Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (* 22. April 1724 in king mountain; † 12. February 1804 ebd.) is considered as one of the most important philosophers.

Table of contents


Immanuel (in the baptismal register: Emanuel) Kant was the fourth child of the Riemermeisters Johann George Kant (1683-1746) and its Mrs. Anna Regina (1697-1737), geb. Reuter; from its altogether eight brothers and sisters reached however only four the adult age. Its parents' house was strongly pietistischcoined/shaped, its nut/mother for education very unlocked. Thus he came 1732 to the Friedrichskollegium, was promoted and already began 1740 with the study to the Albertina, the Königsberger university. Although for theology written, interested itself Kant very much for thoseNatural sciences. The professor for logic and Metaphysik, Martin Knutzen, made him familiar with the theories of Leibniz and Newton.

Lock Waldburg Capustigall

1748 broke Kant off its study (temporarily), because its work „thoughts of the true estimation of the aliveForces one did not recognize “of his pietistischen professor Knutzen as termination work. It left king mountain and earned themselves its living costs as a house teacher, first to approx. 1750 with the reformed Prediger Daniel Ernst Andersch (active 1728-1771) in Judt with Gumbinnen, Swiss colony usually French speaking settlers. 1748 it was specified in the there church book as a godfather, where it is called “studiosus philosophiae”. Was later it to approximately 1753 house teachers on the property of major Bernhard Friedrich von Hülsenon large Arnsdorf with Mohrungen. Its third place found he close king mountain at the family Keyserlingk on the lock Waldburg Capustigall, which made possible also entrance to the higher society of king mountain for him.

1754 returned Kant to king mountain and took its study(Knutzen was in the meantime deceased). 1755 it already published its first important writing with the title „general natural history and theory of the sky “, in the same year became it private lecturer in king mountain and took up an extensive training activity. Tooto its training subjects belonged logic, Metaphysik, anthropology, moral philosophy, natural theology, mathematics, physics, mechanics, geography, Pädagogik and nature right. Its lectures found strong interest. Johann Gottfried Herder, which heard 1762-64 with it,wrote later over it:With grateful joy I remind out mean myself youth years of the acquaintance and the instruction of a philosopher, that me a true teacher of humanity was (…) Its philosophy woke own thinking up, and I can me almostnothing Erleseneres and more effective for this present, than its lecture was.

A first application on the chair for logic and Metaphysik in the year 1759 failed. Kant rejected a call on a chair for Dichtkunst 1762. Likewise it struck alsothe opportunities out to teach 1769 in attaining and 1770 in Jena before it in the year 1770 at the age of 46 years the call of the University of king mountain always desired of it on the place of a professor for logic and Metaphysikreceived. Also with a clearly higher remuneration connected the call to the then famous university of rejected it resounds in the year 1778 , despite the special request of the Secretary of cultural affairs of Zedlitz. 1786 and 1788 were Kant rector of the universityin king mountain.1787 it to the citizens of Berlin Academy of Sciences was accepted. The last 15 years of its life were characterized by itself the constantly zuspitzenden conflict by the censorship authority, their line the Prussian king Friedrich William II. the new Secretary of cultural affairs Wöllner - Zedlitz' successor after death king Friedrichs II. - had transferred. Kant continued to teach until 1796, however the instruction did not receive to contain of its religious writings since they spread deistisches and sozinianisches ideas, with thatBible is compatible. Deplored himself on that his friend, the publisher of the Berlini monthly review in Berlin, Johann Erich beasts, with the king, who rejected however its complaint.

Grave inscription of Kant at the Russian university in Kaliningrad: Two things fulfill the mind alsoalways new and increasing admiration and reverence the more frequently and continuously thinking with it is occupied: The bestirnte sky over me and the moral law in me.

Kant is often explained as more rigid, to a regular routine of the day bound professoraler humans,of the obligation was floated completely concentrated on his work. But this picture is an oversubscription. As a student he was a good map player and earned himself even with Billard a Zubrot to the study. On societies, at which it gladly, was considered he participated as galant, deseamed themselves with fashionable dresses out and drew out through'' excellent well read and an inexhaustible Vorrath of maintaining and merry Anecdoten, which he told completely to drying, without laughing ever even thereby, and throughown outlaw humor in appropriate replications to pepper knew,…''.Herder was requested by Kant not to breed so much over the books. And Hamann feared that Kant sufficient to do not work would come, because he through'' a vortex of social scatters'' become away-clever (quotations after bold). Only as a Kant beyond the 40 was and he noticed that he had to economize for health reasons with his forces, adjusted myself particularly the regular routine of the day so lifted out of Heine: In the morning around fiveClock rose he and went at 22 o'clock to bed. To the lunch it invited usually friends and maintained sociability, avoided thereby however philosophical topics. In addition it made a walk daily at the same time. Its Hausdiener of many years, that, Heinrich Heine in its work attributed superseded soldier Martin lamp „for the history of the religion and philosophy in Germany “jokeful an influence on Kant's philosophy: „The old lamp must have a God, otherwise poor humans cannot be lucky- the practical reason - on my account - says in such a way may also the practical reason the existence of God guarantee. Due to this argument Kant differentiates between theoretical and practical reason, and with this, as with a Zauberstäbchen, he animates again thatBody of the Deismus, that the theoretical reason killed. “

