of the Impressionismus (of Latin impressio, „the impression “, over the French) is a style direction particularly inthe painting. Like the symbolism and the expressionism the Impressionismus is a reply to the naturalism. The painters of the Impressionismus tried an article in its present/immediate to seize coincidental manifestation instead of in its contentwise meaning. Particularly impressive examples of itthe landscapes, those developed usually directly in free nature (EN plein air ) and not as up to then usual in the studio.
A picture with the name „Impression, soleil levant “(1872) from Claude Monet with the representation onePort in morning tendency gave its name to the movement. A critic named Louis Leroy derived from it first the abschätzig meant designation. Forerunners of the Impressionismus lie in the Spanish (Francisco de Goya) and English painting (William Turner, John Constable) as well as in France (Eugène Delacroix, Gustave Courbet, school of Barbizon, Johan Barthold Jongkind).
The Impressionisten preferred bright, clean-multicolored colors and did not paint not laminar, but set complementary contrasting colors closely next to each other, so thatthese with the view from some distance into one another flow. Thus an effect of optical color blending can occur, so that in the eye of the viewer a mixed color is noticed (e.g. Red beside green brown produces).
of large influenceon the Impressionismus Japanese color were woodcuts, which came starting from 1850 in large number of items to Europe and by itself the Impressionisten in their own theories about color and felt form confirmed.
Some painters of the Spätimpressionismus led inImpressionismus developed technology of the optical color blending further out, as the whole picture was divided into points mosaically lined up (Pointillismus or divisionism).
technology of the Impressionisten
the impressionistische mark way normally becomes with a strong stress of light inits different qualities brought in connection, whereby the effect of a certain daily/season is often emphasized.
- They painted with short, strong brush lines (comma-like, “virgulisme”) in onesketchy kind, which made it for them possible, the Essenz of the object, and not detail of emphasizing.
- They mixed the colors not on the pallet, but (also less on the canvas than) only in the eye of the viewer (divisionism). This makes possible for the viewersubstantially more alive art experience.
- They discovered and stressed new aspects of the impact of the natural light, above all the reflection of the light and the Spektralfarben.
- They monitored up to mix their colors black but mixed, if absolutely necessarily, complementary colors, overto receive darker colors. Black only as own color one used.
- Their Pinselduktus is clearly visible.
- They painted mostly pleinairistisch, i.e. in the open air.
- In pictures in the open air they arranged shade blue, and. A. because it reflectionthe sky on the surfaces to point out wanted, which it z. B. also from beschneiten surfaces knew. That gave new freshness and openness to the pictures.
- Depending upon actual lighting conditions and intended picture tendency also different color nuances were used in the shade ranges.
- Their pictures work often cut outful. Thus not the painted object is to be stressed as a whole, but the effect of the light on it. Beyond that that lends a spontaneous, volatile character to the picture.
- Picture depth resulted from size progressive rate, color and Luftperspektive.
- ThoseColor became the primary organization means, graphic elements stepped into the background.
- They painted wet color on wet color (à-la-great-painting), instead of waiting on the fact that one behind the other laid on layers dry. This led to softer outlines and interesting Farbübergängen.
- They painted, without itselftraditional rules or contents obligates to feel.
