under imperialism (of lat. imperare „instruct “; imperium „rule area “; e.g. Imperium Romanum) one understands the efforts of a state to expand its influence since other countries or peoples. This power extension politics can among other things economic, socio-economic, population-political, sociopolitical, nationalistic and mental-cultural motivesare the basis.
Imperialism can be understood as a universal phenomenon, which is not to be specified on individual historical sections and peoples. In the science of history a temporal emphasis is put nevertheless on the age of the imperialism (approximately from the 1880er years to 1914/18).
Table of contents
common became the term „to imperialism “in connection with the European expansion wave between 1840 and 1914. Imperialism actually means world realm/colonial empire formation after the sample of the Imperium Romanum of the antique ones: A power controlled those at that time well-known world.
For the first time becamethe word „imperialism “for the great power efforts Napoléon Bonapartes uses. The German historian Wolfgang Mommsen describes their development with view of the European states in the years 1885 to 1914 under the title „ages of the imperialism “. Indisputable it is however that itself end 19. Century thatProps after colonies in Europe as it were „globalisierte “. It is likewise indisputable that the international tensions between the European great powers to the 1, released thereby. World war it contributed and that with it „the age of the classical imperialism “ended.
Which concerns the German Reich, the linguistic impression remained so far unconsidered,of imperial Germany it went out - which reads English meaning of imperial imperially, why the imperial realm government abroad English-language was called logically imperially German Government - one at the same time impact giving, provocative word choice.
After the First World War the term became completely general „imperialism “for efforts uses, - e.g. for ideological-missionary reasons - a world domination or at least the rule over spacious areas outside of the own master country aim at. Thus spoke and/or. one speaks in particular of the Soviet imperialism and of the US imperialism. In the today's connection of the discussion whether the current effortsthe USA as Neo imperialism to be designated can, with view of „the age of the imperialism “of „historical imperialism “one speaks.
In the Marxist historical theory becomes since pink Luxembourg and W. I. Lenin the imperialism as special Entwicklungsstufe (stage) of capitalism interpreted, after Lenin is besides thosestate monopolyistic phase of this imperialism (Stamokap) the last phase of capitalism at all.
As reaction against the colonial empires established in the age of the imperialism independence fighters were established, which aimed at and often reached the independence from strange powers.
The term imperialism overlaps in many pointswith colonialism, since both practically identical phenomena designate. A difference lies however in the period, which is covered by the terms. During colonialism the entire colonial expansion since that 15. Century enclosure, refers imperialism in the science of history to the phase since the industrialization Center 19. Century. The category of the imperialism at the same time analyzes not only direct rule forms, but also indirect subordinate positions of states.< ref name= " jf "> Jens Flemming: Colonialism, in: History. Encyclopedia of the scientific fundamental ideas. Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1994, ISBN 3-499-16331-4, S. 381f. </ref>
Imperialism before that 19. Century
antique large realms
the first imperial expansions arose as a result of the concentration of power in the case of the accomplishment of large irrigation buildings and dam plants in China (Hoangho), India (Indus), Mesopotamien (Euphrates and Tigris) and Egypt (Nile), after Wittfogel in „the hydraulic cultures“. Name-giving then the growth of Rome became. According to the principle divide et impera (lat. = „divide and prevail “) gave it to the conquered areas however also a certain participation by a self-determination of the population or an own government, those by a governorwas represented. With the Pax Romana the Romans could befrieden thus their conquered areas by power division with the local Ethnien. For the Romans a surface realm arose as a result of this expansion.
imperial large realms of Arabia, that Mongolia and the Osmani realm
to thatImperialisms can be counted the conquest of North Africa by earlyIslamic Arabia.
