|office language||Bahasa Indonesia|
|system of government||Präsidialrepublik|
|president||Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono|
|surface||1.912.988 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||241.973.879 (conditions: July 2005)|
|Population density||of 111 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||954 US-$ (2004)|
|time belt||+7 UTC to +9 UTC|
|national anthem||Indonesia Raya|
The Republic of Indonesia (indon. Indonesia) became to 17. August 1945 proclaims and to 27. December 1949 independently. The name Indonesia consists of latin word indus for India and to the Greek word nesos for island.
Table of contents
the equatorial island chain is concerning surface and number of inhabitants the largest state of Southeast Asia and the largest island state as well as with approximately 240 million inhabitants the fourth largest nation of the world. The land surface of Indonesia distributes itself on approximately 17,508 islands (by those approximately 6000 is inhabited). Indonesia extends in north-south expansion of for instance 6° northern latitude to 11° southern latitude over approximately 1,875 km, in westeastern expansion from 95° to 141° of eastern length over more than 5,000 km.
North of Indonesia lie Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Palau, east Papua New Guinea, south Australia and the Indian ocean, of the latters lie also to the west of Indonesia. Against the Malaii peninsula with western Malaysia and Singapore Indonesia is distinguished by the road from Malakka and direction Philippine islands goes through the border the Celebes lake.
The Indonesian island realm pulls a large number of straits, flat Nebenmeeren and sea-basins through. In the north one of the most important water ways, of Malakka , leads the road north of the Andamanensee into the Karimata road, those into the southChinese sea leads and south into the Javasee. The Javasee is convenient central and is in the south by straits, like the Sunda or Lombokstrasse, connected with the Indian ocean. From the Celebes lake the road of Makassar pulls in eastern Javasee and the Floressee, which border on the Bandasee with the spice islands. Further small sea areas lie south. Over the Indonesian part for the island new Guinea the Pacific is appropriate and south the direction Australia the Arafurasee and far east the Timorsee in the north.
To Indonesia the large ones ( except the northern part Borneos) and the small ones Sunda islands belong (except Osttimor) as well as the Molukken, and thus the largest part of of the Indonesian one archipelago, in addition the west half of new Guinea ( west Papua, formerly Irian Jaya) belongs to Indonesia. Thus Indonesia does not only lie in Asia, but has also portion of Ozeanien.
The capital Jakarta has about 11 millions Inhabitant and lies on the Hauptinsel Java, on which more than half of the inhabitants of the country lives. Than Java are surface-moderately larger Kalimantan (Borneo, in the north are appropriate for east Malaysia and Brunei), Sumatra and Sulawesi. Further well-known islands are the routistic interesting Bali as well as Komodo, the homeland of the Komodowarans. By the disputed project Transmigrasi (see reference work) was tried to solve the problem of the population concentration on the island Java which led particularly on Borneo and Sulawesi to serious collisions with the domestic population.
The country is volcanically coined/shaped and thus very gebirgig. A Ausläufer of the Pacific Feuerrings runs across Indonesia and leads too partial of large seismologischer activity. Despite the threats by sea-quake and the frequently still active volcanos (8 last was to. June 2004 the Mount Bromo as well as one day later the Mount Awu broken out - two dead ones, five hurt) is some islands, mainly Java, closely settled, since the soil is fruitful and an intensive agricultural use made possible.
Flora and fauna of Indonesia are tropical. Across the country runs the Wallace line, the fauna and Flora biologically between Asia and Australia separates.
See also: List of the cities in Indonesia
emergence of the archipelago
the area of modern Indonesia develops starting from the Pleistozän, where the today's island region was connected with the asiatic mainland still. The archipelago developed then during the rope period after the first ice age.
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The climate of Indonesia is tropical with relatively constant temperatures around 27 °C in sea level. Slight deviations from this value are caused by the zenith passage of the sun. The precipitation is caused particularly by monsoon hoist; all year round high precipitation falls in the western part of the archipelago, while in the eastern part the southwest monsoon is relative drying, since advanced air masses could originate from dry Australia and take up only little humidity there.
88.2% the Indonesier are Muslims, the large majority of it Sunniten. More than 30% call themselves than Abangan. On Java the Abangan places the majority.
