Innovation

Vorindistrielle Bedingungen
Vorindistrielle conditions

innovation is called literally „innovation “or „renewal “. The word is from latin the terms novus „again “and innovatio „somewhat again work “derived. In German becomes the term in the sense of new ideas and inventions as well as forof them (economic) conversion uses.

From archaeological view there is time the innovation, in which thrust-like innovations arose, so that the opinion will represent that innovation needs also a certain climate. To differentiate is between Invention and innovation. Inventionen covernew ideas to including building of prototypes and/or. concrete concept development in the vormarktlichen phase. Innovations result from the conversion and/or. Utilization.

Again a genuine world novelty can or from view of an individual enterprise, coworker etc. in this sense. a subjective novelty mean.One differentiates between among other things technical, organizational, institutional and social innovations.

Differences become innovations also after their degree at “novelty”. One regards the combination of purpose of the article or product and the means with those this purpose is reached. Reachedone in such a way speaks an innovation in both dimensions high values also of a radical innovation.

The term innovation in the sense of „again “is up-to-date almost exclusively positively occupied and come frequently to the nebulösen key word. In the Ursinn actually is ita generic term occupied terms for also quite negatively like e.g. „Rationalization “or „globalization “.

To table of contents

economiceconomics use

after the political economist Joseph Schumpeter is innovation the penetration of a technical or organizational innovation, not alone their invention. Since the translation of Schumpeters volume „theory of the economic development “ 1963 from the English finds the term also in Germany broad use.

Innovator is for Schumpeter the creative entrepreneur (contrary to the arbitrage entrepreneur, who uses only existing differences in prices for realization of profits), who propels the process of the creative destruction on the search for new action fields. Its mainspring are on the innovation which am based short term monopolistic positions,those for the innovative entrepreneur pioneer pensions provide. Those are monetary values of advantages (also innovation prices), which by the innovative improvements develop, for example by higher productivity.

Typically the innovation management is divided into three phases:

  1. Impulse phase: Observation of trends, identification of zukunfstweisender technologies
  2. Evaluation phase: Fitness for the respective industry
  3. transfer of technology: Project goes to innovation research
the innovation research into series

[

to work on] concerns itself on the one hand with the question, which the goal of an innovation should be, D. h. the genesis of new field combinations of application of problem solutions. That can do one Product innovation, in addition, a new organization form, technology, a procedure or a new application field its. On the other hand the innovation research interests, how these goals can be realized; it concerns itself thus with innovation processes and with it with the question of the transition of thesubject/object concerned of the condition t0 into the condition T1. In the center of the view of process process forms are located, bspw. consciously steered, organizing or informally and/or. EN passant processes running off, as well as the possibilities and borders of a purposeful organization and/or. Influence.

Recently that appliesInterest of research increasingly “history dependency”, thus the path dependence on innovation processes and their results. In the center the acceptance is located that the development past of an organization, a product, a technology etc. future growth prospects and - proceedings affects and limits (history matters). UnderConsideration of their respective history would not be attainable thereby any wished innovation goal.

If the past realizations confirm themselves, that has consequences for innovation practice in enterprises: These do not have to afterwards-run no more like Lemminge fashionable key words and short-lived trend concepts, if they innovierenwant. Rather they direct the view more strongly toward the own Potenziale and their historical forming, in order to compile in the long run competition advantages on the basis of genuine however position characteristics. Thus one differentiates between also product, procedure and management innovation. Whereby the latter most promising seems to be,since managers as Letztentscheider over the distribution of resources determine. Product and procedure innovations are in this sense results of management innovations.

According to IW - Trend of the institute of the German economy Cologne (2005) based on data from 2004 in the comparison of 15 industrial nationsreaches Germany place 11 with an innovation value of 41,7 (with a range of values from zero to 100). Further places: 1. The USA (value 77.9), 2. Great Britain (value 64.0) and 3. Sweden (value 63.9).


the connection between innovation, market trend andPatent law

the trend on the markets sets the yardstick for successful products. Why?

  • Trends on the markets are essentially determined by the desires and conceptions of the customers. Expectation, the one customer with the purchase of a product or oneService connects, is not alike remaining, but is subject to the change of its value conceptions.
  • There is a reciprocal effect between the product offerers and the customers. The product offerer tries to improve functionality and quality regarding the customer use. The customer takes through itsPurchase behavior influence on price/achievement relationship of the offerers. The offerer with the best price/achievement relationship can become market leaders.
  • The competition between the offerers brings various advantages for the customer and is Stimulanz to constant product improvement and renewal. Competitors with standard products can onlyreach paragraph advantages by price reduction. They cannot in the long term survive and have to do by innovation and new products better chances at the market search.
  • Innovations and new technologies alone find still no market. It is crucial whether customers of advantages or additional usetheir employment in new products have. Therefore the knowledge of the development of the customer behavior is by market study a crucial component for the market success. The production of trend-giving pilot customers supports this process.
  • Offered products are or on the national and international marketsProtected, then imitation is possible for services by patents or registered trade marks, yet quality and mark-conscious customers will prefer the original. The offerer arising with cannons original products has usually a time projection/lead before the competitors, there it into the Erstphase novelty-oriented customerson itself pulls. It intends the price for its product.
  • An enterprise, which secured its improved or also new product at the market by patent rights (patents), possesses opposite the competitors without such patent rights the advantage of a in-complainable protection for itsProduct. Others may manufacture such a product only by acquisition of a license. For the duration of the patent right the licenser has not only the advantage at the creation of value of the own product, but partipiziert additionally at royalties, which he of his competitorsreceives.

see also

Wikiquote: Innovation - quotations

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)