The intertown centerless Unterwegshalte distinguishes with a usually higher price of transportation compared with normal courses car material with higher order, higher speed and. A IC with the railways carries a food car (on-board restaurant) or a Buffetwagen (board Bistro) in most relations. Uponly mini bar is offered to some distances for the traveler supply.
First the name intertown center for fast driving courses was introduced to Great Britain with British the Railways. For the first time this term in Germany emerged at the German Federal Railroads in the year 1968. ItF-course applied - of the net to particularly high-quality courses. Many the former dte - Diesel motor coaches were used instead of in dte traffic now in these services. They carried therefore on their face a sheet metal sign with the label „for intertown center “.
A special form intertown center is that Euro town center (EC) - a course, which operates internationally, possesses air-conditioned car material and simplified border controls includes. The euro town centers operating in Germany consist predominantly of cars of foreign course enterprises - most frequently to find railroad cars of the SBB are (Switzerland) as well as the ÖBB (Austria) and the SNCF from France. In the new Lands of the Federal Republic cars of the Czech CD and MAV from Hungary in input clutch courses are to be mostly seen.
Turned around one knows often usual IC cars of the railways AG in Switzerland orthe Italian Trenitalia observe.
To table of contents
of the IC (intertown center) becomeswithin the company German course (railways) of the division long-distance traffic operated.
To the first genuine intertown center of the German Federal Railroads, originally still „intertown center “written, drove 1971 on four lines with in such a way geannten system stops. That means that with each course in the sameStation was stopped. At first it concerned courses, which led and in the two-hour clock operated only places of the first car class. (Likewise only the first car class prominent) the dte were merged - courses on the distances concerned into the IC clock.
Thusan idea was carried out, which had prepared 1967 an assigned working group for the advancement of the existing main line train net. This group for the first time coined/shaped probably also the term intertown center.
The main IC net extended to four lines:
- Line 1: Munich - Stuttgart -Cologne - (Duesseldorf - Duisburg - meals or Wuppertal) - Dortmund - Bremen - Hamburg
- line 2: Munich - peppering castle - Frankfurt/Main - Cologne - (Duesseldorf - Duisburg - meal or Wuppertal) - Dortmund - Hanover
- Line 3: Basel - Mannheim - Frankfurt/Main - Hanover - Hamburg
- line 4: Munich - Nuremberg - Hanover - Bremen
was entrance-offered nevertheless in the long term this, which only a clientele rather limited (predominantly business travelers) benefitted,to hold not, since this ever more moved away to the airplane. Particularly as the railways 1974 in long-distance traffic one wrote, looked red numbers for possibilities for improvement. It was recognized that the Zweiklassigkeit of the system the future could belong. Investigations resulted in that 80Per cent of all remote travelers on the four lines of the past IC net moved. This group applied to win it for a new offer. The first IC courses with two classes already already drove 1976 between Hamburg, Bremen and Munich. But onlyTest with IC courses with first and second class as well as in the hour clock, which the railways with beginning of the summer timetable started 1978 on the distance between Hamburg and Cologne, brought the realization that in it those future of the IC could lie.
1979 became inProgram IC '79 under the Slogan „each hour, each class “in all courses also cars of the second car class added and the clock to the hour clock doubles. However for it most disappeared to the past on the IC distances (for distances over50 km) of express trains free of extra charge. Only the few night trains remained existing for the time being. , the SBB, the car lining in such a way when desired to goods in the 78er-Test the cars of the first Kalsse at the southwest course end was set up that between Hamburg and Cologne the cars thatfirst class at the northeast course end were. With this configuration the darings of the first class stood in Swiss station Zurich HB at the head platform end. A concession, which make the railways to the SBB msste, thus it the guidance of IC courses uptheir territory agrees. Thus in purchase it was taken that in Frankfurt/Main and Munich the cars of the better class were in the there head stations not at the transverse platform, but „far outside “.
Apart from the hour clock the IC net was characterised by the fact thatthe traveler in the linkage stations Hanover, Dortmund, Cologne, Mannheim and peppering castle by correspondence stops as in previous pure first class net the opportunity had to change at a platform of a line into the course of the other line. From the net configuration resultedthe possibility that the cars of the first and second class at the platforms stood themselves opposite in each case.
Because it was however still feared that past first class customers would know the new courses meidrn, indgesamt seven dte course runs again furnished, on importantDistances before the actual clock courses operated. Later without these courses one did.
the railways uses different types of car for their courses. The classical IC consists of compartment and region cars of both car classes, the latters for the second classonly off approx. 1981. Newer types of car combine compartments and region in a car.
End of the 1990er years restarted the German course a Premiumzug, which turned itself elevated travel customers and actually only the first class led: That Metropolitan between Cologne and Hamburg with intermediate stops only in meals and Duesseldorf. As is the case for the attempt, the dte Rhine gold as first class course drive to let further (until 1987), the course failed again. Because of the demand lacking this offer became againadjusted. The metropolitan course sets drive, umlackiert on the current ICE Design of the IC courses, but still with their luxuriösen interior equipment, at present as IC courses between east and West Germany.