Also over 213 million Muslims is Indonesia the largest Islamic state (to mark is however that some peoples indicate the Islam in Indonesia due to the state ideology as their official religion, however Animismus practice.)
About 8.9% of the population are Christians (5.9% Evangelist, 3% Rome. - kath). The Christian church in Indonesia is young, there the Christianity only in 17. Century (by Netherlands and Portuguese mission acres) on Indonesia foot seized. Particularly the east of Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara Timur) is today like a Christian coined/shaped. Also in the north of Sumatra and Maluku as well as in parts of Sulawesi there are Christian minorities. 1.8% of the population are Hindus (Bali, Lombok) and 1% Buddhisten (usually member of the Chinese minority).
Islam in Indonesia
the Islam reached Indonesia for the first time in 10. Century. Around 930 in the region Aceh the first sultanate was created. Long time remained it thereby. Only in 15. Jhd spread the Islam by Indian ones and Arab dealers only in Sumatra and reached at the beginning 16. Century also Java. Many princes at that time - and with them the population - converted thereupon to the Sunni Islam. In 17. and 18. Century reached the Islam also the remaining Indonesian islands (e.g. Sulawesi).
On Java the Islam became by the nine envoys of God, the Wali Songo (Wali= head, Songo= jav. Nine), spreads. Although it is proven that they actually lived and affected Java, might fall most of stories delivered over them into the realm of the legend. The Wali Songo based everywhere on Java mosques and Islamic schools, the Pesantren or Pondok Pesantren. These effect places of the Wali are to today the goal of annual Pilgerfahrten of Indonesian Muslims.
Although the Wali Songo taught pure Islam, faithfully the letters of the Korans, with their tolerance also traditions on Java kept, which actually contradict the theory Islam. Best example for this is „the Wayang “, the famous Indonesian shade play.
Altogether one can say that it is to be owed the Wali Songo that the Islam of liberals practiced in Indonesia is as in many Arab countries. The majority of the Indonesian Muslims accepts the different religions and cultures in their country. Beside the Wali Songo gave it still another tenth Prediger Islam, Sheikh Siti Jenar. Siti Jenar was originally a pupil of the Wali Songo, began however, to lay the Islam out completely again and justified its own teachings. After the Wali had tried in vain, Siti Jenar to bekehren, he was condemned and beheaded to death. Officially Siti Jenar does not belong to the Wali, yet about 30% of the Indonesian Muslims are trailers of its teachings. These call themselves as Abangan.
The two largest moslemischen organizations of Indonesia are the traditionalistische Nahdlatul Ulama and the modernistic Muhammadiyah. The Nadhlatul Ulama is also over 40 million members the largest moslemische organization of the world. Most well-known member is their joint founder, a former president of Indonesia Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur).
By religious and social conflicts more than 9000 humans died on the Molukken; most of it were ambonesische Christians. In central Sulawesi so far more than 1000 humans found death by similar conflicts. Parts of central Sulawesi (under it the Poso district), a region in that the number of the Muslims and Christians is about equivalent high, are coined/shaped by a rather conservative Islam. Obowohl the predominant part of the Indonesian Muslims is still moderate, gives it in the last years sign of a radicalization. Thus only recently in the Indonesian city seaweed rank was forbidden with Jakarta kissing in the public, if it lasts longer than five minutes. Women became additional with the police veboten to 19 o'clock alone walking to go. However a police officer responsible for the fact explained that one needs to count during a disregard of the law not directly on an arrest.
Further laws, those the spreading of pornografischer media (like z. B. Playboy) and pornographisches behavior to limit are, are likewise in planning. Also traditional costumes and Trachten obviously fall under the category. On the other hand however resistance of intellectual ones, artists and woman right Mrs. a stabilization the orthodox Islam moved fears.
