I went

the I went (chin. 易经/易經, Yì jīng, W. - G. I Ching, also: I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King), „the book of the transformations “or „classical authors of the transformations “is the oldest of the classical Chinese texts. The book is also as Zhōu yí (chin. 周易) or Chou I admits, what means as much as „transformations of Zhou “. From this one can close that the tradition saw an origin in the Zhou dynasty.

The I went contains those Cosmology and philosophy old China. Philosophies are a balance of the opposites and accepting the change. The book describes the world in 64 pictures, which consist of continuous or interrupted lines (Hexagramme). In the western cultures becomesparticularly as wisdom and pointing saying book understood.

Table of contents

of quotations over the I went

„I-going is the oldest philosophicalBook of mankind, it resulted from it that an age-old Orakelbuch was ethicalally described, from primitive line characters made one mental movements: it applied to seize the germs of the happening knows one the germs, is influenceable all further one. One built a wholePsychology inside into these lines with the originally simple contrast of firm and softly. “
(Rudolf of Delius: Eternal China)
„it gives books, which one cannot read, books of the holy one and the wisdom, in their company andAtmosphere one for many years to live can, without it ever in such a way to read like one other books reads. Parts of the Bible belong to these books, and Tao width unit king. From these books a sentence is sufficient, in order to fill for for a long time, for for a long timeto employ, for are enough to penetrate. One has these books easily attainable to lie, or carries her in the bag, if one goes into the forest, and reads never half or whole hours in it, but takes a saying only each time,a line out, in order to meditieren in order again and again to put up apart from all the stuff of the daily, also that the remaining reading, the yardstick of the large one and holy one. “
(Hermann Hessian: My handling the I went)

The philosophical background

the change of the world

in the understanding of the creators of the I went is the world a whole running off after certain laws, whose forms from the permanent transformation of the two polar Urkräfte develop. The basic principlesis the creative (fig. No. 1, = sky, light, celebration, yang ,…) and the receiving (fig. No. 2, = earth, darkness, soft, yin,…). All world situations consist of an ever specific Yin Yang mixture. The creative is always strong, without trouble, andshows therefore the easy, the receiving is always flexible and shows therefore the simple. Their cooperating is the actual secret of the transformations and its cause, their interaction produces itself the Tao, the change or the form, after that the thingsmove.

The 64 pictures or indication (Hexagramme) are images of Göttlichen ideas, of basic constellations of the light, himmlischen Kraft appearing into that things yang and the dark, terrestrial Kraft yin. The indications have in their line shape in addition, directly portionat the not visible world of göttlicher laws and/or. Number systems, are manifestations of göttlicher naturenesses and therefore not only symbols.

orientation in the world

after the excessive quantity are the 64 pictures of the I went by the ways of theAntiquity by observation of the manifestations created and “all possible conditions on ground connection” are to exhaust. Who went therefore the I knows, know yourself working the Gods - and could with their working groups.

The changes of the world are considered asinfluenceable and not only as fate. Changes are chances, possibilities and also dangers of acting - the I went is therefore not only a Orakel, but also a “learning book” for the knowing, manual of the intelligence.

Neither it concerns thatthe changes rear spar he running still around against the changes fighting. The goal is rather that the “noble ones” orient themselves at the change and keep in it that they outlast in the changing constellations and in the change of their. Always is to do, what corresponds to the time best: it applies to go with the time to wait on its time for etc. “Time” is the change of the objective or social constellation of the forces to more favorable possibilities. The means in additionthe Philosophieren over the pictures and judgements as well as the computation of the future with the Orakel are (see. the methods of the pointing saying here in this article).

In many places of the I become the following warnings went and/or. Constant ones repeats:

  • Always is that Consciousness of the danger necessarily, in order to prepare for the change internally and outwardly. It always applies to remain for the change of the time on the trace to move consciously to change.
  • Herein a position of the center is important, inMeasure stops, a durable attitude, which does not bet on extremes.
  • Without persistence (hold to the goals of the good one and protection) no way, the change affected above all how and less which is.
  • No goal approximation without the continuing attempt that Self realization and self-checking.
  • The common ones (the simple people) are and remain a danger for the true and property.

Taoismus or Konfuzianismus?

Taoisti and/or. daoistische conceptions are central in the I went and the dialectic and/or. a binaryistic character(see.Dualism) of the Taoismus is excellently represented by the two parts of the Hexagramme. After smelling pool of broadcasting corporations William, whose kongeniale translation of the I went from 1923 also today still to yardstick of all things is, is the Taoismus the basis of thewhole book, but he was prepared in detail only later and described.

