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the company Intel (short form of INT egrated EL ectronics) became to 18. July 1968 of Robert Noyce and Gordon of moorlands based. Shortly thereafter also Andy Grove pushed in addition, the then long time with Intel as a chairman of the board (English. Chief Executive Officer, CEO) was active.
The two Intel foundersalready were veterans in the semiconductor business: ten years before had created it together with six other colleague Fairchild Semiconductor. The enterprise was at that time the largest semiconductor manufacturer of the world. Robert Noyce was a general manager of Fairchild Semiconductor, Gordon of moorlands leader thatResearch and development.
Noyce and moorlands were dissatisfied with its employer Fairchild Semiconductor. In less than one year the supervisory board of Fairchild Semiconductor had exchanged three times the chairman of the board. Noyce wrote therefore its notice. Became ever rarer of moorlands developedProducts also actually produces. Electronics stood at that time at a large turn: from the voluminösen and slow core memory technology the trend went to the compact and fast semiconductor technology with integrated circuits, which were manufactured into the semiconductor raw material silicon.
On the high pointtheir frustration were 41 years old moorlands and Noyce. The idea to a second foundation of a firm developed on one spring weekend of the yearly 1968. Noyce met moorlands before its house with the Rasenmähen. Noyce gave the crucial impulse. It wanted from himdeveloped photochemical procedures for the production of integrated circuits, which bring Metal of oxides Semiconductor MOS technology, to the break-through. MOS designates the fundamental layers in the structure of a transistor after this technology: Metal as electrically leading material, silicon oxide as electrically not leading material and Silicon as semiconductors. Noyce is the inventor of this today still relevant technology for chip production. It had also large portion of the discovery of the transistor effect and the invention of the integrated circuit, to which today's electronics owes its high performance one. As a semiconductor pioneerGordon moorlands was convinced of the fact that at that time still prevailing magnetic core memory technology would be replaced immediately from highly integrated transistor switchings on silicon.
Largest obstacle were the costs: the most inexpensive memory element on semiconductor basis was per memory bit more as a hundred times more expensively than the traditionalMagnet core technology. “We were young and self-confident enough to base in order in full independence our new way to go”, then Bob Noyce remembered 20 years later the decision, Intel. Briefly after the establishment of an enterprise also Andrew S. pushed. Grove,a Exilungar, which strike it to California had, to the young enterprise. Grove had gone to 1963, right after conclusion of its graduation into chemistry at the University OF California into Berkeley, to Fairchild Semiconductor. As a production boss Grove became the first leading employeethe again based Intel Corporation with seat in the California Mountain View. Here the Intel founders had taken over a small, building given up by union carbide Electronics.
the start with memory chips
Intel started with a business plan, from only one,with the typewriter existed described side. But it contained an exact target: To develop and on the market bring main memory for computers on semiconductor basis. The very large-scale integration (Very Large Scale integration, VLSI) of transistors on silicon was contained intoYear 1968 still in the child shoes. Immediately the MOS problems followed the management disappointments with Fairchild with Intel:
I was felsenfest convinced of it that we experience a case of pure, remember Andy Grove. In September 1968 he bet a bottle in the colleague circleCognac, if there were a sturdy MOS transistor, whose threshold voltage would vary around less than a tenth volts up to the forthcoming harvest thanks. One knew only that the problems were to due to impurities in process engineering. And one knew also that inat the disposal was to the rented factory water even not distilled. First process engineer Tom Rowe dragged distilled water in bottles here. Then he came on the idea to add the MOS process somewhat melted phosphorus as it were to the “disinfection”. Thus was, more orless coincidentally, the production problem solved - Grove had lost its bet.
When enterprise started, did not insist but developed Intel with the MOS process however not alone on this technology, as the first memory module a bipolar 64-bit-Schottky RAM. It became inApril 1969 under the product designation Intel 3101 presented.
Noyce and moorlands had the bipolar - technology of the German semiconductor pioneer walter Schottky know learned, when them employ together (before their commitment with Fairchild) in the Shockley Semiconductur Laboratory of the American semiconductor guru William Shockleywere. The Shockley laboratory in the California Palo Alto is considered as the first commercial semiconductor factory of the world.
Gordon of moorlands expected a break-through in the innovative MOS technology after the initial difficulties only in five years. But already three months after the conception firstIntel followed electronic memory chips on semiconductor basis and well one year after the foundation of a firm 1101 - as static RAM - the first MOS component of the world with. During the first moon-landing of Apollo 11 in July 1969 the small Intel crew workedaround the clock at the last Redesign of this chip. When product was the first MOS memory component insignificantly, but from the striking power of the MOS technology moorlands were and its crew convinces. Contrary to the bipolar technique the MOS process promised high memory volumes to realisticCosts with an appropriate energy consumption, which led to an acceptable heat emission. Unwanted warmth required refrigerators. However stood to the miniaturization of microelectronics in the way.
In October 1970, in half, the first large jump succeeded to the originally estimated time afterin front. Intel presents under the product designation 1103 the first DRAM (D ynamic R andom A ccess M emory) - to memory module, which was based on the MOS process and which had to offer advantages of the very large-scale integration. During the bipolar process only with high-speed construction unitsfrom now on the MOS technology enjoyed, developed the preference/advantage to the preferential semiconductor finishing technique.