Demografie of Indonesia
sound the Indonesian Census of 2001 live in Indonesia altogether over 300 different peoples, of whom most malaiischer origin are. The largest peoples distribute themselves on the population as follows:
Javaner (41.7%), Sundanesen (15.4%), Malaien (3.4%), Maduresen (3,3%), Batak (3,0%), Minangkabau (2,7%), Betawi (2,5%), Bugis (2.5%), Bantenesen (2.1%), Banjaresen (1.7%), Balinesen (1.5%), Sasak (1.3%), Makassarese (1,0%), Cirebon (0.9%), Chinese (0.9%)
to it still e.g. come. the Acehnesen, Toraja, Bajau, Wewewa, Bauzi, Lampung, Tengger, Osing, Badui, Gorontalo and many other groups, the however usually less than 1% at the total population place and combinations, as for instance the Wewewa living on Sumba, which are to the half malaiischer and melanesischer origin. In addition isolate Polynesian peoples in the island state live.
As the most densely populated group the Javaner is in Indonesia the politically dominating group.
In the Indonesian part of new Guinea Melanesier predominantly live.
in Indonesia live altogether 1.739 millions Chinese, most of it on the Hauptinsel Java. But also on Sumatra and Kalimantan Chinese are domestic. Most Chinese came into the country, when Indonesia was still another Netherlands colony.
They are particularly influential in the economy, which particularly led in the last years frequently to Pogromen.
unrests of 1998
many Indonesier made the Chinese minority responsible for the economic crisis in the year 1998. It came to student protests at different universities of Indonesia. As the government to 5. May of the yearly the prices for gasoline, public means of transport and river increased, followed also different subpopulations the protests. More than 1000 humans randalierten in the city Medan, set vehicles and business of Chinese in fire, while the loading remained exempted from Muslim businessmen against it usually. Unrests stopped three days. More than 1000 buildings were destroyed.
The force reached its high point in the days of 12. up to 14. May 1998 in Jakarta. Again the excesses began after peaceful student demonstrations. The military bore these first, as long as they remain on the area of the respective universities. To 12. May however four students were shot with peaceful protests on the Campus of the University of trichloroethylene share. It is assumed that contactors the member of the armed forces were. Immediately after it and with the funeral service on the following day it came to substantial encroachments. Within three days whole quarters of Jakarta were plundered. Business, banks, cars and houses fell arson attacks to the victim. Chinese boroughs were particularly concerned. The national Indonesian human right commission Komnas HAM drew the later following balance: As well as 1188 victims, 101 hurt 40 shopping centres, 2479 business and 1604 houses, which were geplündert and down-burned. 1119 cars, 1026 dwellings and 382 offices were demoliert or ignited. The dead ones belonged thereby only to a small part of the Chinese minority on. Many different were Plünderer, which were included in the houses already burning.
after the acquisition of the independence of Indonesia 1946 were abroad pushed many Chinese. The government banished Chinese without Indonesian nationality from small places and robbed ten thousands of their base of life. President Sukarno wanted to provide thereby control of the trade in the villages for the “Pribumi” (the native Indonesiern). After the seizure of power Suhartos and the agitation and the murders at presumed communists (among those the Chinese were often ranked) between 1965 and 1967 announced a Präsidialerlass over “the policy for the solution of the Chinese problem” and a further to Suharto to religion, faith and Chinese customs.
Chinesischsprachige schools were closed, culture combinations were dissolved, the sales of chinesischsprachiger books and magazines, even the use of Chinese characters in calendars, with trade marks or at business was forbidden. A only one nationally controlled chinesischsprachige daily paper was permitted. The Indonesierung of Chinese names was advanced substantial. Characteristics of cultural identity such as z. B. the celebration of the Chinese New Year celebration were forbidden and/or. into private households banishes. The documents of identification many ethnical Chinese differ on the basis a special code from those the “Pribumi”. In February 1998 even a representative of the Indonesian Ministry of Defense granted, ethnical Chinese would see itself suspended to difficulties, if they wanted to make career as officials or with the military, and besides with the admission to national universities was disadvantaged.
The revision of the discriminating laws became to 16. September 1998 arranged by the president at that time Habibie in a decree.
population density of Indonesia
the population density of the many Indonesian islands differs strongly from each other, also on the individual islands is unequally distributed it. During in the provinces Papua, Maluku and Maluku Utara on the average maximally 30 persons on km ² live, are them for instance on the Indonesian part of the island Borneo with 10-100 Einwohnern/Km ² or with 30-600 Einwohnern/Km ² on Sumatra. The island with the highest density is Java - 600 to over 1000 Einwohnern/Km ² - with the most closely settled provinces Jakarta (the capital province) and Yogyakarta.