An alternative aspect understands the I went as a purely konfuzianisches work. This view is justified as follows:

  • The beginnings are attributed Confucius.
  • In old China was the I wenta prescribed study text, and only konfuzianische texts were obligatory.
  • It is one of the konfuzianistischen classical authors.
  • There is found in none of the old manuscripts Dào dé jīng.
  • The most important comments were written by Konfuzianern.

the 64 Hexagramme

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To history

it is accepted that the principles of the I went on one of the first legendary rulers, Fu Xi (伏羲 Fú Xī, not historically 2852 v. Chr.- 2738 v. Chr.) decrease/go back; this discovered the Trigramme.Before the Zhou dynasty there was other literature to the topic ‚changes `, z. B.Lián Shān Yì (chin. 連山易) and Gūi Cáng Yì (chin.歸藏易), their philosophy the Zhou dynasty coined/shaped. A refinement process has then the I went intothe Han dynasty (approx.200 v. Chr., about at present the Hàn Wǔ Dì (chin. 漢武帝) produces.

Many Orakelknochen are received from the second pre-Christian millenium, on which in the form of „question, answer and material exit of the question “Questionings documented. „The text “of the I did not go was at that time however obviously yet present, but the Orakel seems to have been determined due to the intuition of the asking and probably also delivered rules. It can thus of an originally verbalTradierung of the text to be gone out.

„The text “of the I went then probably only in the sixth or seventh pre-Christian century developed, the earliest today still existing copy dated out of approximately 200 v.Chr and tunes with the today's text amazingly strongly.

The merit/service, the I went „into the west brought “having, comes above all to the German Sinologen smelling pool of broadcasting corporations William , its immensely influential translation, which it completed with the help of a Chinese master of this art 1924, until today is unequalled.

by 64 different

line compositions, Hexagramme (guà) went to lines and their meanings of the symbolism of the I is called, represented. A hexadecimal gram consists of six horizontal lines (yáo); each line is either unbroken (hard, continuous)or broken (softly, in the center interrupted). From these six lines 2 6, D leaves themselves. h. 64 hexadecimal gram combinations form.

The indications are thus formed for 3 lines from 2 X, from two “Trigrammen”. The continuous lines are considered as thosefirm, light, with high order, those interrupted lines are considered as the soft, dark, smaller. The lines have different rank and meaning after their places from bottom to top. The stressed lines of the lower half character occur those “coming” the indication, are,stressed lines in the upper half character are “going”. The lowest and the highest line of an indication are always located in connection to other indications/conditions and do not belong not to the core characters.

The 64 pictures or basic characters describe forces (1 + 2), situations orTasks (3 + 5 + 6 + 10…), Family (31 + 37 + 54), personal characteristics or abilities (4 + 8 + 9 + 14…), concrete activities (Wanderer, 56), political phases (11 + 12 + 18 + 21…) -usually they contain abstract terms with several interpretation possibilities. An example from the fig. No. 1, “the creative”:The creative works raised success, promoting by persistence. The sky movement is strong. Thus the noble one makes itself strong and untiring.Without explanationssuch Epigramme is obviously puzzling and a little understandable. Therefore a set of comments in the course of the centuries, which described this Epigramme, developed.

All 64 pictures can have in each case 6 auxiliary references according to whether with the determination of the indication (see. those Methods of the pointing saying here in this article) a line as “strongly” and/or. “one identified actively” or only as “weakly”. The 64 pictures describe thus already 384 situations or give appropriate behavior pieces of advice.

There each of the 64 indications by change of one orseveral lines into all different to change, gives it knows to 64 X 64 = 4096 different implicit transitions or possibilities of turning a situation over. The extensive arithmetic operations necessary when raising the numerical values therefore a cause of a developing on I-going becameZahlenmystik.

the parts of the Hexagramme

historical is the I went much older than the Yīn Yáng teachings, the following allocations however with the time usual became:

The pulled through line stands for yáng: Expansion, maskuliner aspect, light,Life, odd numbers, penetration, mountains; in India of the Lingam. Symbol is the Drache.

The interrupted line stands for yīn: Concentration, feminine aspect, darkness, night, death, straight numbers, resistance, watercourses; in India Yoni. Symbolis the tiger.

One finds both explained also in the symbol tàijítú (traditionally, in the west also Yin Yang - symbol); behind it a cyclic conception of the world with a complementary balance of power hides itself.