For the new Rhine gold, which drove starting from 1962 as main line train, that became on the basis UIC X car of the railways new cars develops. This were air-conditioned Erstklass Grossraumwagen with 48 places, type Apmh-62 (Avmz121), and compartment coach Avmh-62 (Avmz111) with only nine compartments. The roof form corresponded to the m-cars. Aprons and the blue-beige colour were new. Starting from 1965 further Rhine gold cars becamesupplied, now in the painting of dte, whereby now straight pulled the roof end through was (pitched roof). Otherwise the cars remained invariably. Again a bar car ARDümh (ARDmz 106) was added. A part of the Avmz cars had swiveling sliding doors in the 1970er and 1980er years. These cars becamestarting from 1971 also used in IC traffic. As Verstärkungswagen were necessary up to the supply of Eurofima cars 1977 Am203 - cars of the preceding F-Zugnetzes. Starting from 1975 a new Avmz122 also easily changed windows was added, as type Apmz 122. The pitched roof cars are 2006to find still in the IC employment.
In the meantime however five European railway administrations planned to together order a new standard car, which corresponded to the past IC car LHB car in the dimensions. These cars were financed of the Eurofima. To first prototypes 1972 and 1974 cameEuropean-wide 500 cars into production, about which the railways adjusted 100 cars Avmz 207 in the painting of dte as IC car. The crimped roof and the swiveling sliding doors were remarkable.
On the basis of the Eurofima cars for IC traffic a second class region car was developed, that thoseType designation Bpmz carried. The design numbers were enough because of different equipments from 291 to 296. Into the building ground corroding this vehicle corresponds however to the Eurofima cars.
Last newly developed passenger train car of the railways for IC traffic is the compartment/region car Bvmz 188. It orders originally half-open compartments with four places and two Vis à vis seats to the car end of compartments, in the center of the car. This range becamein the meantime the Bpmz cars adapted.
Starting from 1990 also 112 DR-cars of the design Bmz 236 with eleven compartments of the type UIC-Z came into the IC train service.
In the IC courses today predominantly air-conditioned car is used, which at the beginning with the cars secondClass the case was not, because for the second class block of the course only the CBM 235-Wagen were available. Only with the new supply of air-conditioned region cars of the Eurofima cars design Bpmz, outweighed starting from center of the 1980er years the portion of carswith air conditioning system also in the B-block. However until today in most IC courses also cars without air conditioning system are still used, mostly from CBM 235 converted former InterRegio - cars. In the block of the first class further former dte become - car uses.
In thatRule consisted the IC courses of three cars of the first class, of it a region car, one course restaurant, and mostly seven cars of the second class. On point days however nine B-cars in a course could on the IC line 1 up to four A-cars andare observed. On the line 4 were used usually shorten Zuggarnituren with only two A and five to six B-cars.
In some IC courses, in the daily peripheral locations, also mail vans or luggage trolleys for the express parcel service were particularly adjusted. These vehicles becamespecially for this employment on 200km/h maximum speed prepared. Course post office traffic in IC courses ended 1997.
To expansion of the IC net on the GDR and the later new countries starting from 1990 there course sets with two A-cars, the course restaurant, three compartment and two becameLarge car to the standard.
since 2003 the German course with it began, in the IC car an electronic seat reservation (into insert the mounting plate of the hatrack) as well as displays for the announcement of the travel route inside and outside - similarly as into the ICE - courses. In addition/some equal cars are reconditioned, they are recognizable completely from the passing direct neon light border in place of the indirectLighting from the sides to the Wagendecke, or at the combination of compartments and region in a car, which it so far only with older IR - car gave. As in all courses of long-distance traffic folding sheets lie also in most intertown centerswith information about connections, station service and arrival times out. With task of the InterRegios ever more IC courses compartments received to the transport of bicycles. Meanwhile a transport of bicycles is possible in nearly all IC.
on some distances (for example) The courses their permissible maximum speed drive Hanover Hamburg, Mannheim Karlsruhe, Ingolstadt Augsburg Munich, Dortmund Hanover from 200 km/h. Above all locomotives of the series 103 were used in the first years. The German Federal Armed Forces Hamburg Eidelstedt set up a routing plan for 56 locomotives, the German Federal Armed Forces Frankfurt/Maindivided for it 58 locomotives. On other lines, like on the north south distance between Bremen and Munich, the covering of the courses took place also with locomotives of the series 111. Later the series mentioned were first supplemented by 120 and 101, thenreplaced.
On not-electrified distances diesel locomotives of the 218 become before the courses strained, often in double traction, so for example north of Hamburg with the resuming courses after Westerland/Sylt, Kiel and toward finery guards - Denmark. After the turn in thatGDR also DR-locomotives of the series 132 and 243 before IC courses were in use. Before some input clutch courses at present also locomotives of the series 181 ( Frankfurt/Main Saarbruecken Metz, Strasbourg Karlsruhe) are used.