Java is settled due to the fruitful soil and the capital very closely, was to a strong progress downward gradient between the Inselgruppen led. The government settles therefore in the context of the Transmigrasi- Project since 1969 families from Java on more thinly settled islands over, which led so far particularly to many conflicts and problems.
up to 16. Century
Mongolian-Caucasian peoples, who came before beginning of our time calculation in several immigration waves into the country, form the basic stick of the Indonesian population.
- 5. Century: Earliest influences of the Buddhismus on Indonesia.
- starting from 7. Century: Buddhisti kingdom of Srivijaya on Sumatra.
- starting from 8. Century: Buddhisti Sailendra - dynasty. Establishment of the Borobudur, the world-wide largest buddhistischen architectural monument, on Java.
- starting from end 13. Century: The last large Hinduimperium Majapahit prevailed on Java and later the surrounding islands.
- starting from 15. Century: In Indonesia the Islam becomes generally accepted . The master leaders at that time took over this religion of Arab buyers and converted. The population did it to them directly. The Islam was a revolution to the previous system. In the Islam each humans were alike. Hinduismus and Buddhismus survive to today only on the islands Bali (see for example: Besakih) and Lombok, where a indigene (by the majority however hinduistisch coined/shaped) Mischkultur develops has.
1487 umfuhr the Portuguese Bartolomeo Diaz for the first time the cape of good hope and found thereby the sea route to India. In the consequence the Europeans advanced into the Indonesian area, in order to take over the spice trade operated so far by Orientalen. After nearly 100-jähriger of Portuguese dominance the Dutchmen succeeded as colonial gentlemen around 1600.
17. to 19. Century
as Netherlands east India was Indonesia one of the first Dutch colonies. Assistance of their raw material wealth attained those colonial power a large prosperity. After the dissolution of the united commercial company in the year 1799 the State of the Netherlands transferred the colony. In the time, in Napoleon I. in the Netherlands prevailed, the Netherlands colonies in Southeast Asia by the British had been occupied. 1816 received the Dutchmen the rule over the Indonesian island realm back, had however in the contract of London without Ceylon and the cape country to do).
- 1825 - 1830: Rising of the people on Java against Netherlands colonial rule. The fights fall over 200.000 Javaner and 8000 Europeans to the victim.
After 1816 the Dutchmen drew in first, as before them the Englishmen, a lease of the native farmers: In each village the chief had to ensure that a money was delivered, which corresponded to two fifth of the value of the local rice harvest. Governor general Johannes van the Bosch obtained that around 1830 a new system was introduced, in such a way specified cultuurstelsel. Instead of paying lease, the farmers should make available now a fifth of their soil, in order to cultivate on this country of the government determined plants. To this system it belonged also that they used their worker 66 days in the year in favor of the government. In practice the loads for the farmers went the frequently far beyond official defaults. The goods were shipped to Europe and sold there profitably. This system criticized the Netherlands writer and former colonial officials Eduard Douwes Dekker in its 1860 under the alias Multatuli published book max of Havelaar.
1870 were finally abolished cultuurstelsel after a decision in the parliament of the Netherlands motherland. From now on it was possible for Netherlands private individuals to lease country from the native farmers to in order to put on Plantagen on that.
at the beginning of 20. Century
- 1908: The Netherlands expand, outgoing from Java, their sphere of influence since the entire Indonesian archipelago. The province Aceh (Atjeh) in the north Sumatras is only able to resist, however after one over dreissigjährigen war is likewise subjected.
- 1912: With the establishment of the Sarekat the Indonesian nationalism arises for Islam („Islamic combination “) to a mass movement.
- 1926: The communist party (PKI) calls to the revolutionary war of liberation. The collection fails to the superior Netherlands colonial power.
- 1927: After smashing the PKI takes over the Partai Nasional Indonesia the fight against the Dutchmen, created of Achmed Sukarno (1901-1970), up.
