the comprehensive term infrastructure is derived latin infra (down, below). Infrastructure and Suprastruktur are terms, which were used for the first time by NATO. Infrastructure originally designated the lines in the soil such as pipings and cables. Infrastruktur' (thus underbody) designates alllong-lived basic mechanisms of personnel, material and institutional kind, which guarantee functioning a arbeitsteiligen national economy. Usually it is called public infrastructure.
The planning, production and maintenance of an infrastructure is under normal conditions the task of the state or it associated organs (public mechanisms, public enterprises).
In the course of the privatisation of public/national enterprises and national tasks in particular production and maintenance of the infrastructure increases private and/or. transfer companies organized under private law. The planning competence remains however further at the state.
The use of an infrastructure is everyoneCitizen of a state possible and/or. obligating (z. B. Müllentsorgung). Use fees are to be usually paid by the user.
The production (public) of an infrastructure is usually financed against it by tax fundses.
With the infrastructure there are every now and then national characteristics. Thus orderSwitzerland, Austria and Germany over a traction network, while in the other countries the electrical railway company is accomplished as a rule with river of the general electricity net.
The term infrastructure becomes in the meantime also similar to the marking of technical basic mechanisms in the private-economicalRange, bspw. in enterprises, uses. Thus can be understood roads, buildings among other things administered and technical basic services such as river or telephone in industrial estates or office plants also as infrastructure, special organization forms of the private-economical administration of such plants e.g. mark one. with Siteor Facility management. In the enterprises in the last years the term IT-infrastructure became generally accepted.
There are the following kinds of public infrastructures:
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- traffic infrastructure
infrastructure right is the right that with the national and local infrastructure and the guarantee of surface covering offers of the precaution for existence concerns itself (water, waste water, energy, traffic, telecommunications, post office). It concerns a cross section right. D. h., it does not give a law text, in which central infrastructure right would be regulated. Regulations of the infrastructure right are therefore in:
- Basic Law (GG),
- EEC contract (EGV),
- European Union - regulations, European Union guidelines and European Union decisions,
- EEC aid right,
- EUROPEAN UNION competition right, EUROPEAN UNION trust right,
- iurisdiction of the EuGH(European Court of Justice),
- trust right (law against restraints of trade - GWB),
- competition right (GWB, law against mean competition - UWG),
- sector-specific specialized laws: Power industry law, general railway law, telecommunications law, Postgesetz
- exemption regulations,
- assignment right (GWB, assignment regulations - VgV)
- iurisdiction of the assignment senates and trust senates of the BGH and the higher regional courts,
- decisions of the Kartellbehörden and the European Union commission
- resolutions of the assignment oh test instances.
In the infrastructure right are in particular the following aspects of importance:
- Open and discrimination-free net entrance,
- advertisement obligation,
- abuse of dominating the market position,
- common use (if necessary. Financing) of infrastructure facilities,
- authorization for collections ofDuty and fee (lending),
- fee height, duty height,
- collection of amounts of development/development fees,
- avoidance of double loads for users/citizen,
- private financing of national and local infrastructure.
The outstanding meaning of the infrastructure right is based on the great importance of national and local infrastructure.
National one and localInfrastructure is:
- Water (z. B. Water pipelines, well, water companies, water purification)
- waste water (z. B. Drains, sewage purification plant, receiving stream, infiltration plant)
- roads (z. B. Roads, motorway, by-pass road, road construction, road improvement, motorway construction, motorway development, bridges, tunnel, passports, by-pass roads)
- real estates(z. B. Administration building, city hall, school, gymnasium, swimming pool)
- rail traffic (z. B. Railway systems, rail distances, high-speed distances, road support, double-railed development, establishment of stops and stations, reorganization of stations)
- suburban traffic (z. B. Development of underground distances, establishment of natural gas gas stations/hydrogen gas stations forthe ÖPNV, development of streetcars, critical points, park to the Ride opportunities)
- waste (z. B. Waste A COLLECTIOn, waste collection, Abfallbeseitung, waste incineration, garbage depot)
- river (z. B. Electricity mains, annexes, power stations, transformer stations)
- long-distance heating (z. B. Power mains, power stations)
- gas (z. B. Lines, annexes)
- telecommunications (z.B. Lines, node, annexes)
legal ones and social infrastructure
- legal order
- cultural mechanisms
- Jochimsen, Reimut (1966): Theorythe infrastructure. Bases of the free market development. Tübingen.
- van Laak, Dirk: The term „infrastructure “and which it meant before its invention. In: Archives for term history. No. 41 (1999), S. 280-299.
- Monstadt, yokes and Naumann, Matthias 2004: New areas of technical infrastructure systems. State of researchand - perspectives to spatial aspects of the change of the current and water supply in Germany. NetWORKS PAPER No. 10 , Berlin.
- King, Christian Kühling, Jürgen/Theobald, Christian (Hrsg.), right of the infrastructure promotion, Sellier, Munich Heidelberg 2004.
- Hermes, Georg: National infrastructure responsibility