Kant almost spent his whole life in at that time world-open king mountain, where he died 1804 nearly 80-year old. Its grave is in the Königsberger cathedral. At the exterior of the cathedral is its Kenotaph.


up to its graduation 1755 he works as a house teacher and writes the first, nature-philosophical writings, so the 1749 published „thoughts of the true estimation of the alive forces “and 1755 „the general natural history and theory of the sky“, in which it represents a theory for the emergence of the planet system after „Newtoni principles “(Kant Laplace theory of the planet emergence). In the same year it attains a doctorate with a work over the fire („De igne “) and habilitiert themselves with a paper overthe first principles of the metaphysical realization („new facts dilucidatio “).

In the year 1762 it appears, after some small writings which paper „the only possible argument to a demonstration of the existence of God “, in which Kant tries to prove that all past proofs for thoseExistence of God are not load-carrying, and its own version of the ontologischen God proof develops, which is to remedy these lack.

The following years are certainly from increasing problem consciousness in relation to the method of the traditional Metaphysik, itself particularly in Kant literarily probablyunterhaltsamster writing, „“(1766), a criticism Emanuel Swedenborgs, expresses dreams of a Geistersehers, described by dreams of the Metaphysik. With respect to the 1770 published writing „mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis “it differentiates De for the first time sharply between thatsinnlichen realization of the features of the things (Phaenomena) and the realization of the things, like them actually are, by the understanding (Noumena). Space and time he covers besides as the subject belonging „pure opinions “up, which are necessary,to arrange the features among themselves. Thus two substantial points of later critical philosophy are antizipiert, even if Kant's method is here still dogmatisch, and it an understanding realization of the things, how they actually are, considers possible. Into the followingten years carries out itself the development of critical philosophy without substantial publication („the mute years “).

When it publishes 1781 „the criticism of the pure reason “, its philosophy changed itself fundamentally - the question, like at all a Metaphysik asScience is possible, must before the treatment of the metaphysical questions be answered. The criticism acts „the A priori “, D. h. before all empirical experience possible realization, in three sections off. First the forms of the Sinnlichkeit A priori, the pure opinionsSpace and time, which justify mathematics as apriorische science. In the second part, which transzendentalen logic that determined experience-independent terms, which are necessarily to all thes subject of the experience applicable categories. As a result of this application of the categories arises a system ofPrinciples, which are certain A priori, like z. B. the causal linkage of all sinnlichen features, and which represent thereby a legitimate field of philosophical realizations. These must be the basis for the natural sciences. But with this determination of the categories as for the unitthe features, it results necessary linkage rules that these terms not on the things, how they „actually “are (Noumena), are applicable. In (in the human reason necessarily developing) the attempt to recognize the absolute to exceed and the sinnliche realization entanglesthe reason itself into contradictions, since no truth criteria are more present. The metaphysical proofs z. B. for the immortality of the soul, the infinity of the world or the existence of God, the ideas of the reason are impossible only as regulations, the experience realizationleading terms of meaningful use.

Compelled by the hesitating Rezeption and substantial misunderstandings in the first review „of the criticism of the pure reason “, Kant 1783 publishesthe Prolegomena “, which is to introduce generally comprehensibly to critical philosophy. Its ethics, thosein the conclusion chapters of the criticism of the pure reason, implements he is only suggested 1785 in „foundation to the Metaphysik of the customs “, in which the categorical imperative is developed as principle of the ethics, and which idea of the liberty,in the first criticism for the theoretical reason was not provable, now as a necessary condition of the practical reason one justifies. Also Kant takes the nature-philosophical questions, and 1786 appears „the metaphysical initial reasons of the natural science “, those NewtoniPhysics by the critical principles justify and concomitantly a concrete example of the application of the Transzendentalphilosophie supply.

After the revision of individual pieces „of the criticism of the pure reason “for the second edition 1787 1788 appears „the criticism of the practicalReason “, which describe and remove the moral-philosophical beginning „of foundation “, and finally 1793 „the criticism of the judgement “, in whose preface Kant announces proud that with this his critical business is final and that it now „ungesäumt to the doktrinalen “walkbecome, thus the elaboration of a system of the Transzendentalphilosophie. Actual elaboration however still „the religion precedes within the borders of the bare reason “(1793), in the Kant the reason content of the religion examined and the beginning of a moral-practicalReason religion, how it already develop the postulate teachings of the second and third criticism, continues to describe. 1797 appear then the first part of the system, „the Metaphysik of the customs “.