- February/March 1942: In the Second World War Japan Netherlands India conquers.
- March 1943: Under Japanese crew Indonesia (for the first time) explains itself independently as of the Netherlands.
The Japanese began end of 1941 to occupy the Indonesian islands. Their interest applied for war-important reserves of raw materials and the improvement of its strategic position. The Australian cities Darwin and Broome were bombarded by bases on the Indonesian islands. In March 1942 the Dutchmen capitulated. Those nearly 350-jährige time of their colonial rule was past. Most Indonesier welcomed the Japanese as Befreier of the yoke of the Europeans. The enthusiasm flew however rapidly, when the asiatic neighbours develop a fright and an arbitrariness regime. The rule of the Japanese ended with their surrender to 15. August 1945.
independence and fight for the state receipt
to 17. Sukarno and Mohammed Hatta the independence of Indonesia call August 1945 out (state name: Indonesia). With the principles of the Pancasila the state gives itself its own condition. The influence of the Republic of Indonesia extends first to the islands Java, Sumatra and Madura. The remaining islands are held by the Dutchmen. First president of the Republic of Indonesia becomes Achmed Sukarno. By July 1947 until December 1948 the Dutchmen occupy far territories of the insurgent republic. Their sovereignty is only limited to Zentraljava and the high country of Sumatra.
The insurgent Indonesier answers with guerrilla war. To 18. December 1948 succeeds it to the Dutchmen to arrest Sukarno and nearly the whole government. Since the USA fear a communist seizure of power during expansion of the fights, urge them the Netherlands to the giving way. To 25. April 1949 is formed the Netherlands-Indonesian union existing to 1956, to 27. December becomes the independence of the Republic of Indonesia (new state name: Republic of Indonesia Serikat) recognition by the Netherlands, the Netherlands part of new Guinea west Papua remains however under Netherlands administration.
- 17. August 1950: Indonesia structured since independence föderal is converted into a unit state (new state name: Republic of Indonesia). The Christian part of the population of the Molukken proclaims the independent Republic of Maluku Selatan. The secession attempt is suppressed by the Indonesian army however with force of arms. Indonesian troops occupy the capital Ambon in November and conquer to 1955 the entire Republic of Maluku Selatan.
- 15. February 1956: Indonesia quits the 1949 closed union with the Netherlands.
- 1. May 1963: West Papua (Irian Barat) turns out in fact completely under Indonesian control.
- 16. September 1963: The establishment of Malaysia and the integration of Sabah and Sarawak into the Malaysian federation lead to serious tensions with Indonesia. Until 1966 it comes again and again to fights on Borneo. Malaysia is supported thereby by Great Britain and Australia with troops.
- 30. September 1965: The increasing arbitrary government of the Sukarno regime provokes an alleged communist revolution attempt. This fails because of a Gegenputsch of the army, in whose process between 100.000 and one million humans are killed, above all actual or alleged trailers of the communist party of Indonesia (PKI) and Chinese. This is considered as one of the largest politically motivated mass murders of recent history. The procedures are today only insufficiently examined until, therefore exact data are not possible for the number of the victims. (Sources: (1) J.L. Holzgrefe/Robert O. Keohane: Humanitarian intervention: Ethical, legal and Political dilemma, Cambridge University press (2003) ISBN 0-521-52928-X, S. 47 (2) Marks of Levene, penny of Robert: The measure acre in History, mountain cock Books (1999), ISBN 1-571-81935-5, S. 247-251)
- 1. January 1966: Currency reform: 1000 old Rupiah = 1 new Rupiah = 100 new Sen.
- 11. March 1966: General Hadji Mohamed Suharto (* 1921) forces the authority from Sukarno for formation of a government.
- 12. March 1967: Suharto becomes „an acting president “; Sukarno remains a nominal head of state.
- 27. March 1968: Suharto also formally takes over the office of the president.
- 1969: West Papua (Irian Barat) becomes Indonesian province and receives to the names „Irian Jaya “.
- 21. June 1970: Death of the state State of oh WAD Sukarno.
- 5. August 1973: Continuous ones social tensions unload themselves in race conflicts, which are directed against the Chinese minority.
