Infrastructure

the comprehensive term infrastructure is derived latin infra (down, below). Infrastructure and Suprastruktur are terms, which were used for the first time by NATO. Infrastructure originally designated the lines in the soil such as pipings and cables. Infrastruktur' (thus underbody) designates alllong-lived basic mechanisms of personnel, material and institutional kind, which guarantee functioning a arbeitsteiligen national economy. Usually it is called public infrastructure.

The planning, production and maintenance of an infrastructure is under normal conditions the task of the state or it associated organs (public mechanisms, public enterprises).

In the course of the privatisation of public/national enterprises and national tasks in particular production and maintenance of the infrastructure increases private and/or. transfer companies organized under private law. The planning competence remains however further at the state.

The use of an infrastructure is everyoneCitizen of a state possible and/or. obligating (z. B. Müllentsorgung). Use fees are to be usually paid by the user.

The production (public) of an infrastructure is usually financed against it by tax fundses.

With the infrastructure there are every now and then national characteristics. Thus orderSwitzerland, Austria and Germany over a traction network, while in the other countries the electrical railway company is accomplished as a rule with river of the general electricity net.

The term infrastructure becomes in the meantime also similar to the marking of technical basic mechanisms in the private-economicalRange, bspw. in enterprises, uses. Thus can be understood roads, buildings among other things administered and technical basic services such as river or telephone in industrial estates or office plants also as infrastructure, special organization forms of the private-economical administration of such plants e.g. mark one. with Siteor Facility management. In the enterprises in the last years the term IT-infrastructure became generally accepted.

There are the following kinds of public infrastructures:

Table of contents

work on []

Technical infrastructure

infrastructure right

infrastructure right is the right that with the national and local infrastructure and the guarantee of surface covering offers of the precaution for existence concerns itself (water, waste water, energy, traffic, telecommunications, post office). It concerns a cross section right. D. h., it does not give a law text, in which central infrastructure right would be regulated. Regulations of the infrastructure right are therefore in:

In the infrastructure right are in particular the following aspects of importance:

  • Open and discrimination-free net entrance,
  • advertisement obligation,
  • abuse of dominating the market position,
  • Durchleitungsentgelte,
  • common use (if necessary. Financing) of infrastructure facilities,
  • authorization for collections ofDuty and fee (lending),
  • fee height, duty height,
  • collection of amounts of development/development fees,
  • avoidance of double loads for users/citizen,
  • private financing of national and local infrastructure.

The outstanding meaning of the infrastructure right is based on the great importance of national and local infrastructure.
National one and localInfrastructure is:

legal ones and social infrastructure

literature

  • Jochimsen, Reimut (1966): Theorythe infrastructure. Bases of the free market development. Tübingen.
  • van Laak, Dirk: The term „infrastructure “and which it meant before its invention. In: Archives for term history. No. 41 (1999), S. 280-299.
  • Monstadt, yokes and Naumann, Matthias 2004: New areas of technical infrastructure systems. State of researchand - perspectives to spatial aspects of the change of the current and water supply in Germany. NetWORKS PAPER No. 10 [1], Berlin.
  • King, Christian Kühling, Jürgen/Theobald, Christian (Hrsg.), right of the infrastructure promotion, Sellier, Munich Heidelberg 2004.
  • Hermes, Georg: National infrastructure responsibility
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)