You find international
phonetic alphabet of references to formatting of phonetic transcription in Wikipedia articles under Wikipedia: Phonetic transcription.
The international phonetic alphabet (IPA) is a phonetic alphabet, i.e. a collection of indications, with whose assistance the sounds of all human languages described exactlyand to be noted can. By that internationally phonetics Association and is the oldest, today most common phonetic transcription system was developed.
Table of contents
indication allocations of the sounds andAmong other things
letter of latin and Greek alphabet uses phonogram extensions the IPA token table, partly in modified form. Each indication designation thereby a sound or describes one already indicated sound more near, that in a language of the world a word of oneothers differentiates between.
The international phonetic alphabet is speak-spreading; this leads to the fact that the allocation of an indication to a sound is not inevitably identical in a certain language with the sound allocation of the same indication in the IPA. Thus for example the indication stands [ç] in the IPA for the discussion of the letter sequence CH in the German word „I “, although it is strange the German Orthographie; for the high reading of the French, whose Orthografie knows „ç “ as be correctless „s “, one does not need the indication against it.
The special characters of the alphabet were taken up to university code within the range of U+0250 to U+02AF.
|in front|| nearly|
in the back
|in the back|
|ung.||more ger.||ung.||more ger.||ung.||more ger.||ung.||more ger.||ung.||more ger.|
staying it with the mouse on a cell,in order to experience the university code code indications.
with the consonants are to be differentiated different air flow mechanisms.
The pulmonalen consonants become with leaking out breathing air (D. h. Air from the lung) produces (pulmonal - egressiv). Among this group rankthe very most consonants. With the Ejektiven and Implosiven the air flow is produced against it by movements of the larynx. With the Ejektiven the larynx moves upward, so that air leaks out (glottal egressiv); with the Implosiven it moves downward, so that airflows in (glottal ingressiv). Snapping sounds (sometimes also as „Avulsive “or called in English “clicks”) result from the fact that tongue and palate gel form an final cavity, which is increased by a back and a downward movement of the tongue. When opening the cavity a pressure balance findsinstead of (air flows inside, therefore velar ingressiv), so that a sound is produced.
|bilabial|| lab IO|
|dental||alveolar|| post office|
staying it with the mouse on a cell, in order to experience the university code code indications.
not pulmonale consonants
|Indication||university code University of||meaning|
|ʍ||U+028D||be correctless labiovelarer Frikativ|
|w||U+0077 (w)||be correctful labiovelarer Approximant|
|ɥ||U+0265||be correctful labiopalataler Approximant|
|ʜ||U+029C||be correctless epiglottaler Frikativ|
|ʢ||U+02A2||be correctful epiglottaler Frikativ|
|ʡ||U+02A1||be correctless epiglottaler Plosiv|
|ɕ, ʑ||U+0255, U+0291||be correctless and be correctful alveolopalataler Frikativ|
|ɺ||U+027A||lateral alveolar Flap|
|ɧ||U+0267||be correctless velopalataler Frikativ ([ʃ] and [x] at the same time)|
|Indication||university code University of||meaning||of examples|
|ˈ (no apostrophe)||U+02C8||main stress||A pril /A ˈ prɪl/, Ba cke/ˈ bakə/|
|ˌ (no comma)||U+02CC||Nebenbetonung||water pfeife/ˈvasər ˌ pfaɪfə/, Ringel blu ME/ˈrɪŋəl ˌ bluːmə/|
|ː (no colon)||U+02D0||long||lacquer [lak], was appropriate [la ː k]|
|.||U+002E (.)||Syllable border||Bo - width unit [ˈboː.tə], Mu - SE - over [mu.ˈzeː.ʊm]|
||||U+007C (|)||subordinated Intonationsgruppe (speaking act border)||you does not admit luck? [ziː habən ↓glʏk | nɪçt ↑vaːr]|
|‿||U+203F||sound connection (Liaison)||les enfants [lez ‿ ɑ̃ˈfɑ̃] (frz. “the children”)|
of tones and Intonation
|indication||university code University of||meaning||of examples|
|̋ (double acute) or ˥||U+030B or U+02E5||particularly highly||[e̋]|
|́ (acute) or ˦||U+0301 or U+02E6||highly||[é]|
|̄ (Makron) or ˧||U+0304 or U+02E7||means||[ē]|
|̀ (grave) or ˨||U+0300 or U+02E8||low||[è]|
|̏ (double grave) or ˩||U+030F or U+02E9||particularly low||[ȅ]|
- University code does not have own indications of most outline tones. Instead consequences from indications of register tones are used and the exact representation to the respective character font will leave,usually by open type rules: [é̄ ḕ̄] or [e˥˧ e˧˩˨] (represented in many Browsern not correctly). Because only very few character fonts permit combining of register clay/tone characters, the old system of the clay/tone marking often becomes by highranking numbers of “1”until “uses 5”, for example [e 53 e 312]. Their use depends however on local linguistics traditions; with asiatic languages „5 “for the highest clay/tone and turned around „1 “is used for the deepest, with the African languages. Occasional is stillto find an old IPA tradition, after which the outline tones are designated by placed underneath Diakritika: [e̖ e̗] for low-falling and/or. low-paste-end.