- 28. November 1975: Portugal withdraws itself from its colony east Timor . „The revolutionary front for the independence from Timor Leste “(FRETILIN) calls independence out (effectively only to 20. May 2002).
- 2. Decembers 1975 attack extremistic members of the 35,000 there living Ambonesen (south Molukken) in the Netherlands a course and to 4. Decembers the Indonesian Consulate General in Amsterdam and take hostages with the goal that the Netherlands government supports the Ambonesen in Indonesia. Four hostages are shot. The Netherlands government remains hard, the Ambonesen gives to 19. December up.
- 7. December 1975: Head of state Suharto instructs the military invasion Osttimors. In the following weeks 60,000 humans are killed, 10% of the population.
- 17. June 1976: Osttimor is integrated the Indonesian state federation. On Sumatra the recondition movement ASNLF was created.
- 11. November 1981: The UN-general assembly demands the right of self-determination for Osttimor.
- 1998 - 1999: After the deprivation of power of general Suharto takes over Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (* 1936), up to then vice-president, the office of the president.
- 19. April 1999 bomb attack on the main mosque in Jakarta (3 hurt), fully occupied with 600 Gläubigen; 20. October: Abdurrahman Wahid (* 1940) becomes a first freely selected president.
- 31. October 1999: The last Indonesian soldiers leave Osttimor after it the country in debris and ash put and an international peacekeeping force landed in September in Dili.
- 1. August 2000 a bomb explodes before the residence of the Philippine Ambassador in Jakarta (2 dead ones, 23 hurt); (13. September) in the underground parking of the stock exchange of Jakarta detonates an autobomb (15 dead ones, 27 hurt); (24. December) of 15 bomb attacks on Christian churches (16 dead ones, more hurt than 100).
- 1. January 2001: Irian Jaya receives internal autonomy.
- July 2001: Megawati Sukarnoputri (*1944), daughter of the state State of Sukarno, becomes new state president; (23. Septembers) in an animated shopping centre in Jakarta explode two bombs (several hurt ones)
- 20. May 2002: Osttimor receives independence (República Democrática de Timor Leste).
- 12. October 2002: Islamic terrorist attack on the tourist island Bali (202 dead ones and more than 300 hurt).
- 18. May 2003: Imposition of the martial law in the province Aceh (Atjeh ) in the extreme north of the island Sumatra, striving for independence - large offensive with 40.000 soldiers. More than 1000 humans die, 20,000 are on the escape; (5. August) a suicide assassin blows up itself before the Marriott hotel in Jakarta into air (12 dead ones, 150 hurt).
- 10. January 2004: In a Café on the island Palopo explodes a bomb (four dead ones); Abolishment of the indirect choice of the president; (5. July) for the first time direct presidency elections, with which no candidate achieves the necessary absolute majority; (9. September) a bomb attack on the Australian message in capital Jakarta demanded 11 dead ones and over 150 hurt; (20. September) the challenger and former general Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono triumphs in the ballot against the past office owner Megawati Sukarnoputri.
- 26. December 2004: With a sea-quake west before the island Sumatra are killed (beside ten thousands humans in other countries) also over 200.000 inhabitants of Indonesia (conditions: In the middle of March 2005).
- 1. October 2005: Again terrorist attack on Bali: In the distance fewer minutes explode against 19 o'clock local time 3 bombs in Jimbaran and Kuta. With the explosions 23 humans come around the life, including three suicide assassins.
the former Netherlands colony are today a Präsidialrepublik. The condition of 1945 plans the division of power . To the fall Suhartos 1998 were converted extensive reforms. The a chamber parliament (Lower House) has 500 on five years selected delegates (to 2004 38 of it from the president appointed of military were). The advisory popular assembly, which selected in former times the president and advises spreading political topics, consists of the Lower House, 135 representatives of the provinces as well as 65 representatives of condition organizations and comes thereby on 700 members.