- Besides sur le motif one painted, i.e. exactly locally in free nature
painter of the Impressionismus
- Frédéric Bazille (1841-1870)
- Marie Bracquemond (1840-1916)
- Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)
- Paul Cézanne (1839 - 1906)
- Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
- Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
- arm and Guillaumin (1841-1927)
- Edouard Manet (1832-1883)
- Claude Monet (1840-1926)
- Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
- Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
- Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
- Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
- Hippolyte Boulenger (1837-1874)
- Emile Claus (1849-1924)
- James Ensor (1860-1949)
- Louis Artan de Saint Martin (1837-1890)
- Félicien Rops (1833-1898)
- Alfred's of Stevens (1823-1906)
- Guillaume of bird (1836-1896)
- Viggo Johansen (1851-1935)
- Peder Severin Krøyer (1851-1909)
- Carl Ludwig punch (1851-1915)
- Theodro Esbern Philipsen (1840-1920)
- Laurits Anderson one ring (1854-1933)
- Paul Baum (1859-1932)
- William Claudius (1854-1942)
- Lovis Corinth (1858-1925)
- Louis Eysen (1843-1899)
- Karl Hagemeister (1848-1933)
- Theodor Hagen (1842-1919)
- max dear man (1847-1935)
- Christian Rohlfs (1849-1938)
- Fritz Schider (1846-1907)
- Franz Skarbina (1849-1910)
- Maria Slavona (1865-1931)
- max of Slevogt (1868-1932)
- Robert Sterl (1867-1932)
- William Trübner (1851-1917)
- Fritz Wildhagen (1878-1956)
- Fanny Churberg (1845-1892)
- Albert Edelfelt (1854-1908)
- Akseli Gallen Kallela (1865-1931)
- Victor Westerholm (1860-1919)
- George Clausen (1852-1944)
- Wynford Dewhurst (1864-1941)
- Henry harsh ore La Thangue (1859-1926)
- John Lavery (1856-1941)
- William Orpen (1878-1931)
- William MacTaggart (1835-1910)
- Philip Wilson Steer (1860-1942)
- James Abbott McNeillWhistler (1834-1903)
- Giuseppe Abbati (1836-1868)
- Odoardo Borrani (1833-1905)
- Guglielmo Ciardi (1842-1917)
- Giovanni Fattori (1825-1908)
- Pietro Fragiacomo (1856-1922)
- Eugenio Gignous (1850-1906)
- Silvestro Lega (1826-1895)
- Giuseppe de Nittis (1846-1884)
- Daniele Ranzoni (1843-1889)
- Raffaello Sernesi (1838-1866)
- Telemaco Signorini (1835-1901)
- Nikola Mašić (1852-1902)
- Albertus Gerardus Bilders (1838-1865)
- George Hendrik Breitner (1857-1923)
- Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël (1818-1903)
- Jacob Hendricus Maris (1837-1899)
- Willem Maris (1844-1910)
- Anton Mauve (1838-1888)
- Willem Roelofs (1822-1897)
- January Toorop (1858-1928)
- Johannes Hendrik white break (1824-1903)
- Willem de Zwart (1862-1931)
- Johann Frederik Thaulow (1847-1906)
- Tina blue-long (1845-1916)
- Theodor of hearing man (1840-1895)
- Eugen Jettel (1845-1901)
- August von Pettenkofen (1822-1889)
- Rudolf Ribarz (1848-1904)
- Anton Romako (1832-1889)
- Emil Jakob Schindler (1842-1892)
- Carl Schuch (1846-1903)
- Olga Wisinger Florian (1844-1926)
- Alexander Gierymski (1850-1901)
- Władysław Podkowiński (1866-1896)
- Isaak Ilitsch Lewitan (1860-1910)
- Wassili Dmitrijewitsch Polenow (1844-1927)
- Konstantin Alexejewitsch Korowin (1861-1939)
- Vladimir Jegorowitsch Makowski (1846-1920)
- Wassili Grigorjewitsch Perow (1834-1882)
- Walentin Alexandrowitsch Serow (1865-1911)
- Illarion Michailowitsch Prjanischnikow (1840-1894)
- Lew Samoilowitsch Bakst (1866-1924)
- Igor Emmanuilowitsch Grabar (1871-1960)
- Wassili Wassiljewitsch Wereschtschagin (1842-1904)
- Alexander Nikolajewitsch Benua (1870-1960)
- Sergej Arsenjowitsch Winogradow (1869-1938)
- Konstantin Andrejewitsch Somow (1869-1939)
- Carl Fredrik Hill (1849-1911)
- Nile EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Kreuger (1858-1930)
- Karl Fredrik northflow (1855-1923)
- Ivan Grohar (1867-1911)
- Ivana Koblica (1861-1926)
- Jožef Petkovšek (1861-1898)
- YuriyŠubic (1855-1890)
- Aureliano de Beruete y Moret (1845-1912)
- Ignacio Pinazo Camarlench (1849-1916)
- Mariano Fortuny Marsal (1838-1874)
- Francisco Gimeno Arasa (1858-1927)
- Carlo de Haes (1826-1898)
- Joaquin me Trinxet (1873-1940)
- Dario de Regoyos Valdes (1857-1913)
- Martin Rico yOrtega (1833-1908)
- Joaquin Sorolla y phloem IDA (1863-1923)
- František Kaván (1866-1941)
- Antonin Slaviček (1870-1910)
- Károly Ferency (1862-1917)
- Pál Szinyei Merse (1845-1920)
- Géza Mészöly (1844-1887)
- Lázló Paál (1846-1879)
- Mary Cassatt (1844-1926)
- William Merrit Chase (1849-1916)
- Childe Hassam (1859-1935)
- wanting pool of broadcasting corporations Leroy Metcalf (1858-1925)
- Theodore Robinson (1852-1896)
- John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
- John Henry Twachtman (1853-1902)
- Julian Alden Weir (1852-1919)
painter of the Neoimpressionismus
- Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
- Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
- Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) in the years of 1885-1890
- Georges Seurat (1859-1891)
- Paul Signac (1863-1935)
with the last exhibition of the Impressionisten works in pure, separate, balanced colors, which mix according to a considered method, appearedbecame. Georges Seurat is a researcher of this novelty. Then the Neo Impressionismus develops. The Impressionismus disappears in favor of more modern techniques. One knows today that the art made a large jump owing to the Impressionisten forward. They have the way of the art of the20. Century opened. The bloom time of the Impressionismus took about twenty years: from 1863 to death Manets in the year 1883.