Unabgeschlossen remained against the attempt further developing also nature philosophy. Still during thatWork to „the Metaphysik of the customs “begins Kant the work on one „transition from the metaphysical initial reasons to physics “. The work on this work employs it up to its death 1804. Kant's manuscripts it shows that it also inhigh age still ready and able was, which critical philosophy umzugestalten. On the basis of the problem to justify specific regulations research maxims of the natural science Kant sees himself first forced to examine the role of the human body in the realization more exactly. ThoseProblematik dieser Untersuchungen verschiebt sich aber im Laufe der Entwürfe auf immer abstraktere Ebenen, so dass Kant um die Jahrhundertwende auf eine systematische Ebene zurückkehrt, die der „Kritik der reinen Vernunft“ entspricht, wenn auch nicht unbedingt ihrer (aufgrund des Zustandsthe manuscript only with difficulty recognizable) problem definition. Kant develops one „self setting teachings “, which he then finally expands also on the practical reason, and ends with drafts to a newly conceived „system of the Transzendentalphilosophie “, which he cannot prepare however no more.

Kant's philosophy

alsoits critical starting point (Sapere aude - to know property courage) is Kant the probably most important philosophers of the German clearing-up. Usually one differentiates with its philosophical way between the before-critical and the critical phase, because its position itself at the latestwith publication of the criticism of the pure reason substantially changes. Still into the 60's one can add Kant to the rationalism in the follow-up of Leibniz and Wolff. In its thesis in the year 1770 already a clear break is recognizable.Apart from the understanding now also the opinion is source of realization. The thesis and the appointment to the university lead then to the famous phase of the silence, into the Kant its new and today still considerably discussed theory of knowledge well-known as Kritizismusprepares. Only after eleven of years intensive work this is then published 1781 in the criticism of the pure reason. After clarifying the basic question about the conditions of the possibility of the realization Kant can itself on this basis finally at the age of 60To years actually the topics of practical philosophy important for it turn.

Four questions

and this placed itself the four Kanti questions Kant to answer tried:

What can I know? - In its theory of knowledge

which I am to do? - Inits ethics

which I may hope? - In his religion philosophy

which is humans? - In its anthropology

theory of knowledge

“what I can know? “ As representatives of the rationalistic Leibniz school Kant is waked by the study Humes from its “dogma tables Schlummer”(Introduction Prolegomena). It recognizes the criticism Humes by the rationalism as methodically correct on, D. h. a feedback of the realization alone on the pure understanding without sinnliche opinion is no longer possible for it. On the other hand the Empirismus of David Hume leadsto the consequence that a safe realization is not at all possible, D. h. into the Skeptizismus. Kant judges these however in view of the evidence of certain synthetic judgements A priori - particularly in mathematics (for instance the apriorische certainty thatEquation 7+5=12) - as “in reputation of its consequences” (i.e. regarding denying the existence of valid synthetic judgements A priori at all) untenable. Nevertheless however the hume'sche Skeptizismus struck “[methodical] a spark”, from which “ignite an epistemological “light”” is. SoKant comes to the question, how (apriorische) realization is possible; because that it is possible, be in view of the achievements of mathematics out of question. Under which conditions thus is realization at all possible? Or - as Kant formulates it -:Which are the conditions of the possibility of realization?

In consequence the criticism of the pure reason (KrV) is, in which Kant its theory of knowledge lays down, an argument on the one hand with the rationalistic, on the other hand with experience tables the philosophy 18. Century, itself before Kantirreconcilably faced. The KrV becomes at the same time an argument with the traditional Metaphysik, as far as for the explanation of the world beyond our experience represents these concepts and models. Against the Dogmatismus of the rationalists (z. B. Christian Wolff, Alexander God-dear tree garden) stands,that realization without sinnliche opinion, D. h. without perception, is not possible. Against the Empirismus it stands that sinnliche perception remains unstructured, if the understanding does not add terms and by judgements and conclusions, D. h. by rules with the perceptionconnects.

For Kant it is a scandal of philosophy that one did not create it so far to release the Metaphysik from speculations to. Its goal is it, as in mathematics since Thales or in the natural sciences since Galilei also into come the Metaphysik to scientific statements. Kant must for this into the Metaphysikthe knowledge waive, in order to have to the faith place. “, D. h. the border of the knowledge point out, in order to get straight, with which conceptions (ideas) no more realizationis possible, because their contents lie beyond all realization ability.