Kolonialisation of the American continent
by the discovery America by Christoph Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci began the Kolonialisation of central and South America. Adventurers such as Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro drove the exploitation thatlocal resident Aztecs and Inkas for Spain in front. A goal was thus the conquest „of the uncivilized “population, who, contrary to the Spanish statements, was already very progressive but. The Spaniards under Cortes and Pizarro enslaved the Aztecs and Inkas. They acted according to the principles conquering (Country), destroying (the culture) and establishing (own states ->), One spoke viceroy realms therefore of the Konquistadoren - system of Spain (of the Spanish word conquista, which means “conquest”). The Portuguese however established bases with the strange cultures and used this contact rather economically.
as “ages of the imperialism” (also „classical imperialism “or “high imperialism”) the science of history in the time the territorial expansion of European large and Central Powers as well as the USA and Japan taking place of the 1880er years up to the outbreak of the First World War understands. Its mainsprings were first maineconomic and strategic increasingly nature nationalpsychological in its process. In this time the taking place formal colonialism particularly in Africa (race around Africa) represents thereby only one part of the imperialism, likewise by informal economic penetration (for instance in China and OsmaniWas richly) and the increasing competition feeling between imperialistic powers characterized.
The phase of the early imperialism preceded the high imperialism , whose beginning is set approximately at 1815 and which was coined/shaped particularly by forms of the informal imperialism.
One can differentiate between three kinds of the classical imperialism:1. From the trading base to the rule area with beginnings of an own industry (ex.India) 2. Control under keeping of the appearance of the sovereignty and autonomy (ex. China at present „the unequal contracts “) 3. economic control of sovereign states without own industry (ex. Balkans states, Osmani realm)
the increase of the European imperialism under the guidance of Great Britain took place in the course of the industriellen revolution. The arising progress in the heavy industry played also in the navigation an increasingly larger role. The steam navigation made new dimensions possible. Coal, steel and ironbecame an important power indicator. Great Britain tried to change by the industrialization from the agrarian to the industrial nation. The increase of the mass production required new sales markets, so that one hoped to find these in the colonies. In the colonies were also many unused agrarian surfaces, the giganticProfit margins made possible. Until 1914 were controlled a quarter of the globe of the British world power gentleman-light as Pax Britannica.
the French imperialistic efforts arose particularly in competition to the English ore enemy. Reaching a world power status had highest priority. Thus developed forwardseverything also a competition in the colonies (for instance in the Faschoda crisis). France possessed numerous colonies in America and India, which it had however after the seven-year-old war at England transfer. Also large parts in the north of Africa were colonies of France (e.g. large parts thatSeeing era and surrounding areas).
the 1871 justified German one Reich developed only after the separation of Bismarck 1890 among emperors Wilhelm II. with the “new course” an imperialistically oriented policy. In the year 1897 later realm chancellor Bernhard von Bülow in Reichstag the one demandedGerman „place at the sun “. This premise of a national prestige thinking should coin/shape German “world politics” to 1914.
The German colonial policy began 1884/85 however already. Bismarck lent to several African areas (German southwest Africa, German East Africa, Cameroon, Togo) as well as new Guinea the status of a German protected area,by Bismarck was first only economically motivated. Within fewer years these areas were converted however into formal colonies. In the time of “world politics” later only few, smaller areas (for instance Kiautschou) could be acquired. The colonies acquired by Germany were economical and strategicuninteresting, since they had neither over larger Bodenschätze nor agrarian effective areas.
1905 came it to the first Morocco crisis, because Germany French efforts advanced toward to attach Morocco to the French colonial empire with reference to international contracts. 1911 came it to the invasion of French troops into the MoroccanCities Rabat and Fez and the delegation of the German gunboat Panther (Panthersprung after Agadir) to the second Morocco crisis. Germany received parts of the French equatorial Africa as compensation for the rounding of its Cameroonian possessions, saw themselves however isolated with regard to foreign policy. In particular by Alfred von Tirpitz between 1898and 1912 interspersed, imperialistically motivated fleet laws the German/English relations heavily had already before loaded.
the Russian imperialism differed in its form clearly from the imperialisms of the other states. It was a pure Binnenimperialismus and referred only to the territorial enlargementin Siberia up to the island Sachalin. In the south of Russia advanced troops into the mostly still unkartographierten areas of the Caucasus, north Persia, Afghanistan, Samarkands, Taschkents and into north Mongolia. One of the most important mainsprings of this expansion was the Russian tendency, an ice-free port tooattain, in order in the concert of powers at this time so important, all year round an available fleet to station in such a way to be able (here particularly the expansion is eastward and the establishment Wladiwostoks [Beherrscherin of the east], to regard as well as the policy around the straits at the Bosphorus - see. also Navalismus).
1904 were stopped their advance by Japan, England as well as Austria Hungary.