see also: One speaks music
of the Impressionismus in the music likewise of the style of the Impressionismus.As a founder here above all Claude Debussy is considered (1862-1918) (however against the designation „the Impressionist “resisted). Music is for it „Klang-und color art “, and so also its works become impressionistischen Klangbildern, in those the atmosphere and the tendencythe musical procedures in tones to be painted.
Debussys melodische motives („gestures “) do not develop, them are kontrapunktisch processed or are not accomplished, as that was often so far the case. Rather they emerge for a short instant, show their variety infast changing Harmonik and are directly again replaced. It was inspired thereby by the nature perception, in addition, by asiatic music, which it on the world exhibition 1889 in Paris know had learned.
To the musical style means, which it uses, belong:
Melodik:predominantly engräumige, waving or in a circle led motives, which line up to others, again „dissolve “, however never to ausladenen topics develop. Frequent use of chromatic, pentatonischen and completetonus towards scales, often also church-tonal idioms.
Harmonik:increasing dissonance enrichment. Dissonances (above all Sept,Non and sec. and sounds) are considered as Farbwerte and are not any longer dissolved. Frequent lining up and parallel shifting of (dissonances) chords without consideration for their functional relationship. In connection with the Ganztönigkeit result excessive three-sounds.
Rhythmik:The rhythm separates fromstares clock pattern; the rhythmic emphasis is masked; the 1. Quarter one in the clock is left blank often or loses by transferring to the previous clock its weight. Alternating of Duolen and Triolen as well as clock change are frequent.
Tone quality:increased sensitivity for„the coloredness “both the orchestra and the piano sound. Preference likewise for transparent-bright as for full tone qualities. Debussy takes over the orchestra of the late romance, solves the compact total sound however in favor of more differentiated and into finest color nuances gradated sound combinations and - reflexesup.
the Impressionismus in the literature
this movement concerned not only the painting, but alsothe literature and the music.
- In the literature it is the transition between the naturalism, which describes the reality of the things, and which symbolism, which strives for the dream.
The expression “Impressionismus” clarifies us that one nowonly Impressionen, i.e. Impressions to hold wants. One wants to describe the reality no longer in such a way like it is, but only like one her sees. Most authors of the Impressionismus are therefore poets.
The second style developed in the naturalism returns in the Impressionismus,i.e. the style ideal of the detail loyalty is taken over. The Impressionisten uses throughout short literary forms, sketches, novellas, one-act play, lyric poetry for its snapshots.
The socialcritical and political element of the naturalism against it is given up in favor of a retreat on the subjectivity and the individualism.As in the Impressionismus of the painting colors and light receive (e.g. also the Glitzern and sparkling articles) a great importance in the representation.
The interest of the writers shifts thus from the objective reality on the subjective reality of the psychologicalProcedures.
- Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Dehmel (1863-1920)
- Stefan George (1868-1933)
- Arno wood (1863-1929)
- Detlev of Liliencron (1833-1909)
- Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-1898)
- Marcel Proust (1871-1922)
- Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891)
- Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931)
- Paul Verlaine (1844-1896)
- Stefan branch (1881-1942)
Alfreds Sisley: L'automne: Board de la its près Bougival (autumn: the banks of the Seine close Bougival), 1873
Edgar Degas: Aux of courses EN province (when horse running in the province)
Berthe Morisot: Le berceau (the cradle), 1872
Childe Hassam: Washington Arch jump (1893)
Pierre-Auguste Renoir: La loge
Gustave Caillebotte: La Place de l'Europe (Paris)
- John Rewald: The history of the Impressionismus. Cologne 1965
- John Rewald: By Van Gogh to Gauguin. The history of the Nachimpressionismus. Cologne 1967
- Impressionismus. Hrsg. of Ingo F. Roll ago. Cologne 2006.
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