International space station

of these articles is occupied with the international space station (EAT). For further meanings see EAT (term clarifying).
Those EAT in August 2005, taken up from the space shuttle Discovery

the international space station (English. I nternational S pace S tation, EAT) is a large space station developing in international co-operation. In former times it was well-known also under the designation alpha, but after the entry of Russia to the project this name was rejected, since it suggested a pioneer achievement from the view of the Russiansand the earlier Soviet space stations did not consider.

Those EAT is since 1998 in the building, has after conclusion of the structure maximum dimensions of approximately 110 x 90 x 80 meters and circles in approx. 350 km height with a flight path angleof 52°. On the Website Heavens Above one knows the position EATS for any time (and its position in the sky for arbitrary observation places) compute to let.

Contrary to temporally limited space flights, on those the time in accordance with mission Elapsed Time MET is measured, applies on the space station the time after UTC / GMT.

At the building of the space station also the ESA is involved beside American NASA, Russia , Japan , Brazil and Canada. However not all members takethe ESA at the eating program part - Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Austria and Finland did not take part from the outset, and Greece joined the ESA only later. Because of world-wide co-operation and the extensive investments those can EAT as the largest civilian international project of history to be designated. This has particularly after the end of the cold war and the entry of Russia to the project an important symbol value.

Table of contents

changing crew EAT

emblem of the international space station

between November 2000 and April 2003 was the station, although not yet completely finished, permanently alsoa dreiköpfigen crew inhabits. After a period spent of in each case five to seven months the crew was replaced from a new.

After the misfortune of the space shuttle Columbia at the 1. February 2003 became the crew EATS starting from the eating expedition 7for supplying reasons to two persons reduces. There the space shuttle-flights only since that 26. July 2005 to be again taken up knew, the further development EAT provisionally stopped, only the supply of the station by Russian and (starting from 2007) also EuropeanSupply ships one guarantees. After the NASA planning conditions from July 2004 the completion of the station will last at least to 2010.

To 25. June 2004 had to break the crew off a space trip after 14 minutes, because it to technical problems during the oxygen supply toSpace suit one of the astronauts came.

To 28. April 2005 communicated the ESA that German the Thomas's rider was to become the first European, to the one long-term mission on EATS completed. So far ESA astronauts had themselves always only for few days upthat EAT stopped. Rider is to fly in the second quarter 2006 with the shuttle mission STS-121 to the space station and six to seven months later with STS-116 return.

final development

Grafik der ISS nach ihrer geplanten Fertigstellung (ursprüngliche Konfiguration)
diagram EAT after its planned completion (original configuration)

EATshould be in their final development with 107 meters span of the solar cell panels, 80 m and 500 tons of mass the largest space station, which was so far built. At present (July 2005) the mass amounts to EATS round 183 tons. Already now is the station the largest and shine-strongest artificial object in the earth orbit.

Beside the actual space station are to belong to the complex still another transportation of passengers system (CTV), a small European spaceship (Inspector) and several rescue vehicles (CRV). The station becomes depending upon need by spaceShuttle, which supplies Russian Soyuz and Progress and in the future also the Japanese HTV. Also Europe starts a large unmanned cargo ship , which is to probably fly starting from 2007 once a year with the Ariane 5 and the ATV.

Which the project altogetherwill cost, is disputed. After NASA had to make various corrections upward with the initial amount of 40 billion US Dollar, it publishes today no more new cost estimations.Sigmar Wittig, chairman of the German center for air and space travel (DLR), estimatedthe total costs on approximately 100 billion dollar.

The following modules were installed already or are planned:

Module description flight starting date length (m) Ø (m) mass (kg)
Sarja - Functional cargo block (FGB) Russian freight and control module 1A/R - proton k 20. November 1998 12.60 4.10 19,323
Unity - Node 1 connecting knot 2A - STS-88 4. December 1998 5.49 4.57 11,612
Swesda living module 1R - proton k 12. July 2000 13.10 4.15 19,050
Z1 - Integrated Truss zenith 1 lattice structure 3A - STS-92 11. October 2000 4.90 4.20 8,755
P6 - Integrated Truss haven-simmers 6 lattice structure and solar module 4A - STS-97 30.Nov 2000 73.20 10.70 15,900
Destiny laboratory module of the USA ä - STS-98 17. February 2001 8.53 4.27 14,515
Canadarm2 Canadian robot grab arm 6A - STS-100 19. April 2001 17.60 0.35 4,899
Quest - Joint air LOCK air lock 7A - STS-104 12. July 2001 5.50 4.00 6,064
jetties - Docking Compartment 1 Andockmodul and air lock 4R - Soyuz u 14. August 2001 4.10 2.60 3.900
S0 - Integrated Truss star board 0 lattice structure 8A - STS-110 8. April 2002 13.40 4.60 13,970
S1 - Integrated Truss star board 1 lattice structure 9A - STS-112 7. October 2002 13.70 3.90 12,598
P1 - Integrated Truss haven-simmers 1 lattice structure 11A - STS-113 23. November 2002 13.70 3.90 12,598
P3/4 Truss solar module 12A - STS-115 planned 2006 73.20 10.70 15,900
P5 Truss lattice structure 12A.1 - STS-116 planned 2006 13.70 3.90 12,598
S3/4 Truss solar module 13A - STS-117 planned 2006 73,20 10,70 15,900
S5 Truss lattice structure 13A.1 - STS-118 planned 2007 13.70 3.90 12,598
Node 2 connecting knots (manufacturing in Europe) 10A - STS-120 planned 2007 6.10 4.20 13,608
Columbus Raumlabor European laboratory module 1E planned 2007 6.87 4.49 19,300
experiment Logistics of modules (ELM)
and Canada hand
planned under pressure standing part of the Japanese Japanese experiment of modules (JEM ) Kibo and double-armed, Canadian robot 1J/A 2007 3.90 4.40 4,200
Pressurized of modules (PM) part of the Japanese JEM Kibo 1J planned 2007 11.20 4.40 15,900
S6 Truss Solar module 15A - STS-119 planned 2007 73.20 10.70 15,900
multi-PUR-float Laboratory of modules (MLM)
with the European robotics arm (ERA)
Russian freight and laboratory module and European bionic arm 3R - proton m planned end of 2007 13.00 4.10 20,300
Exposed Facility (EF) part of theJapanese JEM Kibo 2J/A planned 2008 - - -
Node 3 and Cupola connecting knot and prospect module of the USA (both manufactured in Europe) 20A planned 2009 1.50 2.95 1,880


technical data to EAT

EAT, consisting of control moduleSarja and connecting knot Unity briefly after commencement of construction 1998. (Source: NASA)
  • Mass in the final development:
    • Span: 108.6 m
    • length: 79.9 m
    • depth: 88 m
    • volume: 1,140 m 3
    • mass: 450 t
  • orbit:
    • Flight altitude: approx. 360 km over NN
    • orbit: 51.6 degreesInclination/equator
    • earth revolution: 90 minutes
    • relative velocity: 29,000 km/h
  • power supply in the final development:
    • Electrical achievement: 110 kilowatts
    • of solar cell surface: 4,500 m 2

structure chronicle and crews

already existing and elements still which can be started EAT, conditions March 2006
astronaut Sellers (STS-112) interior opinion of the living module
Swesda with Sergei K works on the Destiny laboratory. Krikalev
Starting date flight
20. November 1998 1A/R - Sarja (FGB - freight and control module)
4. December 1998 2A - Unity (connecting knot) with STS-88
27. May 1999 2A.1 - logistics flightwith STS-96
19. May 2000 2A.2a - maintenance flight with STS-101
12. July 2000 1R - Swesda (living module)
8. September 2000 2A.2b - logistics flight with STS-106
11. October 2000 3A - Z1 Truss (lattice structure) with STS-92
31. October 2000 2R - Soyuz TM-31 with the eating expedition 1
30. November 2000 4A - P6 Integrated Truss (solar module) with STS-97
7. February 2001 ä - Destiny (laboratory module) with STS-98
8. March 2001 5A.1 - logistics flight and eating expedition 2 with STS-102
19. April 2001 6A - Canadarm2 (robot grab arm) with STS-100
12. July 2001 7A - Joint air LOCK Quest (air lock) with STS-104
10. August 2001 7A.1 - logistics flight and eating expedition 3 with STS-105
14. September 2001 4R - jetty Docking Compartment 1 (Andockmodul and air lock)
5. December 2001 UF-1 - logistics flight and eating expedition 4 with STS-108
8. April 2002 8A - S0 Truss (lattice structure) with STS-110
5. June 2002 UF-2 - logistics flight and eating expedition 5 with STS-111
7. October 2002 9A - S1 Truss (lattice structure)with STS-112
23. November 2002 11A - P1 Truss (lattice structure) and eating expedition 6 with STS-113
26. April 2003 6S - Soyuz TMA-2 with eating expedition 7
18. October 2003 7S - Soyuz TMA-3 with eating expedition 8
19. April 2004 8S - Soyuz TMA-4 with eating expedition 9
13. October 2004 9S - Soyuz TMA-5 with eating expedition 10
15. April 2005 10S - Soyuz TMA-6 with eating expedition 11
1. October 2005 11S - Soyuz TMA-7 with eating expedition 12
30. March 2006 12S - To Soyuz TMA-8 with eating expedition of 13

projects

see also

list of the spacemen

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