But this break-through was connected with a commercial shock: For our first order we obtained for instance a third of the price, which we had introduced ourselves, then remember LesVadasz, at that time responsible for the commercial management, to the drama with the 1103-DRAM. The calculated price was not to be obtained at the market. Thus the still recent enterprise learned just as industry-typical as existence-crucial lesson: the sequential reductions of costs. Nevertheless: Firstdynamic memory chip of the world achieved a small miracle. It deklassierte, not least due to its outstanding achievement and its minimum space requirement, the up to then traditional magnetic core memory to old iron. One and a half years after the introduction on the market the 1103 the usually-sold semiconductor component was scarcethe world.
As a farsighted integration strategist Gordon of moorlands had already recognized 1965 a trend, which coined/shaped later than Moore law not only the history of Intel, but the development of the entire high technology considerably.
the first EPROM,a coincidental discovery
the second baby after the lucky birth Intel 1103 DRAM was not planned. It came completely surprisingly. Its “father” and inventor DOV Frohman had, as he granted later, dreamed much and then asked: why not?The realized dream was mentioned a programmable memory chip, a Erasable Programmable READ Only MEMORY, in the language of electronics EPROM. Already with the conception of the first EPROM of the world on that solvently DOV Frohman landed State Circuits Conference of the yearly 1971a piercing success. It showed a film over the bit design of the EPROM memory cells. When the cells were exposed to an ultraviolet source of light, a bit left the cells after the other one, until only Intel Logo remained remaining. The last bit was just the EPROM memory entschlüpft - there tosender applause broke out in the conference hall. The Intel EPROM 1702 was a large success. It to center of the eighties in high numbers of items was required, not least because Intel many years the only manufacturer was,the EPROMs in high number of items to produce could.
the microprocessor (4004)
as large invention was not planned the microprocessor. The Japanese enterprise Busicom gave already Intel in the year 1969 the order, a set of chips for a programmable calculating machineto develop. Instead of the mechanical equipment, which had been already invented 1885 in the USA, the Japanese wanted to bring „an intelligent “, programmable product on the market. After the plans of the Japanese for this a Design from twelve semiconductor components was necessary. ThatIntel engineer Marcian E. “Ted” hope however was convinced of the fact that a sentence would be sufficient centered by only four chips, around a Allround logic component. In addition believed Ted hope that its chip set would permit more applications by far than the programming of a calculating machine.
in the year 1971 became the first commercially successful microprocessor, which develops Intel 4004. The 4-Bit data capacity was enough for the employment in pocket calculators and for the control of electronic devices. For its success the simultaneous availability was crucialfrom EPROMs, there „not volatile “(non volatile) program memories which can be been busy for the first time simply were available. This product combination made the Intel concept an attractive offer.
based on the developments
of the microprocessors of the 80's row Intel 1977 presented the micro CONTROLLERs 8048 and 8051 the micro CONTROLLER 8048 , which was replaced however already 1980 by the 8051 - micro CONTROLLERs. By skillful license politics (among other things at Siemensand Philips) became the 8051 micro CONTROLLERs master father of one the most common family of micro-control-learns.
the most well-known series of Intel are the x86er microprocessors, their first model in the year 1978 with that 8086/8088 appeared and infar spread IBM-PC was blocked. Today Intel chip for Desktop computer (Pentium series, Celeron series ) builds, for Notebooks (Pentium M/Centrino) and for workstations and servers the Xeon. The large server processor Itanium 2 can do its highArithmetic performance only with its native command sentence IA64 out-play. it implements x86-Maschinencode (IA32) over an integrated hardware emulation only slowly.
The large success of the x86er row led to a dominating the market position in the PC - industry, occasionally 85% thatPC CCUs came from Intel. Thus it came again and again to investigations of the American competition authority FTC and complaints of competitors. The today's only larger competitor of the sector is AMD (Advanced Micro DEVICE), ironically was Robert Noyce with its initial capitalalso for the establishment of this company along also. Since 1976 AMD a patent exchange agreement with Intel so that all technical innovations have mutually been used could. At present supply themselves both companies a hard competition, which leads to ever faster processors and falling prices.Only lately has here with the current consumption and/or. the waste heat attains a further criterion meaning.
„bend inside “
strong confidence losses had Intel processors to suffer, when the enterprise began 1999, new processors with a world-wide clearNumber („processor ID “) too provide, which could be picked out by software. Critics feared, this clear serial number could serve as basis for spying and the monitoring of computer users. Due to the solid public pressure Intel switched the processor ID off according to standard and inwithout it does to later processor generations completely.
to the turn of the year 2005/2006 said good-bye Intel of the 37 years old Firmenlogo. The new signature is framed further by an oval eddy, similarly as however with the Logo “intel inside”,sometimes the “e” is no longer in deep position in the signature and becomes by the Slogan “Leap ahead” (German: “A jump”) supplements forward. With the change of the Firmenlogos also a change of the Marketingstrategie is planned.
- IA-64 - the 64-Bit-Architektur of the Itaniumprozessoren
- list of the microprocessors of Intel
- list of the processor bases
- IA-32 - the 32-Bit-Architektur of the Intelprozessoren starting from that 80386
- EM64T - the 64-Bit-Erweiterung (compatible to AMD64) for IA-32-Prozessoren
- air Guide
- other processor manufacturers: AMD, Motorola, VIA, to Transmeta
Web on the left of
- the German Website Intel
- „bend inside “- campaign of 1999
- articles “break to the turn of the year”
- large overview all Intel CCUs
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