Industrielle revolution

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Under Industrielle revolution one understands the industrielle transformation of the work and social order in Europe in 19. Century. The term Industrielle revolution became from Friedrich Engels and L. Blanqui coined/shaped.

Table of contents

manifestations

With the transition to the steam energy as basis of the energy production in place of water - and wind energy was introduced one period of profound social and technological changes. In the historical review the Industrielle often become revolution asrevolution “therefore with that Neolithi revolution (cut into mankind history), which compared transition to the Jungsteinzeit, since this brought a comparably drastic social change with itself. If one may speak here at all of a “revolution “, because this circulation is a process of decadesbeen and a revolution is not over 5 years a going out event. Apart from a grandiosen development of the productivity and the sciences, accordingly heavy social questions rose - like for example masses poverty and masses unemployment.

The industrielle revolution began in 18. Century in England and spread from there in 19. Century due to the emigration to Europe and into the USA.

During before all mechanical energy by wind or Wassermühlen, the Betakelung of sailing boats or by employmentof muscle energy of animal (course cattle) and/or. Humans (melting furnaces, hydraulic engineerings - see. the “hydraulic cultures “), by improvements of the steam engine of James Watt new possibilities was produced was created. With the transformation of steam strength into mechanical Kraft the building from factories far from watercourses possible. Manual work could be mechanized; from Manufakturen factories and thus a new production way , which held first in the English cotton processing, then in further branches of industry introduction, developed.

Soeliminated the steam engine for example the dependence on weather-related seasonal fluctuations of the energy sources. Wind and water-driven mills or pumps were replaced by steam transmissions.

Important components of the Industriellen revolution were apart from the development of the steam engine the development of by machine claimant vehicles like that Steam engine by smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Trevithick, Timothy Hackworth, John Blenkinsop and George Stephenson and the steam ship by Robert Fulton at the beginning of the century.

These inventions produced large social circulations. The energy capacities of the small mills and Manufakturen were not able with thatTo compete steam energy. With locomotives and steamers goods could be transported over country and sea very fast and within a calculable time, since the steam aggregates supplied continuous energy. A strong development of new inventions could general be determined, these was in particularto constitute during the new use of non-human energy and in the textile industry.

Existing principles of the production were replaced by new (country, prosperity, S. 205):

  • “human talent and effort by - just as fast as evenly, precisely and untiringly working -Machine ";
  • “animated by dead sources of strength, in particular by the invention of (force) machines, which convert warmth into work and thus an almost inexhaustible energy open”;
  • “Use of new raw materials in larger quantities, above all the replacement of vegetable and animal substances throughinorganic and finally synthetically manufactured materials ".

revolution until today there

are reasons of the Industriellen no definite explanation for the fact why it came at all to Industriellen the revolution. It is only certain that it by a multiplicity on with one anotherinvolved causes in England began. Only in 19. Century spread it over west and Central Europe and the USA. Toward end of this century also Russia and Japan were seized. Some countries „third “and „fourth “world cross not until today(toward end 20. Century - beginning 21. Century) this process. The causes of the Industriellen revolution are seen in the social changes caused by the clearing-up as well as to the colonial expansion 17. Century.

reasons forthe beginning of the Industriellen revolution in Europe

why the Industrielle revolution straight in Europe arose and not in technologically far developed China? Why then not already in late ancient times, in the time that diadochus realms, within the range of the easternMediterranean?

Benjamin Elman argued that China was in an equilibrium situation on high level, in which the not nichtindustriellen methods enough were efficient to prevent the introduction of industriellen methods with high main costs.

Differently Kenneth Pommeranz argues that Europe and already 1700 it was remarkably similar to China but that the crucial cause for the industrielle was to be looked for revolution in Europe in the nearby charring and raw material supplies of the industrial areas. Besides imported goods of colonial goods extended among other things Of Europe industrielle possibilities in onefor China not conceivable measure.

Wolfgang king of the technical University of Berlin states that the many individual states led in Europe to a mutual competition and advanced thus the technical progress. The Empire of China was against it a central governed giant realm.This circumstances are considered as one of several causes.