In addition the conception came of coming with a south expansion also into a certain negotiating position opposite Great Britain. With pressure on the periphery (north Persia, Afghanistan and north India) the central nerve became of theBritish kingdom threatens: The sea routes to India and the crowning colony. Thus the Zaren expected a giving in of Great Britain in the strait question.
Straight this misalignment of the largepowerful conflict fields into the east of Asia put the basis for a later escalation in Central Europe, those without the eventsat the edge of the interest spheres appears not at all understandable: The 1. World war.
the Japanese imperialism straight toward end 19. Century one considers by the relevant literature to few, nevertheless by his process for the following events not less importantly. AfterJapan in the year 1854 by the USA forced to the task of its isolation was by force, was faced with the feudalistisch organized state of a over-powerful environment. In an unparalleled development it succeeded to implement radical reforms and in breath-robbing speed the technical arrears at the industrialized statesto catch up. From Japan one had become already 30 years later territorial power which can be considered, which could not only defeat 1894 /95 China in a war, but after a equal alliance with Great Britain even created 1902 to destroy the entire Russian fleet in the Russian-Japanese war 1905to stop and so the ambitions of the Zarenstaats in Asia. (Direct result of this war also first revolutionary unrests were in Russia, which should flow later then into the Russian revolution, and the rear wall ending of the great powers to Europe - speak: the Balkans.)
understood Japanto use the imperial play of the secret diplomacy to its favour, so that it could serve its ambitions in Korea and north China in the apron to the First World War and thus up to the end of the Second World War only imperialistic power remained in the East Asian area.
with the victory in the Spanish-American war 1898 occur also the USA the circle of the imperialistic world powers. The acquisition of the Philippines and Puerto Ricos as well as the occupation of Cuba and the building of the Panama channel are a first step over with the European Imperiento step into competition. Contrary to the European imperialism tendency, put the USA no value on the income of large land masses. Was many more important for them to distribute economics and military-strategic bases in the large Weltmeeren.
the USA know present present asonly imperial (not necessarily however as only imperialistic) power to be designated, whereby one should set the position of the USA not with old „classical “imperialistic powers equal (Münkler, Imperien). The Politologe Herfried Münkler raised recently also the question whether the USA the jumpover the augusteische threshold in such a way specified to succeed could. After Judith Butler justified the USA the Iraq war with a “imperial right”, since they can justify it neither by national nor internationally valid right.
- Hannah Arendt: Elementsand origins of total rule. Bd. 2: Imperialism. Munich 1986 [English. First edition 1951].
- Alexander Demandt: The end that world realms. Munich 1997.
- Philip S. Foner: The Spanish Cuban American was and the Birth OF American Imperialism 1895-1902. 2 volumes. New York/London 1972 (very muchparticularly detailed investigation with many sources from US-American archives)
- Karl hero (Hrsg.): Imperialism 1: Derivative - anti-imperialistic illusions over state and revolution. Munich 1979. 102 sides, at present out of print. On-line one: Rtf file to the Download (364,580 bytes) (Marxist analysis)
- Eric J. Hobsbawm: The imperial age 1875-1914, Frankfurt A.M.: Fischer 2004 (TB 16391).
- Christian Zeller (Hrsg): The global expropriation economics, publishing house Westfäli steam boat, Münster, 2004, 316 S. (http://www.dampfboot-verlag.de/buecher/549-5.html)
- Michael man: History of power. 3 volumes, Frankfurt 1990-1998.
- Herfried Münkler: Imperien. The logic of the world domination - of the old person Rome toto the United States, Rowohlt, Berlin 2005.
- Olive Nachtwey: World market and imperialism - for the developing history of the classical Marxist imperialism theory. New ISP publishing house Cologne 2005, 116 S. ISBN 3-89900-021-8
- Sönke Neitzel: World power or fall. The world realm teachings in the age of the imperialism, Paderborn [among other things]: Schöningh, 2000,453 S., ISBN 3-506-76102-1
- John pilgrim: “Goals cover. Over the modern imperialism " two thousand-unity, Frankfurt 2004. ISBN 3-86150-632-7.
- Gregor Schöllgen: The age of the imperialism. Munich 2000, 4. Edition [Oldenbourg sketch of history]. (outstanding, comprehensive and research near overall display with 1223 reference works to different single topics)
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