For Kant realization takes place linguistically via judgements (statements, which contain a subject and a descriptor). In these judgements the empirical opinions of the Sinnlichkeit with the conceptions of the understanding are connected (Synthesis).Sinnlichkeit and understanding are the two only, equal and from each other dependent sources of the realization.„Thoughts without contents are empty, opinions without terms are blind. “

Schema Erkenntnistheorie von Immanuel Kant
Pattern theory of knowledge of Immanuel Kant

as comes it now to empirical opinions? Kant discusses this inthe section about the transzendentale aesthetics (theory of the bases of the perception). We have on the one hand an outside sense, which gives us conceptions in the area. We have on the other hand an internal sense, with which we produce conceptions in the time. Area and time are a condition of realization. We cannot imagine articles without space and time. At the same time our senses are rezeptiv, D. h. they are affiziert by a conceptually not understandable external world („the thing actually “). NowKant's famous kopernikanische turn comes: We actually recognize not the thing, but only its feature. This feature is formed however by us as subject, by our understanding. Not the sun turns around the earth, butthe earth around the sun. We can clarify ourselves by the example of seeing well. After our conception of the external world there are light waves, which are taken up by our eye - it is affiziert. This sinnliche opinion becomes in oursBrain converted into what us appears. The external world is already thereby a subjective conception. Kant feelings calls such from individual elements built up and in the brain converted empirical opinions. Space and time however become as pure forms of the sinnlichenOpinion the feelings (the subject) added. They are pure forms of the human opinion and actually apply not to articles. This means that realization is dependent on the subject always. Our reality are the features, D. h. everything which for usin space and time is. The fact that we cannot imagine articles without space and time actually lies after Kant at our limitedness and not in the articles. Whether space and time in the things actually exist, can we do not know.

Feelings alone do not lead however yet to terms. Kant leads his considerations for this in the section across the transzendentale logic out (theory of the bases of thinking). The terms come from the understanding, the this spontaneouslyby productive imagination according to rules forms. For this it requires the transzendentalen self-confident unity as basis of all thinking. The pure, D. h. from all sinnlichen opinions consciousness abstracted „I thinks “, which one calls also the self writing up of the mental one can, is the pivot of the Kanti theory of knowledge. This self-confident its is the origin of pure understanding terms, the categories.Quantity, quality, relation and modality are the four functions of the understanding, according to which categories are formed.

Kant's category board
quantity quality relation modality
Unit reality substance and Akzidenz possibility
Vielheit negation a cause and effect existence
allness Limitation reciprocal effect necessity

On the basis the categories the understanding links the feelings with the help of the judgement to summarize (the fortune under rules) according to patterns so mentioned. A patternis the general procedure of imagination to provide for a term its picture. Z. B. I see on the road four-legged a something. I recognize: this is a Dackel. I know: a Dackel is a dog, is a mammal, is an animal, is an organism. Patterns are thus (possibly multi-level) structuring general terms, which cannot be won from the empirical opinion, but come of the understanding, however to the perception refer.

After one described, how realization is at all possible, comesnow the fundamental question of Kant whether we can make statements, which justify the scientificness of the Metaphysik. Are there statements, which increase our realizations contentwise from pure understanding considerations? Kant formulates the question as follows: Are synthetic realizations A possible priori?

Kant's answer is „“. We can win synthetic realizations A by the categories priori. Like that are z. B. under the term of the relation the categories of the substance, which causality and the reciprocal effect seize. By paradigm tables the example of causality can one see the following: In our sinnlichen perception we recognize two sequential phenomena. Their linkage as a cause and effect extracts itself however from our perception. Causality is thought by us with public and necessity. We understand causality as basic principlenature - this applies also in today's physics, even if this operates in its bases only with probabilities and energy fields -, because we in-think causality into nature, as them appear to us. However Kant this viewagainst the rationalists clearly. Categories without sinnliche opinion are empty pure form and thus (s.o.), D. h. to its effectiveness it requires the empirical feelings. Here the border of our realization lies.

How does it come now to the metaphysical theories?This is a question of the reason, which designates the part of the understanding, with which we from terms and judgements of conclusions pulls. It lies in the nature of the reason that this strives for always far going realization and tried the end,to recognize the absolute or absolute one. Then however the reason leaves the soil of the sinnlich founded realization and goes into the range of the speculation. It necessarily brings the three transzendentalen ideas immortality (soul), to liberty (Cosmos) and infinity (God) out. Kant shows now in dialectic as the science from the light that the existence of these principles can be proven nor disproved to regulations neither. Thus one can believe in God, many triedit to prove, but all God proofs must fail in the long run.