Remote and Braudel occupies by a multiplicity by sources that itself since center of the last millenium in different cultures world-wide important developments, like a rising of the growth rate of the population and an expansion of theRemote trade, to a large extent independently of Europe carried out. The characteristic in the European development therefore lies in the larger political dynamics, in particular the relative instability and the associated larger liberty of the particular, and the wealth by the exploitation of the colonies.

Contrary to Europe China pursued long time a policy of the isolation. A goal was it to protect the own country against barbarians.

reasons for the Industrielle revolution in England

  • economics
    - large capital reserves by colonial andSlave trade
    - contrary to Continental Europe a highly developed economic liberalism without guild and customs barriers
    - high willingness to invest, first with aristocrats from a agricultural income, afterwards also in the middle class
  • society and work
    - sinking mortality rates by medical and hygenic improvements, therefore sufficientavailable workers
    - the theological adjustment of the Calvinismus promoted virtues such as diligence, winning vines and desire to invest
    - transition from the Manufaktur to the Manufaktur manufacturing
    - agricultural concentration process under productivity increase
    - high measure of Rationalität and nature control in European thinking
  • politics
    - parliamentarism
    - Props to adjust economic losses by the American declaration of independence
    - juridical system with handels and patent law
    - political emancipation of the middle class (also by the Verbürgerlichung of the aristocracy)
  • infrastructure and resources
    - favorable traffic routes (sea, rivers, channels and roads) and their more efficientlyDevelopment
    - natural raw material resources (coal, ores, cotton)
    - the Empire as raw material supplier and market
    - supremacy as handels and colonial power: England had fought for in the dreissigjährigen one, in for the American war of independence and the wars this position before
    - Conversion to hard coal by lack of wood and wood hot enough did not verbrannnte there around steel warmly enough to heat up
  • open social structure
    - it did not prevail strict condition order forwards
    - aristocracy and middle class could marriages close
    - also thatAristocracy worked, because work was “God will”

of impulse forces for the Industrielle revolution in England

England is in 18. and 19. Century the largest colonial power and can import economically cotton from America. The Industrielle revolution begins in Englandwith the textile industry. As the first driving power for the industrialization one must however the population explosion starting from center 18. Century until late in 19. Century regard. Better medical practices and realizations as well as being missing hunger emergencies are principal reason for it.

Those was only enoughoriginal form of the agriculture not out, in order to nourish the fast growing population of England, since this still on the Dreifelderwirtschaft was based. Therefore an agrarian revolution had to provide for more food. The Dreifelderwirtschaft was replaced by the much more productive Fruchtwechselwirtschaft.

Entrepreneurs began,to concern itself with rural economy. The before outweighing farmers began to move away into the cities and look for work there. One calls this procedure urbanisation. One calls the total process of the agrarian revolution Enclosure Movement, which also a modernizationthe agriculture means. (Intensification, increased returns).

To it the economic liberalism an important driving force is parallel. The economic liberalism was justified by Adam Smith and treats the realization of profits and the prosperity of the nation. Topics such as investment and profitability became important forhumans and a business category developed. By the parallel accumulation demand intensified by workers, and the new mentality was possible the accumulation of capital (accumulation).

The economic liberalism led also to a prevention of the old, trade obstructing Mercantilism. “The free play of the forces” became the successful economic theory. The state withdrew itself from the economy and free trade without expensive Binnenzölle was possible.

By this introduction of the Industriellen revolution also inventors came on always new ideas.Thus James Watt of 1769 revised the steam engine, which had been invented formerly by Thomas Newcomen. The entrepreneurs recognized the effectiveness of this steam engine immediately. The introduction of the steam engine led to a still stronger intensification of the industry. Thus e.g. became. the textile industryrelocated by the before domestic small manufacturing plants into large factories, where steam-claimant looms manufactured fast and productively materials. The textile industry gave to develop further industries the impact and therefore than key industry of the Industriellen revolution in England calls itself.

Therefore was a higher demand at fuels, which brought the coal dismantling out, which became ever more effective by further inventions. Thus from the steam engine the railway was invented. All the produced a high demand at raw materials and workers.

