Inzest (also Blutschande) designates the sexual intercourse between relatives close. All today's cultures know a Inzesttabu. The term is to distinguish from in-breeding, which is used in the animal and plant breeding as a common procedure for the stabilization of certain characteristics. The marriage ceremonies spread in former timesunder close relatives in the European high aristocracy or in remote, rural areas does not become likewise as Inzest, but when social in-breeding designates.
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Inzest in the sociology
universal nowadays the sexual intercourse between physical brothers and sisters and parents and to its children one rejects. It is in all today's cultures and after the laws nearly everything States forbade. Other forms of the “Inzestes” are individual this only from the point of view or many cultures.
sexual relations between cousins and cousins
sexual relations between cousins and cousin of first degree (common grandparents) is differently evaluated in different societies, then is a cousin marriagefor example in most US Federal States, Korea, which the Philippines and in many Balkans countries forbidden and socially tabuisiert, while it applies in North Africa, in the eastern area and in south Asia as preferential form of the marriage. In some societies also the sexual intercourse between verschwägerten persons applies as Inzest. Forremoved used as for example cousin and cousin of second degree (common great-grandparents) exists in no country a marriage obstacle.
“relationship “does not only forbid marriages, it can it also order. Like that the cross cousin marriage is often prescribed in master companies. It can even thatconjugal sexual intercourse between brothers and sisters prescribed its, however only in high social position. Example are the Pharaonen dynasties (historical z. B. the Ptolemäer) (304 v. Chr. - 30 v. Chr.), in antique Egypt, which prescribed the brothers and sisters marriage of the Pharao; this becomesas result of the power centralization with matrilinearer succession from high priest inside with simultaneous Patrilinearität a hereditary monarchy outstandingly; always also ideological explanations in such case ( “ keeping clean of the blood” are sociologically predictable,” equalness “,” Göttlichkeit “).
characteristics of a taboo
to the characteristic of a tabooalso the active Ausgrenzung of the topic counts. With the Inzest its occurrence is faded out, i.e. Sexual intercourse between brothers and sisters or between parents and their children is not noticed, is not denied or is played down, if it does not go differently. In the further the children become from a inzestiösen connection in farPopulation circles in principle as obstructs outstandingly, in order to carry out a mental demarcation opposite other children.
law situation today
Inzest is criminally pursued in many states. In Germany and Austria only between lineally related - thus parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and their children, Enkelkindern,Great-grandchild children - as well as between full and half brothers and sisters. In Germany the descendants and brothers and sisters are not punished, if they were younger at the act time than 18 years. In Austria one does not punish, who at the act time than 19 years was younger and one enticed to the act. In Germanythe facts remain fulfilled, even if the Verwandtschaftsverhältnis in the sense of the civil right expired. § 173 of the German penal code places only (vaginalen) the Beischlaf between close relatives under punishment. Other forms of the sexual intercourse are exempt from punishment. In the year 2003 it gave due to § 173 StGB ten condemnations in the area of the earlier Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
In more recent time occasionally argues that the Inzestverbot is redundant in principle, there the genetically caused risks for the new generation resulting from Inzest admits are and the right property of the sexual self-determination more highly toorate is. It is however in each case necessary to clear all Inzestwilligen up over these risks and their avoidance (by means of Empfängnisverhütung).
The French penal code, the code pénal français, places Inzest no longer under punishment. Different countries follow it, then Inzest becomes today in Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, which Turkey, Japan, Argentina, and other Latin American states unite Brazil no longer punished.
Concerning the marriage ceremonies is stricter the canonical right of the church than the civil: During e.g. for a catholic marriage ceremony between cousinand cousin church dispensation would be necessary, is a marriage before the registry between brothers and sisters as well as descendants and ancestors impossible, in all other cases however easily possible.
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comes it with the Inzest to the reproduction,the variability of the genes decreases with the descendants and the Heterosis effect , while the Homozygotie rises. Thus the risk of the outbreak of heterozygoten hereditary diseases will become with the children increased, at the same time however positive Erbmerkmale publicised.
Usually a hereditary disease is based on the fact that for the metabolismnecessary protein is missing, there the appropriate gene “not correctly functioned”, because it (approximately by mutation) is damaged. It can occur that an individual concerned does not train a hereditary disease, because it possesses a “functioning” and a “not functioning” variant in each case from the gene. (These variantscalls one in the genetics alleles.) whereby “the not functioning” variant is rezessiv, which was left “functioning” variant however to dominance. This has the individual concerned the consequence that the hereditary disease is phänotypisch not minted, thus is healthy. Now two parents are geneticnear related and parents have such “not functioning” gene, then the probability is large that the other parents possess also such a not functioning gene. If this is the case and one witnesses by the two a descendant, then steps with a increased probabilitythe case that the descendant receives two (rezessive) “not functioning variants” of the gene. This leads then to the phänotypischen Zutagetreten of the hereditary disease with this descendant. The descendant is hereditaryill, since two “rezessive variants of the not functioning gene” were left to it. (A “dominant factor variant of the functioningGene " now missing.) ways
of the large number of genes is very high the risk for the training of hereditary defects of this kind with descendants of is relatives genetically close. Like that each second to third child from a relationship between brother and sister is remarkable.About each fourth is mentally handicapped, each sieved has a birth defect, and each respected suffers from a well-known rezessiven illness. Descendants from inzestuösen relations are regarded therefore from legal view as victims of the criminal offence Inzest.
Like highly exactly the probability of a hereditary disease due to Inzestes actuallyis, a risk is of 30% is indicated in the research probably contentiously, sometimes, while other studies speak of a 50% risk.