„which I am to do? A “ goal of the epistemological investigations in the KrV was it to create a theoretical foundation for practical philosophy. Thus Kant examines first of all in foundationto the Metaphysik of the customs (GMS) and out-formulates stronger in the criticism of the practical reason (KpV) the conditions of the possibility of being supposed rushing being. The religion, not the Common scythe or empirical practice cannot answer this question, but only the pureReason. Kant's theoretical considerations to the ethics consist of three elements: The morally good one, the acceptance of the liberty of the will and the general maxim of the categorical imperative. Morality is the moment of the reason, which is directed toward practical acting. Itregulations an idea, which is present in humans A priori, is. Humans are a intelligibles nature, D. h. it is independent able in the reason of sinnlichen to think and decide also driveful influences. All reason-talentedNature, and so that also humans, are foreigncertainly (heteronom), but certainly (autonomously).„The will is a fortune to select only that which recognizes the reason independently of the inclination as good. “This means that the ethical decision lies in the subject.Kant is quite conscious that the demand of the morality is an ideal, and that no humans can fulfill it at each time. Nevertheless it is the view that each humans have the yardstick of the morality in itself and know, whatit after the law of the morality to do should. The autonomous will (the reason) orders thus the morally good action. The reason presents the obligation to humans to follow the requirement of the morality. Also of a broad public admits became

  • the categorical imperative (formulation of law): „Act only after that maxim, by which you can want at the same time that it becomes a general law. “
  • Formulation of law of nature: „Act in such a way, as if the maxims of your action by your will a law of nature is to become. “

In the categoricalImperative describes Kant the general principle, by which each humans can judge its actions morally. For elucidation Kant formulates the categorical imperative into the GMS in four further versions.„Practical principles are sentences, which contain a general determination of the will,the several practical rules under itself has. They are subjective or maxims, if the condition is regarded only as for the will of the subject valid of it; objectively however, or practical laws, if those as objective, d.i. for the willeach reasonable nature valid one recognizes. “ In practical application the found maxim must be assertible in itself and agree with the actual will. Kant's ethics is thus an obligation ethics contrary to a virtue ethics, which represents Aristoteles. Thoseconcrete Ausformulierung of its ethics makes Kant in the Metaphysik of the customs , which is divided into the two main sections over the legal doctrine and over the virtue teachings. Further statements to practical philosophy are to z. B. in the anthropology and inthe Pädagogikvorlesungen.

History, clearing-up and religion

of Kant third question „which we may hope? “, he answers negatively in the criticism of the pure reason. After God, the immortality of the soul and the liberty by the reason are not to be proven, thoseVernunft aber auch nicht das Nichtexistieren dieser Ideen beweisen kann, ist die Frage des Absoluten eine Glaubensfrage.„I had to waive the knowledge, in order to get to the faith place. “

Accordingly one cannot find a göttliche intention in history. History is an image of humans, who are free. Due to this liberty one cannot recognize regularities or advancement in history for instance toward luck blessedness or perfection, because the progress is not a necessary condition for acting. There is a plan neverthelessin nature, D. h. History has a manual (is teleologisch). Reason develops in living together humans. For this living together humans from the reason created the right, which determines gradually the social order ever more. Thisleads at the end to a perfect civil condition, which has existence, even if between the states an outside law moderateness developed. From this „history with world-civil intention “results for the governing a political order:To take „on that however consideration,so probably imgleichen on the honouring longing of the heads of state, as their servants, in order to direct they toward the only means, which can bring their rühmliches memory on the later time: that knows still over that a small movement reason to attempts suchphilosophischen Geschichte abgeben.“

„Was ist Aufklärung?“
„Was ist Aufklärung?“

Dieses Selbstverständnis bestimmte auch Kants Haltung zur Aufklärung, die er als Bestimmung des Menschen ansieht.

The clearing-up is connected closely with the name Kant. Its definition is famous „clearing-up is the exit of humansfrom its were to blame for minority.Minority is the inability to avail itself of its understanding without guidance of another. This minority, if the cause the same is not because of the lack of the understanding, but the resolution and the courage, is selfindebted itself itswithout serving line of another. Sapere aude [dare it to be reasonable]! Courage has to serve you of your own understanding! is thus the Wahlspruch of the clearing-up. “ (Answer of the question: what is clearing-up? Berlini monthly review, 1784.2, S. 481–494).

Kantit was optimistic that free thinking, which had developed in particular under Friedrich the large one - although referred to the religion predominantly - fully, to it leads that the kind of sense of the people changes gradually and at the end even thosePrinciples of the government affects, which is humans, „now more than machine, would treat its in accordance with. “ Kant was a strong proponent of the French revolution and stood also to this attitude, although he after the government assumption by Friedrich William IIquite on sanctions to count had. Despite increasing censorship, or perhaps therefore Kant published his religion writings in this time. God cannot be proven. But consistent moral acting is not possible without the faith in liberty, immortality and God. Therefore is the moral the original and the religion explains the moral obligations as göttliche requirements. The religion followed thus the already existing moral law. In order to find the actual obligations, one must filter now turned around the correct from the different religion teachings. Thoseactually practiced practice of the religion with all its rites rejected Kant as Pfaffentum strictly. After the publication of the religion writing 1794 Kant then actually received the prohibition by cabinet order to publish further in this sense. Kant bent himself for thoseReign of the king, took however his position after its death in the controversy of the faculties without reduction.

