A standard for coding of geographical units is published the ISO 3166, of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
It consists former States of (ISO 3166-3)
- of three parts for the coding of existing states and unites
- dependent areas (ISO 3166-1)
- subnationalen units (ISO 3166-2)
table of contents
the first part (ISO 3166-1) lists since 1974 among other things two (ALPHA-2) and three-letter (ALPHA-3) land contractions up. Countries are marked thereby by capital letters. Thosezweibuchstabigen contractions become among other things as Top level Domain - qualifier (TLD) for states uses (e.g. www.denic .de) - with exception of the united kingdom, for which uk instead of gb one used.
Those alpha-2Cdesert form also first the twoIndication of the Währungscodes according to ISO 4217.
Furthermore they become in the IBAN, in ISO 7372, ISO 9375, ISO/CInternational Electronical Commission 7501-1 (standard for machine-readable travel documents), which UN/LOCODE uses as well as the WIPO standard ST.3.
AA, ZZ and the rangesQM-QZ and XA-XZ are reserved for private use.
geographical one (ISO 3166) vs. linguistic (ISO 639) organization
the land coding is often indicated deviating from the standard in small letters. This can to the mistake with the ISO-639 - language codes lead, those often,but not always, which code usually-spoken language in this country. DE/de stand for FR/fr for Germany/German, stand for France/French, but BE/be stand for Belgium/Byelorussian.
While ISO 3166 describes the geographical organization, ISO 639 defines the linguistic organization
The organization into Geografie and language results in nevertheless sense: for example it applies that German is not only spoken only in Germany and French in France; in additionthere are countries, which have more than an official language (z. B. Switzerland) or a language, which is designated to another country (z. B. Brazil with Portuguese).
In combination with that Language codes according to ISO 639 for languages the RFC [ 1] the indication of language contractions explains like one it used for Locales, to z. B. en_US (English language in the area of the United States of America; American) contrary to en_GB (English language inArea of the united kingdom; British). The language contractions are symbolized here by small letters, the countries by capital letters. Beside underlined (English. underscore) is also often used as separator the hyphen. Locales do not however only define a national language and/or.Regional language, but are consulted also for the localization.
a recent standard ISO 3166-2 defines short forms for the subdivisions from countries or dependent areas. For example in case of of Germany are the Lands of the Federal Republic. For this follows the national code(z. B. DE) still the ISO-3166-2 - variance - code. This is likewise separated, by an under or a hyphen, attached the national code (z. B. DE-BY) for the region/ the Land of the Federal Republic Bavaria.
ISO 3166-3 forms since 1974all countries off, any longer do not exist and/or. because of significant change of the national designation changed for their contractions (z. B. by unions of countries or landing hurrying).
- DIN EN ISO 3166. (German-language variant of the ISO 3166).
Web on the left of
- http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/02iso-3166-code-lists/index.html (there all Ländercodes are in various formats down loadable as for instance XML or mdb).