- The Diakritika for Upstep and Downstep would not actually be over-written arrows, but places university code to time own indications of itfor the order.
|indication||university code University of||meaning||of examples|
|Phonation (see also note at the end of the table)|
|stored: ̥|| ||
be correctless, and/or. entstimmt
|S ee [z̥eː] (southern German)|
|over-posed:||<center> U+030A||g ut [g̊uːt] (southern German)|
|stored: ̬||<center> U+032C||
|over-posed: ̌||<center> U+030C||[ǧ]|
|over-placed: ʰ||<center> U+02B0||aspiriert||T would eat [ˈtʰasə], [dʰ]|
|specification of the articulation of a vowel|
|stored: ̹||<center> U+0339||more strongly rounded||[ɔ̹]|
|over-posed: ͗||<center> U+0357|
|stored: ̜||<center> U+031C||less rounded||[ɔ̜]|
|over-posed: ͑||<center> U+0351|
|̟||<center> U+031F||of far in front||[u̟]|
|̠||<centers> U+0320||farther back||[i̠]|
|̽||<center> U+033D||to the center centralizes||[e̽]|
|̝||<center> U+031D||raised|| [e̝]|
[ɹ̝] = being correct adhesive of alveolarFrikativ
|̞||<center> U+031E||lowered|| [e̞]|
[β̞] = being correct adhesive of bilabialer Approximant
|̘||<center> U+0318||before-shifted Zungenwurzel||[e̘]|
|̙||<center> U+0319||back-shifted Zungenwurzel||[e̙]|
|Specification of the articulating organ with consonants|
|stored: ̪||<center> U+032A||dental||[t̪], [d̪]|
|over-posed: ͆||<center> U+0346|
|̼||<center> U+033C||linguolabial||[t̼], [d̼]|
|̺||<center> U+033A||apically||[t̺], [d̺]|
|̻||<center> U+033B||laminal||[t̻], [d̻]|
|̃||<center> U+0303||nasaliert||CH to ce [ʃɑ̃ːsə]|
|additional tightness formation|
|ʷ||<center> U+02B7||labialisiert||Gl ück [gʷlʷʏkʰ]|
|ʲ||<center> U+02B2||palatalisiert||[tʲ], [dʲ]|
|ˠ||<center> U+02E0||velarisiert||[tˠ], [dˠ]|
|ˁ||<center> U+02C1||pharyngalisiert||[tˁ], [dˁ]|
|<center> U+0334||velarisiert or pharyngalisiert||[ɫ]|
|kind of the catch solution for Plosive|
|ⁿ||<center> U+207F||nasale catch solution||RH DNit [ˈreːdⁿnər]|
|ˡ||<center> U+02E1||lateral catch solution||Han DL ung [ˈhandˡlʊŋ]|
|̚||<center> U+031A||no audible catch solution||sti mm t [ˈʃtim̚t]|
|stored: ̩||<center> U+0329||syllabically||talk EN [ˈreːdn̩]|
|over-posed: ̍||<center> U+030D||move EN [ˈreːgŋ̍]|
|stored: ̯||<center> U+032F||not-syllabically||Ste i n [ʃtaɪ̯n]|
|over-posed: ̑||<center> U+0311|
|being correct quality|
|stored: ̤||<center> U+0324||behaucht||[b̤], [a̤]|
|over-posed: ̈||<center> U+0308|
|stored: ̰||<center> U+0330||knarrig||[b̰], [a̰]|
|over-placed: ̃||<center> U+0303|
note: Whether with Diakritika provided indications are equivalents in each case to that different indications of the kind of articulation and the articulation place was not completely specified, of the IPA. In „the manual that internationally phonetics Association “is called it in addition: „It is contentiously, whether [k̬] and [g] phonetically identical sounds designate, and the same applies to [s] and [z̥]. Possibly become with the distinction between [k̬] and [g] or [s] and [z̥] different dimensions included, which are independent of the vocal cord vibration, as for instance strainedness opposite relaxedness in the articulation, so that the possibility becomes important of designating Stimmhaftigkeit separately. It can be favourable however in each case, ifone in a the position is to maintain the lexical form of a word […]. “
Indications with short length can be distinguished by a Diakritikum over-posed. According to standard should be distinguished however with stored Diakritika, if both possibilities exist.