Aesthetics and purposes of nature

the criticism of the judgement (KdU) is usually called third Hauptwerk of Kant. In that 1790 published worktries Kant its system of philosophy to complete and a connection of of the theoretical reason, which is the basis for the nature realization, on the one hand, as well as the practical, pure reason, which for acknowledgment the liberty as idea and to the custom law leads, to manufacture on the other hand. The feelingthe desire and the Unlust is the middle joint between realization abilities and desiring abilities. The connecting principle is the appropriateness. This shows up on the one hand in the aesthetic judgement of the beautiful one and raised one (part of I), and on the other hand in the teleologischen judgement, that thatRelationship of humans to nature determines (part of II). Determining in both cases the judgement is not, as in the theoretical reason, where a certain term is seized under a general term, but reflecting, where thus from the particular the generalone wins.

The determination of the aesthetic one is a subjective realization procedure, in which by the judgement the descriptor is not awarded to an article beautifully beautifully or. Criteria for taste judgements are that this pleases independently of an interest judgement ends becomes thatthese judgements are subjective, thus not a term to be subordinated that further the judgement general validity stressed and that finally the judgement with necessity takes place. As in the ethics Kant looks for the formal criteria of a judgement (after the conditions thatPossibility) and excludes the contentwise (materiale) determination of the beautiful one.

Contrary to the beautiful ones the raised is not bound to an article and its form. „Raised is, which also only to think to be able a fortune of the Gemüths prove, everyoneYardstick of the senses exceeds. “. Both the beautiful and the raised please by itself. But the raised does not produce a feeling of the desire, but admiration and attention. Raised in the art is not possible for Kant, these is at the most onebad imitation of the raised one in nature.„Beautiful is what pleases in bare evaluation (thus do not arrange after terms of the understanding for the feeling of the sense). From this it follows automatically that it must please without all interest. Is raisedwhat pleases directly by its resistance against the interest of the senses. “

In the teleologischen judgement the appropriateness lying in nature is regarded. Purpose is thereby no characteristic of articles, but by us is thought and into the objectsinserted, he is like the liberty regulations an idea. The objective nature purpose of an article thought by the reason results in the case of it from the relationship of the parts and the whole one to each other. With a pure mechanism we know the structure of a treeand the co-ordinationness of the nature processes do not explain. Contrary to a clock a tree is reproducing. We see the connections of the nature things in such a way as if a purpose in it would lie. We must guard however, the felt appropriateness of natureto want to justify with the religion.„If one thus for the natural science and into its context the term of God brings in, in order to make itself the appropriateness in nature explainable, and after this appropriateness again needs, in order to prove,that a God is: like that is in none sciences internal existence. “(KdU §68)

worthyness fortunately

Kant begins its considerations about luck with a comprehensive criticism of the Eudaimonismus. The term „luck blessedness “(= eudaimonia) is based to its opinion after on uncertainExperiences and changeable opinions. From this lack of objectivity it concludes that to eudaimonia the aligned life is coined/shaped by own impulses, needs, habits and preferences. In addition variety of the subjective opinions follows over the human for it from thatLuck that no objective laws are derivable. To the place of the luck it sets „the worthyness in the consequence fortunately “. This is actually “, only attainable for humans, as „thing, by he itself the moral laws, thus thatcategorical imperative subjects. By the moral behavior following from it humans acquire then the worthyness fortunately. Kant leaves open however, as this luck will look and where it happens to humans. In the terrestrial life is according to his opinion only„the self satisfaction “attainable. Among them it understands itself the satisfaction of humans thereby that it leads an autonomous life, thus oriented at the morality. Although Kant of the opinion is that the own luck for humans is not attainable, it holdsit for human obligation to promote the luck of other persons. This happens its opinion after by helpfulness in relation to other and unselfish acting in friendship, marriage and family. It is conceivable that worthyness means fortunately that one by its actingbecame worthy, the assistance to other one on the way fortunately to take up….


Kant argues with the opinions of English clearing-up philosophers to the free will. Hume for example states that humans are subjected to the same causal chains as thoseNature. Kant tries to dissolve now the contradiction between time-typical thinking in causality chains and the necessity for the free will as moral instance. In addition it regards humans from double perspective. On the one hand he sees humans as „thing “. Here is subjectit the laws of nature, thus the cause effect principle. As thing it is steered of impulses, instincts, feelings and passions. According to its opinion humans are as reason natures however also „thing actually “, and belonged thereby „the realm of the liberty “on. Thus hasto resist it the possibility of mechanical causality of orienting itself and at moral principles. Liberty is for it thus not arbitrariness to follow but the liberty laws which the reason gave itself. A free will is forKant thus a will under moral laws; Liberty without this freiwillige subjecting is not for it liberty. Thus morally bad actions are based not on free will, but are due to mechanical causality. Those became humans consists, according to Kant, of it,that it resists its instincts and is even a cause.