In order to simplify the representation of the Hexagramme, become inThe following pulled through lines as “|” and interrupted as “¦” represented. Normally they are from bottom to top represented; here they are from left to right arranged. By a turn of the representation around 90 degrees against the clockwise direction, selected here, reachesone the usual representation.

the four Xià (sì xià)

from two lines can be built up four different “pictures” (Xià):

  • || old Yang
  • |¦ young Yang
  • ¦¦ old Yin
  • ¦| young Yin

the transformation takes place thereby in oneeternal cycle: Of the old Yang, to the young Yin, to the old Yin, to the young Yang, to the old Yang: || -> ¦| -> ¦¦ -> |¦ -> || -> ...

the eight Guà (bā guà)

by adding in each case oneYáng or Yīn develop from the four Xià eight Trigramme (Guà).

These give however only a static picture. Only the extension to the 64 Hexagrammen makes it possible to represent a dynamic happening since the Trigramme stands to each other here in reciprocal effect.

the Hexagramme are understood compound from two Trigrammen (guà) thus in each case. The eight Trigramme (bā guà) are:

  1. ||| Kraft (qián) = sky (tiān)
  2. ¦¦¦ field (kūn) = earth()
  3. |¦¦ vibration (zhèn) = thunder (léi)
  4. ¦|¦ ravine (kǎn) = water (shǔi)
  5. ¦¦| Federation (gèn) = mountain (shān)
  6. ¦|| Soil (xùn) = wind(fēng)
  7. |¦| Radiation () = fires (hǔo)
  8. ||¦ open (dùi) = sump ()

the first or lower tri gram is regarded as the internal aspect of the change running off; second orupper tri gram the outside aspect is called. The described change connects thus the internal aspect (person) with the outside situation. The Hexagramme from bottom to top , whereby in each case the so-called is read. Ranks 1-4, 2-5, 3-6 of the two Trigramme inConnection to be seen to have.

the individual Hexagramme

No. Indication meaning 中文 Pīnyīn
01 ||| ||| Creative qián
02 ¦¦¦ ¦¦¦ the receiving kūn
03 |¦¦ ¦|¦ the initial difficulty chún
04 ¦|¦ ¦¦| The youth foolishness méng
05 ||| ¦|¦ waiting
06 ¦|¦ ||| The controversy sòng
07 ¦|¦ ¦¦¦ the army shī
08 ¦¦¦ ¦|¦ holding together
09 ||| ¦|| The small Zähmungskraft 小畜 xiǎo chù
10 ||¦ ||| The occurrence
11 ||| ¦¦¦ the peace taì
12 ¦¦¦ ||| The stagnation
13 |¦| ||| Community with humans 同人 tóng rén
14 ||| |¦| The possession of large one 大有 dà yǒu
15 ¦¦| ¦¦¦ the modesty qiān
16 ¦¦¦ |¦¦ the enthusiasm
17 |¦¦ ||¦ the follow-up suí
18 ¦|| ¦¦| The work on the spoiling
19 ||¦ ¦¦¦ the approximation lín
20 ¦¦¦ ¦|| The view guān
21 |¦¦ |¦| The Durchbeissen 噬嗑 shì kè
22 |¦| ¦¦| The beauty
23 ¦¦¦ ¦¦| Splintering
24 |¦¦ ¦¦¦ the Wendezeit
25 |¦¦ ||| Innocence 無妄 wú wàng
26 ||| ¦¦| The large Zähmungskraft 大畜 dà chù
27 |¦¦ ¦¦| The nutrition
28 ¦|| ||¦ large predominance 大過 dà guò
29 ¦|¦ ¦|¦ the Abgründige kǎn
30 |¦| |¦| The fire
31 ¦¦| ||¦ the effect xián
32 ¦|| |¦¦ the duration héng
33 ¦¦| ||| The retreat dùn
34 ||| |¦¦ large power 大壯 dà zhuàng
35 ¦¦¦ |¦| The progress jìn
36 |¦| ¦¦¦ the darkening of the light 明夷 míng yí
37 |¦| ¦|| The kinship 家人 jiā rén
38 ||¦ |¦| The contrast kúi
39 ¦¦| ¦|¦ the obstacle jiǎn
40 ¦|¦ |¦¦ release xìe
41 ||¦ ¦¦| The decrease sǔn
42 |¦¦ ¦|| The increase
43 ||| ||¦ the break-through guài
44 ¦|| ||| The obligingness gòu
45 ¦¦¦ ||¦ the collection cùi
46 ¦|| ¦¦¦ the Empordringen shēng
47 ¦|¦ ||¦ the distress kùn
48 ¦|| ¦|¦ the well jǐng
49 |¦| ||¦ the circulation
50 ¦|| |¦| The crucible dǐng
51 |¦¦ |¦¦ the exciting zhèn
52 ¦¦| ¦¦| Silence stops gèn
53 ¦¦| ¦|| The development jiàn
54 ||¦ |¦¦ the marrying girl 歸妹 gūi mèi
55 |¦| |¦¦ the abundance fēng
56 ¦¦| |¦| The Wanderer
57 ¦|| ¦|| The gentle xùn
58 ||¦ ||¦ the cheerful dùi
59 ¦|¦ ¦|| The dissolution huàn
60 ||¦ ¦|¦ the restriction jíe
61 ||¦ ¦|| Internal truth 中孚 zhōng fú
62 ¦¦| |¦¦ small predominance 小過 xiǎo gùo
63 |¦| ¦|¦ after the completion 既濟 jì jì
64 ¦|¦ |¦| Before the completion 未濟 wèi jì