Successively each branch of industry constructed one on the otherand the economy began to converse “”.

population growth and worker surplus

during in 18. Century the mortality rate was about as high as the birth rate, increased the number of the population if necessary. forwards, anyhow during the industriellen revolutionlike an explosion. Trade and handicraft grew

process forms of the industriellen revolution

Kapitalzufluss

the new industrial plants required capital, which from different sides came: Noble invested their capital from basic lease and agriculture; Wholesale merchants their fortune from (colonial) the trade;Craftsman their manufacturing profit. In addition finance companies were created: Enterprise-willing friends and families folded up their saving, in order to invest into promising enterprises, risky enterprises or into speculative transactions. North English owners of pit connected themselves with Londoner coal dealers; Owner of brewery with Malzlieferanten and inventors alsoFinancial sources. Also small factories were created: for example between machine-builders and cranks. Because in 18. Century was still relatively small the capital requirement, so that also individual workers or small employees with own and borrowed money the social ascent to the entrepreneurcreate. Each technical invention was used and improved, advanced the division of labor and increased the enterprises. Besides the pro head production in the English industry constantly increased. Also the paragraph of the bulk goods was secured: In England, in the colonies and in Continental Europe(where English products in 19. Century the market controlled).

the constant increase

of the capital and as high a profits as possible had high capitalism and world economy this restaurant economics of the industriellen capitalism as a goal. Conditions for it were:

  • well removed traffic routes(particularly between Rohstoffbasen, manufacturing plants and consumer markets)
  • increase of the protective duties (protection from foreign goods),
  • development of the monopolies and
  • establishments of self-sufficient restaurant units with the help of the colonies

increase of the inventions

number of the valid patents 1750 - 1850 in England:

the Spinning Jenny

and the mechanical loom the possibility for the increase in sales

Im 18. Jahrhundert waren zwei Kleidergarnituren ein Luxus => offered 6155 patents [work on] to the textile producers with more inexpensive products. 1760 was processed in England 2.5 million Pound of cotton; 1860 waren es 366 Millionen Pfund => an increase overnearly the hundred-fiftyfold (around the 146,4-fache). Up to the center 18. Century the largest part of the cotton in home working, imported from the colonies, was processed: The whole family was busy. But the webers could process more yarns than four cranks (inside)in the same time händisch to produce could. The demand at yarn led to the fact that the price enormously and was suspended even prices for inventions rose, which could increase yarn production and quality.

James Hargreaves developed 1764 a spin machine, after itsDaughter was called „Spinning Jenny “. Which with water power were then already operated. By this combination the technician Samuel Crompton could manufacture 1779 still much finer yarn. Production again enormously increased as the steam engine water power replaced. ThatResult was that a crank at the beginning 19. Century as much yarn to produce could, as 200 before the invention „of the Jenny “. The meant however at the same time the end of the home industry - it could not do no more with the larger, steam-claimant machines stephold. Beginning 19. Century work about 100,000 in the developed spin factories. The price of the yarn sank enormously. Result: Cheap cotton textiles become let the paragraph in England rise and constituted 1830 more than half of the export of England.

The weaving mill stayed the modernization in the spinning mill for a long time - until the Londoner minister Edmund Cartwright 1784 invented the mechanical loom, but he needed about 50 years, until he could succeed finally. The reason was that well 250.000Hand webers embittered and brutal resistance offered and even factories down-burned, from fear around its profession and before the modernization. The rebellion remained however unsuccessful, because the idea of the unrestrictedly free economy had become generally accepted.

the steam engine - James Watts

before the industrialization were dependent humans when producing on own Kraft and on by water, wind and animals. There were however already humans, who were occupied with the building of prime movers - it was missing howeverto carry out often at technical possibilities around their ideas. Only James Watt connected science and practice:

As mechanics the learned Uhrmacher at the University of Glasgow should repair a small model of the Newcomenmaschine and became thereby on the weaknesses of this steam engineattentively. From then on it tested the characteristics of steam and the usefulness of different metals in test series for many years. Nevertheless lay between his new steam engine as model (1765) and a commercially usable, substantially more efficient machine more than one decade.

Watt wanted to give due to its debts and the bankruptcy its first Financiers, but its second up, which was a manufacturer Matthew Boulton, convinced of its success.