In nature sometimes strategies are to be found to the Inzestvermeidung. With plants that is for instance blooms, those only only Pollen produces and thereafterfor dusting suitably or turned around. With animals and humans it is the sense of smell, which lets relatives genetically close smell in a way, which is not to let sexual feelings arise and therefore Sex between relatives close helps to avoid. Children, those up to the sixth Lebensjahr togethergrows up, develops a instinktive Inzesthemmung, and even if they are not related, they become most likely not with one another active at the adult age sexually.
The training of a double Chromosomensatzes, which is connected closely with the Sexualität (thus the generation of descendants by more than one predecessor), becomesas means of nature seen to reduce the negative consequences of mutations (substantial disadvantage of the organism, if a gene copy does not function “”) as from each gene at least an additional copy is present in each cell.
The animal species with the highest well-known Inzestrate are the Nacktmulle.
both in the old person and in the new will of the Bible is uniformly condemned Inzest, whereby with it not only sexual intercourse between blood relatives close, but also between related by marriage relatives close is meant (see 3. Mose 18, 6ff.). Inzest becomes in the Biblementions several times: Thus in the old person will the history of guide daughters (1.Mose 19), who the berauschten father attended, from fear, to find after Sodoms fall no more men in order to obtain descendants. Abrahams Mrs. Sara was its half sister (1. Mose 20).
Beside the Inzesten, thosein the creation myths of many peoples occur, knows literature history a multiplicity of usually dramatic narrations, which treat the topic of the Inzestes. The Ödipussage, in the one suspended son, is classical without knowing therefore, its nut/mother marries and with their four children witnesses. ThatFairy tale „potpourri-roughly “ of the brothers Grimm acts of a inzestuösen relationship between father and daughter.
Within the romantic literature the Inzest appears partial than releasing moment of a tragic history. For instance in E.T.A. Hoffmann the Elixiere of the devil experiences the reader toward end by thoseGenealogy of the Protagonisten that a case of Inzest was trips for the breaking out insanity of the main figure and its double, which appear telepathisch connected in their confused play quasi. The extinction inzestuös of the developed family appears to that magic as a goal and/or. mad conditions.
In smelling pool of broadcasting corporations of Wagners opera The Walküre is inflamed the twins victory mouth and victory lime tree in love too each other. In the combination of brothers and sisters (quotation: „Flower to Wälsungenblut in such a way “) the hero Siegfried one witnesses.
Also in the chosen one by Thomas's man is the duality of special Tragik in group alsoa certain choosingness. Here becomes from a medieval narration, which Gregorius Hartmann von Aue raised coming of Protagonist at the end after long suffering and penalty years to the Pope. In of Thomas's man novella Wälsungenblut the topic Inzest between brothers and sisters, in Joseph is likewise central and its brothersit (in parents of the Potiphar) emerges at the edge.
Into one hundred years isolation of Gabriel García Márquez the development of the family Buendía is characterized, which begins with Inzest (marrying the cousin with the cousin) and with Inzest stops (generation of a deformation between aunt andNephew). The moreover one is whole history pulled through with inzestuösen motives of the sexual relationship between relatives close.
In the key scene of Arundhati Roys novel the God of the small things comes it to the Inzest between a twin pair, in order to re-establish the mystische connection, by a for many yearsSeparation from brother and sister had been lost.
To Ian McEwans book the cement garden transfer the Jack under age and its sister Julie after the death of both parents their role, whereby it comes in last consequence also to the Inzest between two brothers and sisters.
A modern versionmax of Frischs Homo is more faber, in which (tragically ending) the history of a inzestuösen involving of father and daughter is described. One more desired than actually taking place Inzest love between brother and sister further in the novel Partygirl (2003) of Marlene Streeruwitz is described, whereby thatNovel on the narration the fall of the house Usher of the American author Edgar Allan Poe rekurriert clearly.
A very skurile love between brother and sister is described in the novel the hotel New Hampshire von John Irving.
A auto+biographic dressing of the own abuse describes KathrynHarrison in I is not the daughter, sees (1997, ISBN 3426269791)
also Joanne K. Rowling takes up the topic Inzest in the sixth book Harry Potter and the half blood prince . It is already suggested in the second book that itself the Reinblüter in such a way specified only among themselvesmarry. In the sixth book it is reported that also cousin and cousin marry themselves, if no other Reinblüter is available. Harry experiences from the last real Reinblütern. The family Gaunt consists only of the father and its two measure-formed children.
Further inzestuöse motives leave themselvesdetermine in:
- Leonhard franc. Brother and sister. (1929)
- Robert Musil. The man without characteristics. (1931/32)
- Inge-borrow brook man. The book Franza. [Fragment, 1979]
- Thomas's Bernhard. At the timber line. (1969)
- Peter Bieri. The Klavierstimmer. (1998)
- Jeffrey Eugenides. Middlesex. (2003)
- Kaori Yuki. Fishing rod Sanctuary.
- Ulrike M. Dierkes.Melina's magic. (1995)
- Ulrike M. Dierkes. My sister is my nut/mother - Inzestkinder in the shade of the society. (1997)
- Ulrike M. Dierkes. Sister nut/mother (2004)
- The silence, 1963, films IMDb
- Inzest, 1970, IMDb
- heart flares, 1971, IMDb
- elevator fire, 1985 IMDb
- Homo Faber, 1991, IMDb
- the cement garden, 1992, IMDb
- Spanking the Monkey, 1994, 
- Oldboy, 2003, IMDb
- Koi Kaze, 2004
- Blutschande - effects of a crime, SWRto 2000