in Frankfurt/Main

only 1925/1926 was created the industrial union dye industry AG in Frankfurt/Main, by change of name of the aniline and Sodafabrik of Baden, which took up then the other enterprises. Carl Bosch by the BASF first chairman of the board , Carl Duisberg of Bavarian AG of first supervisory board chairmen , was in whom among other things also Fritz Haber member was. The Einzelunternehmungen were now only branches of the industrial union. The capital stock amounted to after the fusion 1926approximately 1.1 billion realm Marks, the number of persons employed over 80.000. The company was prominent in the atmospheric nitrogen industry as well as in the production of tar colors, explosives and fibers. The head office of the industrial union colors in Frankfurt was at the time at that time one thatlargest office buildings of Europe.

Already for the thirties a system of mutual participation of industrial union colors and DuPont existed.

the industrial union colors and the LV state

1926 began the production of synthetic gasoline, after that in Leuna Bergius procedure made of coal hydrogenates. There was the danger that this would become one of the largest bad investments, because the production costs were ever higher than with the natural gasoline. Medium-term the gasoline synthesis was not survivable without assistance of the state.

Therefore searched in the summer 1932 the director of the Leuna works Heinrich Bütefisch the contact to Adolf Hitler in Munich, in order to find out whether the synthetic gasoline of the industrial union too expensive for the world market was made competitive by protective duties also further. Hitler made clear to it that heGerman fuel necessarily for a politically independent Germany for compellingly judged. This were after Carl Bosch “reasonable opinions”, which were supported 1932 with the highest single donation of the German industry at a value of 400.000 realm Marks in the framework by Hitler's election campaign. Underthe presidency of Carl Bosch the industrial union color general assembly at the beginning of of December 1932 the program of the “Agrarkartellierung” agreed, an interest compromise of industry and Grossagrariern. This resolution of the then largest company of Europe prepared also the way to the LV dictatorship (Borkin 1986, S 57f.[1]; Son Rethel 1992, S. 87 [2]).

The new government closed for it still 1933 with the industrial union colors a contract over paragraph and minimum price warranty for 350.000 tons synthetic gasoline and protected so the enterprise altogether 300 million realm Marks loss. 1935became Hermann Schmitz successor of Carl Bosch as chairman of the board and 1940 Carl Krauch successor as a supervisory board chairman. Krauch had a dual function. It made also in the government career and was in the end director of the armament-economical control center and authorized persons for special questionschemical production. To 1937 almost all directors of the industrial union were member of the NSDAP. The supervisory board members of the industrial union called themselves in the internal circle “the advice of the Gods”.

The giant enterprise industrial union colors expanded strongly; belonged to it to point times in Germany200 works, as well as about 400 German and 500 foreign enterprise participation.

the Vorkriegsepoche

with nitrogen production for the production of ammunition, Buna synthetic rubber as india rubber replacement, synthetic gasoline from coal and magnesium under the designation electron was so forwardsto make that and in the Second World War with appropriate quantity and price guarantees by the ruling powers of most profitable business. Further well-known products of industrial union colors were among other things the plastic perlon and the nerve gas tabun.

Since 1929 with the standardOil OF new jersey existing business relations (and trust arrangements) were maintained also during the Second World War. The industrial union played an important role in the four-year plan. Thus Hitler's memorandum was based to the four-year plan on documents of the industrial union and in the consequence became manyPost of the four-year plan authority with industrial union coworkers occupies, to who the company paid extraordinarily high salaries, in order to keep it connected with the company.

the Second World War

of the 43 Hauptprodukten of the industrial union during the war were 28 products of armamentMeaning. The industrial union colors, it transferred a set of chemical plants in the occupied areas, like the Skoda works Wetzler in Jewish possession.

The strong need at raw materials for war guidance, like Synthetikkautschuk and - gasoline, led 1941 to the establishment of a large Bunafabrikin Auschwitz. The financing expenses at a value of approx. 1 billion realm Mark carried the industrial union colors alone, in order to be able to remain gentleman in such a way in the own house. For the prisoners, who had to build the factory, specially the concentration camp became mono joke, Auschwitz IIIestablished. In this the industrial union was responsible for the accommodation and food supply and the SS for the guard and the exchange of the forced laborers. After different investigations are during the building and production in the I.G. Color work Auschwitz Monowitz over 25.000 prisonersaround the life come. A subsidiary of the I.G. The pesticide cyclone B , which was used in the Gaskammern of the extermination camps to the mass murder, supplied colors the company Degesch (German society for Schädlingsbekämpfung).

dissolution after 1945

after the completeThe allied ones with the conversion of the Dekartellisierungsbeschlüsse agreed upon before to the conference of Jalta began occupation of Germany. The Dekartellisierung of the German economy rose from the considerations from the Morgenthauplan. A goal was to be split up it armament-economically enterprises important in particular and/or by disassembliesto destroy. Background of this measure was thereby Germany durably the armament-economical Potenzial that the campaigns of the Second World War had only made possible to extract. The allied ones created their own control organ, allied industrial union color control for the largest and armament-economically most important chemistry enterprise. With the instruction 124 the SMAD of 30. October 1945 had placed the USSR the works of the industrial union colors in their zone of occupation under their control. Due to the entwinement of the company particularly with the powerful American standard oil becamesmashing the company in the western zones of occupation however consistently does not pursue.1951 were decided in the Federal Republic to resume and separate from the industrial union colors of their original components again the enterprise. As official follow-up enterprises in June 1952 were designated: Agfa, BASF, Cassella, Huels (chemical works Hüls AG, Marl), Bavarian AG, most AG, Duisburger Kupferhütte AG, Kalle, Wacker chemistry Munich, dynamite AG Troisdorf, Wasag chemistry AG.