This steam engine became within short time the most important machine within the most diverse ranges (pumps, hammers,Blowers and rollers were propelled thereby). A reason, why Boulton put as much money into this project was probably that that Watt had let its invention patent - thus any competition was switched off. With the royal patent one was allowed already sincethat 17. Century inventions on limited time alone use. The patent was extended even by the parliament.

coal dismantling and heavy industry

since that 16. Century was used in England coal for the house fire and conventional industry. Around 1800 tookthe need still too, when charcoal became by the Roden of the forests scarcer and more expensive. At first only in the building of days one diminished - due to the missing pumps for the Untertagbau (water pumps for the waste water). Since the steam engine (as drive for water pumps)coal from ever larger depths could be diminished. It was used also to carrying humans and material in the pits and furthermore used as tractor for loaded trucks on wood, later then iron rails (toward end 18. Century).

Forthe iron production became (up to the center 18. Century) charcoal used - although Abraham Darby already made 1709 of hard coal coke and brought with it iron to melting. Only toward end 18. Century could good iron cheaply and in largeQuantities to be produced, which should be processed initially particularly as munition. In addition, were manufactured on thes subject of the domestic purposes and for the industry. Nevertheless one needed to produce several days around 10 tons steel. Henry Bessemer invented 1855the more efficient „Bessemer converter “. But iron had replaced wood and stone already before as material (small buildings, bridges, ships, articles from lead).

means of transport

steam navigation and railway took a rapid upswing.

the social question

Gustave Doré, a dog life, 1872

under the social question one understands oneself the new poverty by the industrial workers and the gap between the social layers, aggravating in the course of the industrialization. Particularly 18 becomes simultaneous in. Century the voicesever louder, which demand a solution of this question.

the cities grew and grew

the population growth became still additional by the industrielle revolution the rapid increase of the population 18. Century accelerates. Reasons were apart from progress inthe medicine and hygiene the better Nahrungsmittelversorgung, farmer release and the freedom of trade. For the first time liberty applied also with the choice of domicile, occupation and marriage partner. Many farmers sold its small, often unprofitable piece soil. The predominantly rural home workings could with thatincreasing and cheaper competition of the manufactured articles any longer do not keep up. Hunger and increasing poverty drove the rural population into the again created and fast growing industrial cities. The using migration from the land was a direct consequence of the industrialization. Millions of humans moved into thoseThe USA or other states in „overseas “out, because they did not see future in the cities.

The transition for industrialization ran quite contradictory, then it came into England to the collection of the Maschinenstürmer (“Ludditen”). Workers saw threatened and protested their living costs approximatelythis development partly with force and sabotage of factories.

The industrialization led the growth of large cities to the emergence of modern factories and caused by the inflow of the workers.

the industrielle reserve army

by the offer in excess at workers („the industrielle“, Karl Marx) entrepreneurs the wages to under the subsistence level could press reserve army. The reason of the entrepreneurs was also the large competition, the price fight and investment into technical renewals. Workers the murrten or were work unable, by others were replaced immediately,often already before the factory gates around work begged. In English industrial cities average ability to work amounted to about 15 years. The average age of the industrial workers in Manchester was at only 18 years.

It prevailed just as strict work discipline - for example wages becamearound a half daily wage shortened with zehnminütigem Zuspätkommen. Likewise punishment had to be paid with incorrect commodity. There was also no old-age pension, accident insurance, protection against arbitrariness of the entrepreneurs. The national authority did not intervene in „the free economy “ sociopolitically- and if, then police and military were used only if it applied to strike down worker unrests and hunger demonstrations.

The conditions of work were heavy: Extension of the daily work time (up to 18 hours), no Sunday peace, catastrophic hygenic conditions, insufficient or missing safety precautions(Transmission volumes of the steam engines were a large source of danger).

Debt at this misery were from the view of the workers the new machines, which made hundredthousands workers unemployed particularly in the textile industry. Therefore it came in the first half 19. Centuryto rebellions, which were brutally struck down by the authority. The consequences were dead ones, hurt one and arrested one as well as executions of the leaders.

also women must into the factory

the workers earned often too few around their family toonourish - also women and children Lohnarbeiten had to accept. Particularly in child-rich families this was necessary. But when Mrs. only badly paid home workings could accept nut/mother of small children. But also in factories (women worked predominantly in thatTextile industry) was the wages far under that of the men, who regarded the women still as additional cheap competitor inside on the job. Many workers wanted to have their wives also much rather at home. Also many women were this opinion, yet sat down inthe proletarian women's movement toward end 19. Century another view through. (See.Clara Zetkin, for the release of the woman.)