Since 2004 the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) is a two-chamber parliament. This highest Legislativorgan consists delegates of the 550 DPR (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat) and 128 regional representatives (DPD). The DPD (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah) is thus in the context of the decentralization politics again created 2. Chamber.
since 2004 is selected the president directly by the people. First directly selected president became a former general Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. The former safety Minister received with the ballot to 20. September 2004 nearly 61 per cent of the voices. It replaces thereby the past state State of Megawati Sukarnoputri , which came only on well 39 per cent. Already with the first ballot to 5. July 2004 had obtained the ex-general most voices, which absolute majority misses however. Therefore a ballot had become necessary against the zweitplatzierte Megawati. The daughter of republic Republic of Sukarno had moved in the summer 2001 to the state point, after its predecessor Abdurrahman Wahid from the office had been pushed.
a multiple party system with a large number of parties has parties Indonesia. A prevailing party under Suharto was Golkar. Their influence is further large, but no more dominance. The present president Yudhoyono stood as a candidate with the presidency election 2004 for the again created democratic party, its Vorgängerin and Kontrahentin Megawati for the PDI-P.
major item: Armed forces of Indonesia
the Streikräfte Indonesia are called Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI) and consist of approximately 250,000 soldiers. They are rough in army, the navy, which naval forces and the Air Force subdivided. The army has the by far largest capacities with approximately 196,000 soldiers. Long time belonged also the Indonesian police force to armed forces. In April 1999 one began with separating the police force, this process in July 2000 was formally locked. With 150.000 employees the police has a far smaller crew strength, than in most other states. In addition still about 120,000 members of the local police come, so that the total strength lets number on approximately 270,000 persons.
The Verteidungshaushalt Indonesia amounts to only 3% of the gross national product, but leads the military a set of enterprises and donations, which bring in further money.
241 millions Indonesier lives poverty over 27% that in poverty, whereby there are strong regional differences. During inJava, which, about 23% in poverty live Hauptinsel of the country, gives it some provinces, particularly in the east, in which the portion of the poor population is about 44%.
Particularly in large cities such as Jakarta there is expanded Slums. On Java there are about 1.7 millions Road children. The Slums, in which many humans under erbärmlichen conditions must live, is centers of radical Islamics, who could win a part of the there population for their ideas, which expresses itself now and then in anti-American demonstrations. Road children (main boys) are taken up every now and then by radical-Islamic groups and land in illegal Islamic schools.
major item: Administrative arrangement of Indonesia
Indonesia is administratively at present arranged into 33 parts, among them 30 provinces, 2 special regions and the capital district (daerah khusus ibukota) Jakarta. In recent time some new provinces were separated from already existing (2003 Irian Jaya Barat and 2004 Sulawesi Barat). The Indonesian government plans the establishment of further new provinces.
One level under the provinces gives it 357 administrative districts, which possess a great administrative importance since the administrative reform 2001.
of Indonesia economics be based on the principle of the free-market economy, is affected in many places however by the government. Some large enterprises are in government property. 1997/1998 shook an economic crisis different states in east and Southeast Asia, about which also Indonesia was strongly concerned (Asia crisis). The currency lost 75% of its value and many enterprises went to bankruptcy. At present the Indonesian economy is however to some extent stable and has a growth rate of approximately 5 per cent. The currency is the Indonesian Rupiah.
The gross domestic product amounted to in the year 2004 3,500 USD per head , however lives a quarter of the population under the poverty border. Nearly half of the persons employed is active in the agriculture. Many multinational enterprises use the wealth at natural Bodenschätzen in the country and have addresses. The copper producer PT Freeport Indonesia is largest taxpayer of the state.
some export products are wood products, agricultural products (rice, peanuts, cocoa, coffee, Palmöl, meat), textiles and minerals. In addition there are some attractive goals for the tourism, approximately on Bali or Flores.
membership of international organizations
Indonesia is member in the organization of oil exporting countries (OPEC), however meanwhile a net importer of oil became, since the own occurrences are nearly exhausted. Further memberships: International currency rear, world trade organization, ASEAN.