Kant introduced the anthropology at the German universities. What are humans? stood at the end of his four philosophical questions. As a child of his time Kant carried one out as a philosopher bothlarge contribution for the clearing-up thus also for an anthropology.

See also: further articles for the philosophy of Kant


Immanuel Kant (after Friedrich Hagemanns Gipsbüste of 1801)

applied for Kant already during lifetimes than outstanding philosopher, so that already into that90's 18. Century a proper Kantianismus developed. As Wegbereiter to emphasize are Johann Schulz, Karl Leonhard Reinhold and also Friedrich Schiller. Fast it came also to critical statements of rationalistic representatives of the clearing-up. Thus Moses Mendelssohn Kant calledone, all this crushes, or August Eberhard created its own magazine, in which it published its criticism, on the Kant explicitly in the writing „over a discovery, after the all new criticism of the pure reason by an older dispensableto be made is “was received.

Was from greater importance the criticism of Johann George Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, which reproached Kant the language as original source of realization to have neglected. Herder knows besides on the fact that humans already in the coursethe perception „metaschematisiert “, which already took insights of the Gestalt psychology in front. A further fundamental beginning of the criticism came from Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, which pushed at the separation of the two realization trunks and rejected therefore „the thing actually “.

SecondPhase of the argument proceeded from the German idealism and here first with the pupil of Kant spruce , which likewise the opinion rejected as source of realization and came in such a way to its subjective idealism. It adversely commentated the negative reaction of Kant. Likewise Schelling wanted and Hegel Kant by their absolute systems overcome to complete and. With death Hegels came it to an abrupt end of the idealism, not however into view to its subsequent treatment. However Arthur Schopenhauer, Max Stirner and Friedrich is Nietz reactionsboth on Hegel, whose absolutism they rejected, and on Kant, because they looked for a way out of the disillusioning realization of the finiteness of humans without stop with an understandable God, even without certainty of the liberty.

Another way thatRezeption began with Jakob Friedrich Fries, Johann Friedrich kind of harsh and Hermann of Helmholtz, which rezipierten Kant under scientific - psychological in particular - criteria. With Otto dear man began the Neukantianismus in the 2. Half 19. Century its effectto unfold, which should dominate the discussion into the time of the First World War. The general agents in the Marburger school were Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp with a strongly science-oriented beginning as well as in the school of Baden Heinrich Rickert and William diaper volume with worth-philosophical and historical emphasis. The criticism of the A is common to all priori, which they regarded as metaphysical element with Kant. Their position was at least closely related in the vielem idealism. Different this was in the Kritizismus of Alois Riehl and its pupils smelling pool of broadcasting corporations honey forest, which leaned closely against Kant and only around an updating with consideration of the insights of the modern sciences was endeavored. Independent ways went to Hans Vaihinger with philosophy „as if “as well asthe former Marburger Nicolai Hartmann with a Ontologie of critical realism and Ernst Cassirer with the philosophy of the symbolic forms. The latter showed among other things that also modern mathematical and scientific theories are brought like relativity theory with the Kritizismus in agreementcan.

Kant mit Senftopf
Kant with mustard pot

in 20. One finds no more Kant schools to century, but (nearly) each philosophy is nevertheless an argument or a dialogue with edge. This is enough from Charles S. Peirce over George Simmel, Edmund Husserl, Karl Jaspers, Max of Scheler, Martin Heidegger, Ernst Bloch to Theodor Adorno and Karl Popper just like in analytic philosophy to Quine with his Kant Lectures and Peter Frederick Strawson with a much considered comment on the criticism of the pureReason. The Erlanger constructionalism leans against Kant like these also with Karl Otto Apel with its beginning for the transformation of the Transzendentalphilosophie or Carl Friedrich of Weizsäcker a substantial point of reference constitutes closely. In the 2. Half of the century formedever more a group of philosophers out, who tied their philosophical positions again directly in the sense of critical Rationalität at Kant, like Helmut Holzhey, Dieter Henrich, Gerold Prauss, Norbert Hinske, harsh ore Schnädelbach, pure hard Brandt or Otfried hopes. Also in the USA it gives Guyer and Henry E appropriate representatives such as Paul. Allison. To emphasize is the revival of the deontologischen ethics, which received a substantial impulse by John Rawls 'theory of the justice. In addition,in the aesthetics and in religion philosophy intensive discourses with and over Kant take place.

Kant is also in the present at most rezipierte philosopher. This shows up in far more than 1000 Monografien and essay collections, in its200. Death year 2004 appeared like also at 1100 participants in the congress „Kant and the citizens of Berlin clearing-up “in the year 2000 (IX. International congress of Kant in Berlin). There is the 1896 of Hans Vaihinger justified Kant studies with annually approx. 25 papers as forumthe 1904 in 100. Death year created Kant company in resounds/to Saale, the Kant research centre at the University of Mainz, Bonn projects for the electronic publication of Kant's writings as well as the Marburger Kant archives, which still work on the completion of the expenditure for academy. Among other thingsalso in Japan there is a row to Kantianer and its own Kant company. In Tokyo in the temple of the philosophers a picture with the title hangs the four world ways with the representation of Buddha, Confucius, Sokrates for over 100 years and edge.