German Federal Armed Forces intertown center
to its borders came the intertown center system on Fridaysand Sundays, whereby particularly the German Federal Armed Forces - home coming he traffic between Hamburg and Cologne as well as Koblenz large problems caused. At first set the course of Entlastungszüge in from conventional express train car material up to the Silberling. Because of the small maximum speed of these courses (140 km/h) becamethese on the way of the regular, but overfilled intertown centers outdated. Connection travelers had thus a checking. As consequence from it on Fridays in north south and Sundays south north direction special German Federal Armed Forces intertown centers were used, only from a Amz car, a IC bar car and a large number the Zweitklass carsexisted. These courses were approved, however by the normal public were by the majority avoided also for the general passenger traffic. Between Hamburg and Cologne the regular courses for German Federal Armed Forces traveler account genius ore drove (first two, short time four cars). After the German reunification have themselvesthe problems clearly eases.
renovation of the net
a small net reform, which extended the net on five main lines together with two Nebenlinien, gave it 1985 in the framework to the opening of the western introduction of the Riedbahn to the Mannheimer main station.(These main lines of the railways were revalued meanwhile to ICE lines.)
The yearly timetable 2003 the InterRegio up to then free of extra charge became in Germany- Courses abolished and with partly unchanged car material and equal remained cruising speed into zuschlagpflichtige intertown center courses converted. Since that time IC start more frequently also stations in smaller cities. Altogether by this measure the IC net was expanded in Germany - at least optical - strongly.Likewise the expensive on-board restaurants were often exchanged against the more favorable BordBistros of the InterRegios.
in Austria gives likewise it the designation to intertown center, however it acts here around courses free of extra charge, those, at least partly, of the car material and thatNumber of stops seen rather between fast and through trains to arrange are and therefore in the periphery of the large cities (in particular Vienna) also as commuter courses meaning have. 1991 were introduced the NAT (NeuerAustroTakt), that on many distances an hour clock alsobrought different courses from the EC to the Eizug. Four new course categories were created:
- Euro town center (EC) - international run, few stops
- EuroNight (EN) - international run, few stops, night train
- supertown center (sports club) - national run, few stops
- intertown center (IC) - national ones Run, several stops
the course kind supertown center was stopped however in the year 1996. In the years 2002 to 2004 with the ÖBB two new course designations were introduced: ÖBB EuroCity and ÖBB-IC. Most courses of this new course kind drive on the west course.
As in Austria the intertown centers are like also the internationally operating euro town centers andthe ICE and/or. Intertown center slope courses in Switzerland free of extra charge. Besides further the InterRegios in Switzerland, which keeps usually more frequent, exists. Generally Swiss have intertown centers and euro town centers of more intermediate stops than their German counterparts. Occasionally the course categories InterCity/InterRegio changealso on the distance (z. B.Basel - Zurich -), or the intertown centers actually hold for Chur on individual distance sections more frequently than niederigere course categories (for example Zurich - pc. Gallen).
There it in Switzerland no special prices of transportation or additionfor certain course categories and gives the intertown centers and InterRegios of the roll material hardly differs, is also less pronounced the distinction for the travelers than in Germany. The intertown centers like also the euro town centers are used particularly by commuters, therefore are it particularly to rush hours mostly fully. For this reason also double stick courses of the type IC operate 2000, which can be covered only with locomotives of the type RH 460, or intertown center slope courses (ICN) in double traction as intertown center with partially on some distancesenormous passenger capacities of up to 800 or 900 places per course. Both course categories are appropriate for speeds of 200 km/h.
Remarkable it is also that on the most important distances - particularly in the triangle Basel/Berne/Zurich, in addition, on the relations betweenZurich and Luzern as well as Zurich and the Western part of Switzerland, these courses in the 30-Minuten-Takt operate. For the optimization of the connections the SBB aims at connecting these knots (connection spider) with a travel time of less than one hour. The travel time shortening by thoseStart-up of the high-speed distance Mattstetten Rothrist (between Berne and oiled convenient) at the end of of 2004 released a further passenger increase. The intertown center courses in Switzerland exhibit usually a mini bar service, on the most important distances additionally a Bistro or a food car.
Into this clock traffic are not only internationally operating courses as EC merged; also express trains or Nahverkehrszüge can be, so for example between work living, Switzerland and singing, Germany.
in Poland exists a intertown center net, that from a subsidiary to that Polish state railway (PKP) one operates. The locomotive-covered courses operate Warsaw, Breslau - floats - on the distances Swinemünde - Stettin - Warsaw, Gleiwitz - Warsaw, Gdingen - Danzig - Krakau, Krakau Warsaw and Bielsko Biała - Warsaw. Furthermore the PKP operates intertown center together alsothe railways the Berlin Warszawa express as well as the course kinds express (corresponds to an express train), euro town center, Tanie line Kolejowe (TLK), EuroNight and usual night trains.
in Tschechien operates the Tscheschiche Staarsbahn (ČD) on Prague an alignedIntertown center net. Apart from locomotive-covered courses also again procured driving courses of the series 680, which itself to the Pendolino , are used - technology lean.
into the Netherlands drive likewise intertown center courses of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen, partly in the 30-Minutentakt.