the text of the I went describes everyone of the sixty-four Hexagramme (64 Guà). Later comments and interpretations were added. All these collected form thatI went.
The Hexagramme represents noticing rules of the concepts contained in them, which are based on a philosophy of the balance of the opposites and accepting the change.

went to methods

of the pointing saying the I became and becomes also as Orakelasked. However this is only one of the sieved traditional daoistischen interpretations of the I went (others would be for example philosophical, magic…). For this purpose one of the 64 Hexagramme is selected in each case, and that with the hexadecimal gram associated text read and interprets,altogether eight Hexagramme form a complete forecast.

Selecting the Hexagrammes took place originally using 50 dried Stängeln of the sheep sheaf, today in addition thin Stäbchen from wood, metal or ivory is used. Simplified to be expressed after a ritual cleaningthe area the 50 Stäbchen taken into the left hand and one away-put, afterwards the 49 remaining in two accumulating up will be repeated divided, a procedure for a complete hexadecimal gram eighteen time must - so one a complete forecastwould like. (after William) this method required obviously experience and ability in handling with these Orakeltechnik and presupposes intensive occupation. Later a method developed around simpler questions faster to therefore answer in form of a Münzorakels.

This kind of the Orakelsprobably became in China since the epoch the arguing realms (403-221 v. Chr.) applied. After the legend developed the Münzorakel of the I went through the daoistischen Eremiten and philosopher GUI Guo di. The Münzmethode found in the Chinese societysoon a far spreading. The number of coins used in each case was however different. In connection with the I became generally accepted finally the method of the three coins went as far as possible. The questioning of the Orakels should immediately after or during the Meditationtake place.

The number of 3 is assigned to the front of a coin, the back the number of 2. For each Münzwurf there are eight possible combinations with the sums 6, 7, 8 and 9. The 6 and 8 corresponds to a Yīn (broken line).The 7 and 9 corresponds to Yáng (unbroken line). The lines again result in, from bottom to top, a hexadecimal gram, which went in the I is described.

The 9 lines or lines of an indication determined with the numbers 6 and are the so-called.“strong” or “active” lines.Active lines give an auxiliary reference (line judgement) to the main sense of an indication. They are it, which can dissolve an indication, therefore these lines as “changing lines” are particularly marked and interpreted individual. The kind of the dissolution of an indicationis important for the forecast: from the transformation of the indication outgoing from an active line the next picture results, thus the next possibility resulting from a situation. Active lines contain into the nuce future the asking.

Therefore it giveswith the forecasts with all conceivable possibilities of changing lines a probability of 1 4096 to receive exactly the same pointing saying.

picture chains as life narration

the 64 indications with their 384 comments and 4096 transformation possibilities - whichdo they say to us in their connection about the life of the individuals and the change of the determining forces in the society today? In the following one tries to approach an answer over the order of the indications.

A. Historical one Sequences

historical arose several sequences of the indications: William calls the early or before-lay consequence after the pairs of opposites and the later, internal-lay consequence with the 8 basic characters after temporal stepping out of the forces (thunder, wind, rain, etc.) in the cycle of theYearly. A sequence by A) the gradual change of the individual lines from a logical starting point (Yin Yang dialectic) or b) by the classification of thematically matching indications in character strings (see. Attempt down) does not seem to have given it.