Kant's works published in „the academy expenditure “to the Prussian academy of the sciences, Berlin 1902ff (so far 29 volumes)

for the study been suitable and generally recognition is the expenditure of William Weischedel, Darmstadt (scientific one Book company in six volumes) 1956 - 1964 and/or. Frankfurt (Suhrkamp in 12 volumes).

Further there is a row individual outputs in „the philosophical library “(mine) with commentating introduction. Low-priced text editions are in addition with Reclam available.

Standing and thinking marks

statue of Kantin Kaliningrad

set up also


of Einführendes
  • Jean Grondin: Kant for introduction, Hamburg: Junius, 2004, 3. Edition, ISBN 3885063638
  • Karl Jaspers: Edge. Life, works, effect. 2. Aufl. Piper Munich/Zurich 1983
  • Manfred bold: Edge. A biography. Munich 2003
  • Uwe Schultz: Immanuel Kant in self certifications and picture documents. Reinbek erw. Neuaufl. 2003 (ISBN 3-499-50659-9)
  • Orlando Budelacci: Kant's peace program - political thinking in the context of practical philosophy, AthenaPublishing house: Upperlive 2003.
  • Ernst Cassirer: Kant's life and teachings. 2. Aufl. Berlin 1921; Reproduction Darmstadt 1994
  • Steffen Dietzsch: Immanuel edge. A biography. Reclam, Leipzig 2003. ISBN 3-379-00806-0
  • Manfred vulture: Kant's world. Reinbek 2005 (ISBN 3-499-61365-4)
  • Peoples Gerhardt: Immanuel edge. Reason and life. Reclam Stuttgart 2002 (PRACTICE No. 18235)
  • Arsenij Gulyga: Immanuel Kant. Suhrkamp Frankfurt/M. 2004 (ISBN 3-518-45568-0)
  • Dietmar heath man, Kristina angel hard (Hrsg.): Why Kant today?. de Gruyter 2003
  • Johannes Heinrichs, the secret of the categories, the decoding of Kant's central didactic drama, Berlin 2004; ISBN 3929010941
  • Otfried hopes (Hrsg.): Criticism of the practical reason. 3. Aufl. Munich 1999
  • Otfried hopes: Royal peoples. To Kant's kosmopolitischer on the right of and peace theory. Suhrkamp publishing house Frankfurt A.M. 2001
  • Otfried hope: Immanuel Kant. 6. Aufl. Beck Munich 2004
  • Dieter Hüning and Burkhard Tuschling (Hrsg.): Quite, state and international law with Immanuel edge. Marburger conference to Kant's „metaphysical initial reasons of the legal doctrine “. Duncker &Humblot, Berlin 1998
  • walter Patt: „Kant's criticism of the practical reason. An introduction “, 2. extended edition, London: Turn-shed 2005. ISBN 1-903343-78-X
  • Günther Patzig: How are synthetic judgements A possible priori? In: Josef bacon (Hrsg.): Grundprobleme of the large philosophers. Philosophy thatModern times II. Goettingen 1976
  • Giovanni Sala: Kant's „criticism of the practical reason “, Darmstadt 2004.
  • Roger Scruton: Kant Herder Freiburg 1999 (ISBN 3451047381) (translates of M. Summerhouse - Orig. ersch. 1982)
  • Dieter Sturma, Karl Ameriks (Hrsg.): Kant's ethics.Mentis publishing house Paderborn 2004
  • Karl Vorländer: Immanuel Kant, the man and the work. 3. Aufl. Publishing house Felix mine, Hamburg 1992. ISBN 3-7873-1084-3 (first edition: 1911, Leipzig)
  • God praise Ernst Schulze Aenesidemus (first edition: 1792, Jena) (is actually directed toward RheinholdsReason criticism, concerns however the Kanti likewise)
  • Arthur Schopenhauer: The world as will and conception. First volumes. Appendix. Criticism of Kanti philosophy. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig of 1859
  • Rudolf Eisler: Kant encyclopedia. Olms Hildesheim and. A. 1984 (ISBN 3487007444)
  • Gerd Irrlitz: Kant manual. Life and work. Stuttgart/Weimar 2002

Web on the left of

Wikisource: Immanuel Kant - source texts
Wikiquote: Immanuel Kant - quotations
Commons: Immanuel Kant - pictures, videos and/or audio files
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and overImmanuel Kant in the catalog of the DDB


primary texts

secondary texts

To Kant's anthropology
link collections

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.

  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)