the exploitation of the young people

Kinderarbeit was already before-historically, for a long time usual before the industriellen revolution, -but it accepted terrible extents only here. Exactly like the women they were considered as cheap workers. They were used particularly in the Untertagbau, since they were smaller and therefore in small pits more effectively than adults men worked. MostChildren caught at the age of 4 years in the mining industry (English: to work coal mines) on. At the worst one this was in England, where the children worked in the summer up to 64, and in the winter 52, hours in the week.On the other hand the 80 hour week the other children was not by any means more human in weaving mills (Cotton Mills) for a half cent to carry out had.

examples

  • of children (the youngest were four years old) had in charring and Eisenbergwerken broken loose material (creeping) outwardtransport, small course doors open and close.

child work prohibitions?

Understanding politicians tried to limit the Kinderarbeit legally - against the resistance of the factory owners, who felt as benefactors, if them children starting from that 5. Lebensjahr employed. 1833 became firstChild law in England issue: Work prohibition of children under 9 years in textile mills, night work prohibition and maximally 12-Stundentag for young people under 18 years. Factory supervisors should supervise the adherence to the laws. About ten years later a prohibition of the Untertagarbeit for children (minimum age followed:10 years) and women. Similar laws were issued soon thereafter in Germany and Austria (work prohibition for children under 12). These regulations improved the situation of the children, nevertheless could the Kinderarbeit in 20. Century not to be eliminated. Thoseissued child laws were often gone around: For example it was indicated that no formal employer-employee relationship with the children existed and only the children used parents as an own temporary help.

In factories it lacked still for a long time effective control of the laws; in handicraft,Trade and particularly in the agriculture gave it further no legal protection for children.

the housing situation

by the growth of the cities grew also the housing shortage. In the proximity of the factories Holzbaracken were often established, inthose workers zusammengepfercht closely Unterschlupf found - they had to be glad to have at all a roof over the head - all the same whether into old, purge houses, cellars or attics. For example it should not according to a Prediger in east London unusuallybeen its that up to 10 persons on 14m ² lived. It was missing in these misery accomodation also at water and sewers (for more than hundred humans it only one toilet gave). Later for the workers more substantially built, multi-storey interest barracks were established- to high rents and with bad comfort: Water and closet gave it together for all at the course; the damp areas had only small windows and rarely a heating, but possessed already Gasbeleuchtungen. The housing scarceness caused an excessive rising for thatRents, which constituted up to ¾ the wages. Therefore beds were often divided with a second person - in addition these were alternating used with other - as in the factory in the shift operation. Only around the turn of the century became the housing misery ofPoliticians and newspapers publicly denounced.

solution attempts for the improvement of the situation of the industrial workers

the answers for the solution of the social question differ in its origin and objective. Church and national efforts are reform-oriented, during above all the communistMovements on a radical change of the social structure urge.

a workers' movement develops, with the goals of a participation on the legislation, social improvements and higher education chances.

Work on []

See also

industrialization, automation, technical progress;
Urbanisation;
Capitalism;
Zweite_industrielle_Revolution, digital revolution
revolution; Sozialer_Wandel

literature

  • Braudel, remote and (1985): Social history 15. - 18. Century.Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe- XVIIIe siècle. Bd. 1:The everyday life. Munich: Kindler, 670 S., Ill., Kt.
  • Braudel, remote and (1986): Social history 15. - 18. Century. Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe - XVIIIe siècle. Bd. 2: The trade.Munich: Kindler, 736 S., Ill.,Kt.
  • Braudel, remote and (1986): Social history 15. - 18. Century. Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe - XVIIIe siècle. Bd. 3: Departure to the world economy. Munich: Kindler, 764 S., Ill., Kt.
  • David of country: Prosperity and poverty of the nations. Whythe one richly and the others are poor, Berlin (settler publishing house) 1999 - ISBN 3-88680-525-5
  • Friedrich Hayek: Capitalism and the history to, The University OF Chicago press, ISBN 0-226-32072-3 (paperback 1963)
  • Scheucher forest flax Staudinger: „Time pictures - history and social customer “, school book- ISBN 3-215-10078-9


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