In one of the old comments9 indications (10, 15, 24, 32, 41, 42, 47, 48, 57) are arranged as from outside to inside going characteristics; thus there was already at that time the idea of an arrangement after contents of, although no principle of the development.

Into thatthe following 2 picture chains of the individual and the social change are alternatively arranged nearly all 64 pictures. Another sequence and also a “mixing” would be naturally at any time possible. Nevertheless these overall views have an amazing topicality as compression of also today's experiences -over more mehrer thousand years of human history away.

A logical-genetic connection contradicts partially I-going, since all indications can follow directly apart, thus in a kind matrix generally is linked; overall views of long-term developments develop nevertheless, in by these two following chainsthose over-individual and over-historical experiences appear.

b. Change of the particular/odyssey:

Young humans step on (25), from beauty (22) and with own regulation (50), learns models (17) with a master (4), looks for themselves, becomes enthusiasticfor certain goals (16) and career (35) steps, steps into a kinship (37), has against others on (38), closes a Gefolgschaft on (45), works satisfactorily in initial difficulties (3), serves a gentleman also in difficult times (55) and makes, prosperity (27) acquires its advantage (41) and wins as an advisor influence on its Mr. (9).

But with the solution of a task it comes into an extremely difficult layer (47), in that it the unexpected obstacles in its faith shakes andnearly to despair leave (51) - he must stop (52). A new development becomes only now possible (53), which leads it to the insight into the own weaknesses (62) and thus to the modesty (15). It will consider its situation (20), its personalBasis determine again (30), its way correct (24) and win a careful persistence in doing (29). Now it touches its partyness and egoisms off (59), finds a cheerful basic tendency (58) and remains time of his life a Wanderer (56): In thatStranger living, with few acquaintance, powerlessly, on the hat, with small luggage. Perhaps he achieves a late success. Its largest success however is: it wins thereby on duration (32). The life way of an individual runs over the phases of the ascent, thatCrisis and new meditation to a auskömmlichen end, the change of the society seem endless against it:

C. Change of the society/political dialectic:

In the short peace the differences (11, 63) grow, a large one win Gefolgschaft (14), the influence winat Kraft (31, 57), which can do large ones power skillfully zähmen (26) and power begins to disintegrate (23). The large one begins carefully with challenges (10), it wins open and secret allied ones (8). Finally it determines sent the time thatRevolution (5, 49), organized its army and looks for the fight (7, 6).

Both sides sit down now too (39), but the offensive rigidly (12). One of the sides draws itself back (33), their weakness grows (36). The other side wins thoseSupremacy (28) and secures their victory (43, 40). The winners analyze the causes of the opposition (61) and punish the guilty ones (21) and build their power out (19). They reform the old system (18, 48) and set new rules (60). Itintegrate many with same rights into the new system (44, 42) and widen their basis (13, 64). In peacetime a new upswing (11) begins. The new upswing increases the differences - the development begins again. During the life way of the individualits natural end finds, is appropriate the conception of a cycle to the change of the society to reason.


  • I went, in the translation from smelling pool of broadcasting corporations William, ISBN 3-424-00061-2
  • Chu San D. Bölter: Yi Jing, the book of the transformation, ISBN 3896200925
  • Hermann G. Bohn: The Rezeption of the Zhouyi in Chinese philosophy, ISBN 3-89675-282-0
  • Anthony, Carol K.: Manual to the classical I went. Munich, Diederichs, 1. Edition 1989.
  • Diederichs, Ulf (Hrsg.): Went to experiences with the I. Of creative handling the bookthe transformations. Cologne, Diederichs, 1. Edition 1984.
  • Engler, Friedrich K.: The bases of the I-Ching. Life, life laws, life order. Freiburg in mash gau, Aurum publishing house, 1987.
  • Hertzer, Dominique: The old and the new Yijing. The transformations of the book of the transformations. Munich, Diederichs,1996.
  • Hook, Diana ffarington: I went for progressing. Structures, forces, combinations. Cologne, Diederichs, 1. Edition 1983.
  • Moog, Hanna (Hrsg.): Life with the I went. Experiences from art, therapy, occupation and everyday life. Munich, Diederichs, 1996.
  • Walter, Katya: Chaos research, IAnd genetic code went. Munich, Diederichs, 1992.
  • William, light courage: The transformation. To the I went to eight essays. Frankfurt/Main, Suhrkamp publishing house, 1. Edition 1985.

Web on the left of

see also

the five classical authors

  1. book of the transformations
  2. book of the songs
  3. book of the documents
  4. book of the rites
  5. spring and autumn annals
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