1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service
the national anthem Indonesia Raya of dares Rudolf Soepratman composed. Typical Indonesian music instruments are the Gamelan and Angklung. A traditional pastime is the Indonesian shade play Wayang. The Indonesian culture (music, literature, painting) became in 9. and 10. Century first of the Buddhismus, and starting from that 13. Jhd increasingly coined/shaped by the Hinduismus. A further highly developed art is the batik, which is resident in Indonesia for centuries. In complex technology rich samples with flowers and motives for bird, spirals and fantasyful structure are developed. Today the batik is an export product of Indonesia. Rice is a basic food, which is eaten up to three times on the day. Everywhere rice terraces pull the country through. Many myths tell that the rice a gift of the sky is.
By the multiplicity of the peoples of Indonesia however large differences between the cultures of the individual regions exist.
the rain forest of Indonesia is considered as the species-richest world-wide. The rain forests of Indonesia are as fast destroyed nevertheless as in no other country in the world. About 88% of the wood originate from illegal impact. This dramatic trend is reflected also in the condition of the kind existence again: Indonesia has at present the longest list on from becoming extinct threatened kinds.
The timber economy is responsible only for a part of the jungle destruction. Large surfaces are gerodet and/or burned down, in order to win or operate around rural economy Bodenschätze, above all paper - or Ölpalmen - Plantagen. With the burn-off of the forests down, in particular in areas with much peat, strong smoke develops occasionally also and economic damage health to the neighboring countries Malaysia , Singapore and Brunei extended and arranges themselves and to political conflicts leads. Continuously the smoke was particularly strong and for months in the years 1983/84, 1997/98 and 2005.
The humus layer of the gerodeten surfaces is however too thin, it could be used on a long-term basis agrarianeconomically. Thus on the former species-rich rain forest soil only some years one cultivates, before it fallow-lies useless and leached out. Usually there then the persistent elephant grass settles , which transforms the area into an ecological desert. The farmers remains no other possibility of roden than rain forest for new cultivated areas.
the tourism is for the country an important source of income. Particularly Bali becomes each year of approx. 4 million tourist, those visits primarily from Australia, which the USA and Europe come. Tourism gives it also on Komodo, where the Komodowaran is domestic. North sulawesi, in particular the area around Manado (v.a. Bunaken and the Lembeh road) and the Togian islands are well-known famous as Taucherparadies, the Toraja - area in the south Sulawesis for its dead cult. However the tourism in Indonesia experienced clear cuts, from which the tourism recovers however slowly again by notices on Bali in the last years.
- Mochtar Lubis: Dawn in Jakarta. The author spent the years 1956 to 1965 in the prison or under house arrest. After its rehabilitation it grants a view behind the political and social window blinds and boundary conditions of the different social classes. ISBN 3-293-20098-2
- Gernot Voltz: Sumatra is everywhere. Humorous travel diary. ISBN 3-89573-091-2
- Nigel Barley: Hello Mister Puttymann. Also in reality Ethnologe British to museum in London, he writes in the Slapstick character its experiences in Tora-hunt-offers Sulawesis. ISBN 3-423-12580-2
- Inge kind of thrust: Lady doctor in the jungle of Sumatra. Eventful lives of the lady doctor in the jungle 1950-60. ISBN 3-7987-0327-2
- IDA Pfeiffer: Adventure island world. Four years old journey of the Austrian Reiseliteratin 1851 by Borneo, Sumatra and Java. ISBN 3-900478-70-8
- max Dauthendey: At the beginning 20. Jh. well-known, German travel writer. Its various publications are under: http://www.gutenberg.aol.de/autoren/dauthend.htm
- GEO magazine, 6/86: The million-removal in the race with the time. Zzum Transmigrasi problem; still acuteal problem.
- Steven Drakeley: The history OF Indonesia, west haven, Connecticut: Greenwood, 2005, 201 S., ISBN 0-313-33114-6
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Indonesia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Indonesian message in Berlin - on the left of consulate in Frankfurt A.M., Indonesian
- to Indonesian government agencies (English).
- Asean news network (English, Indonesian)
- German message in Jakarta
- German donation for international development
- Watch Indonesia!
- Website by Peter Loud (map material) (English)
- house of the Netherlands - the Netherlands colonial age
- Klaus Polak: extensive reports on a journey from the island state, bio diversity, culture
- Indonesia photo (Bali, Java, Flores, Sulawesi, etc.)
- extensive Indonesia encyclopedia and travel information from sunda-islands.com
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