the IPA are the only system for the notation of language sounds. In the course of the time it gave some attempts to arrange the organization of the sounds more accurate. An example represents the ikonische notation , like those Visible Speech of Alexander Melville Bell, with individual characteristics of the sound (z. B. the roundness of the lips and such a thing) in the indication to be illustrated. Other attempts toward a analphabetischen notation became of the linguists Otto Jespersen (1889) or Kenneth L. Pike (1943) undertaken. Because in these systems the individual positions of the speech tools can be indicated independently, can be many more finely coded sound nuances.
SAMPA, X-SAMPA and cherry tree
With the notations SAMPA, X-SAMPA and cherry tree alphabets to be developed, by means of those phonetic transcription in the ASCII - code be written could. These systems were derived from the IPA, but there university code - character sets for the representation of the IPA ever broader use to find,the meaning of these systems steps ever more into the background.
„hexadecimal phonetic alphabet “
Here it does not goonce urgently around the replacement - within the linguistic range very well its task of fulfilling - proven of the IPA alphabet recognized far away. Although „the hexadecimal alphabet is “without a doubt a phonetic alphabet, its principal purpose lies first primarily in the representation of unambiguous hexadecimal Numbers.
The odd hexadecimal numbers are always represented by be correctful consonants, zero and the straight numbers always by be correctless consonants. The three letters N, L and R are not used as numbers. The H can in special usesixteen mean, however as value - number are not needed. The five vowels, as well as the letter M (like mega, here directly 1024 × 1024) enter hexadecimal units - in the form of prefixes of the basic units - as multiplication factors .
|Only four „phonetic letters “differ in „the hexadecimal alphabet “and in the IPA alphabet. |
As ideal phoneme of the letter Q - in hexadecimals the number zero importantly - the crack sound is regarded.
Both in classical latin not existing phonemes [ʒ] are shown and [ʃ] simply by J and C.
|„Hexadecimal alphabet “:||Q||B||P||V||F||Z||S||D||T||J||C||G||K|
|hexadecimal numerical value:||0x 0||0x1||0x2||0x3||0x 4||0x5||0x6||0x7||0x8||0x9||0xA||0xB||0x C|
|phonetic ideal value:||[ʔ]||[b]||[p]||[v]||[f]||[z]||[s]||[D]||[t]||[ʒ]||[ʃ]||[g]||[k]|
|after the defined zero (Q) and the first twelve numbers (B - K) - the main consonants - follow the two half vowels Y and W, between them X.|
|„Hexadecimal alphabet “:||Y||X||W||H||I||E||A||O||U||M||N||L||R|
|hexadecimal numerical value:||0xD||0xE||0xF||0x 10||16 0||16 1||16 2||16 3||16 4||16 5||-||-||-|
|phonetic ideal value:||[j]||[x]||[w]||[h]||[i]||[e]||[A]||[o]||[u]||[m]||[n]||[l]||[r]|
|X is both I - and oh - sound.Then H, the arranged five vowels: [i], [e] - [ɛ], [A] - [ɑ], [ɔ] - [o] and [u], afterwards M and N, as well as finally L and [r] - [ʀ].|
Example: 2,000,000 10 = 1 E8480 16 = B XTFTQ That means:2 decimal megaunits equal B.xtftqMega+ i units.
- M. Duckworth, G. Everything, W. Hardcastle, M. J. Ball: Extensions ton the internationally phonetics alphabet for the transcription OF atypical speech. In: ClinicalLinguistics and Phonetics. Taylor & Francis, London 4,1990, S. 273–280. ISSN 0269-9206
Web on the left of
- Website that internationally phonetics Association
- guidelines for transliterating the German standard reading (pdf)
- IPA typewriter to the use with the Internet Explorer
- IPA writing and speech machine, optionalText edition as bit-map
- generally comprehensible overview of the discussion