Apart from splitting the use with “ industrial union” of the beginning becameLabel names forbids, and so for example Igepon in Hostapon was renamed. Otherwise the enterprises could lead their work nearly as before further and successfully conquered in the following decades the world markets, without making itself thereby seriously mutually competition.

In den Nürnberger Prozessen wurden einige 23 leitende Angestellte vor Gericht gestellt, zwölf von ihnen wurden zu Gefängnisstrafen verurteilt, u. A. Hermann Schmitz because of “plundering” to four years, Carl Krauch and Heinrich Bütefisch, director of the industrial union Auschwitz, in each case because of “enslavement”to six years detention.

See also:

of the smaller

enterprises in the subsequent years exist industrial union color process [work on] today only Agfa, Bavarian and BASF. The most AG existed since the union with Rhône Poulenc too Aventis 1999 as German intermediate getting thing and was only taken over 2004 of Sanofi Synthélabo ( today Sanofi Aventis).

At the 1. January 1952 stepped the industrial union into liquidation and called themselves industrial union dye industry AG i.L.. By the liquidation conclusion law of 21. January 1955the industrial union colors from control of the allied ones was taken. After the following general meeting to 27. May 1955 was the industrial union colors for many decades in completion (industrial union dye industry AG i. A.). Their only task was it to administer old requirementsto take over and the legal responsibility. Continuing the industrial union colors permitted also to a large extent to exclude the responsibility for during the time of the third realm the committed crimes and in addition on the industrial union dye industry AG i. to the come out chemistry enterprises. A.to refer. Former forced laborers as well as some shareholders demanded again and again that the enterprise was used finally dissolved and its capital for remunerations.

To 10. The liquidators of the industrial union colors insolvency announced November 2003 . Reason are financial difficulties of the holding companyWCM, with which also the liquidity of the industrial union is no longer sufficiently secured colors.

If one sums the today's conversions up of the largest involved companies, the industrial union colors would come 2004 on a conversion of approx. 103 billion €. This corresponds to the gross incomethe four largest chemical concerns of the world. The turnover-strongest chemical concern of the world, the BASF, obtained 2004 an annual turnover of approx. 35 billion €

literature

  • Joseph Borkin: The unheilige alliance of the industrial union colors. A community of interests in the third realm.Campus,Frankfurt/Main 1990, ISBN 3-593-34251-0
  • federal trade conference of the chemistry trade associations/working group industrial union colors (Hrsg.): … from aniline to hard labour. The way of a monopoly by history. To the emergence and development of the German chemical industry. To AStA DO Berlin, Berlin 1994
  • Josiah E. DuBois: TheDevil's Chemists. 24 conspirators OF the internationally colors Cartel who manufacture wars. Beacon press, bad clay/tone 1952
  • Dirk heel wood: The electro-chemical works in bitter field 1914-1945. A location of the industrial union dye industry AG. LIT, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7656-x
  • Peter Hayes: Industry and Ideology. Industrial unionColors into the Nazi Era. 2. Edition. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 2001, ISBN 0-521-78638-X
  • Charles Higham: Trading with the Enemy. Exposé OF the Nazi American money plot on 1933 - 1949. Delacorte, New York 1983, ISBN 0-440-09064-4 (Higham occupies the thesis:without the support from barrier Street banks, US industry and Great Britain a LV dictatorship would have been much less probable.)
  • Otto charcoal burner: ... and today the whole world. The history of the industrial unionColors and their fathers. Rapidly and raw ring, Hamburg, Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-89136-081-9
  • Stephan H. Lindner: Most: A I.G. Colors work in the third realm. C.H. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52959-3
  • James Stewart Martin: All honorable Men.Little, Brown & company, bad clay/tone1950
  • January large Nobis: The industrial union COLORS and the end of the Weimar Republic. Münster 1994 (only on-line one with www.ig-farben.org)
  • Gottfried awkward one: The I.G. Dye industry AG: Economics, technology and politics 1904-1945. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990
  • the industrial union colors playa large role in the novel Gravity's Rainbow of Thomas Pynchon.
    • Thomas Pynchon: Gravity's Rainbow. Vintage, London 1995, ISBN 0-09-953321-9
    • Thomas Pynchon: The ends of the parabola. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1998, ISBN 3-49-809332-0 (German translation)
  • Alfreds son Rethel: Industry andNational socialism. Recordings from the” Central European economic congress “. Car brook, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-8031-2204-X

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