Irène Joliot curie
Irène Joliot curie (* 12. September 1897 in Paris; † 17. March 1956 in Paris) received the Chemienobelpreis for the discovery of the artificial radioactivity together with its married man Frédéric Joliot curie 1935. She was the daughter of Marie and Pierre curie, sister of the authoress Ève curie and nut/mother of the Kernphysikerin Hélène Langevin.
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in their doctor work on the institute for radium in Paris examined Irène curie of Alpha rays emitted polonium; this radioactive element had discovered its nut/mother Marie curie 1898 (1903 distinguished with the Nobelpreis for physics). In addition Irène curie had to extract the polonium from zerstampften radon ampuls, which had been used for the cancer therapy. It succeeded to it,to measure precisely the initial velocity of the alpha particles, to which it used among other things equipment even sketched. one attained a doctorate to 1925 it.
Since 1928 Irène and Frédéric Joliot curie experimented together. They repeated 1931 an experiment, that first roll ago Bothe and Hans Becker had implemented: With alpha particles from a strong source of polonium they illuminated thin layers of different materials. If these materials contained hydrogen, thereby a new radiation which the two interpreted as out-shot hydrogen cores, thus as protons, developed - they hadknapp die Entdeckung desNeutrons verpasst. That succeeded only to the English physicist James Chadwick, when he repeated the experiments. It received for it the Physiknobelpreis to 1935.
1932 observed the researcher married couple in a cloud chamber positively charged electrons, could this resulthowever do not arrange and interpreted it as artifact. Them it was not well-known that the English physicist Paul Dirac had already predicted 1931 the positron as antiparticle of the negatively charged electron - which much over the relationship at that time of theoreticians andSays to experimental physicists. 1933 revised it the interpretation of their experiment, but the American Carl David Anderson one had already forestalled them there.
Starting from 1933 Irène and Frédéric Joliot curie the discovery of the artificial radioactivity succeeded, for it to 1935 with the Chemienobelpreis excellentlybecame. From all chemical elements there are different versions - isotopes so mentioned -, which differ only in the mass of the atomic nucleus. In the everyday life most chemical elements are stable, because the radioactive half-lives of their radioactive isotopes are so short,that they disintegrated already long. Marie curie had discovered the first two radioactive elements polonium and radium. Irène and Frédéric Joliot curie found out now in several stages that radioactive isotopes of chemical elements can be manufactured also artificially. Itilluminated to the fact aluminum foil with alpha particles whereby itself a sturdy silicon - isotope formed. Strange way was emitted apparently at the same time with this procedure however a neutron as well as a positron. Frédéric Joliot curie succeeded at the 11. January 1934 the crucial experiment, with which it showit could that in reality two reactions ran off fast one behind the other: First Aluminium-27 under the bombardment with alpha particles was converted into the radioactive Phosphor-30; a neutron was emitted. Immediately after it Phosphor-30 disintegrated into Silizium-30 and pushed a positron out (in additiona neutrino with this reaction, which had been already predicted by Wolfgang Pauli , develops, but only 1956 one observed).
This time Frédéric and Irène Joliot curie seized immediately the consequence of their discovery. Over the weekend they produced still artificially a radioactive Nitrogen isotope from boron as well as a radioactive aluminum isotope from magnesium. To 15. They presented January 1934 their results in the Academy of Sciences.
The meaning of their discovery can hardly be exaggerated: In biology radioactive isotopes are used, over To clear up metabolic pathways; already 1935 examined Otto Chiewitz and George of Hevesy the phosphorus metabolism of rats with Phosphor-32. In the medicine radioactive isotopes serve for the diagnosis and therapy, for example different iodine - isotopes with thyroid hyperactivity. In its Nobelpreisrede said FrédéricJoliot curie even already „Transmutationen of explosive kind “ahead, perhaps a first notion of the nuclear fission. The Chemienobelpreis of 1935 was already third in the family (1903 Physiknobelpreis at Pierre and Marie curie, 1911 Chemienobelpreis at Marie curie).
1937 would have IrèneJoliot curie in a further experiment almost the nuclear fission discovers. Together with the Yugoslav physicist Pavle Savic illuminated it uranium with neutrons and registered a new, radioactive element with a radioactive half-life of three and a half hours. It interpreted it finally as lanthan isotope andpublished its observations in July 1938. Citizen of Berlin a working group around Otto cock, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann did not want to believe the result, because it could not find the isotope. Cock took the article however seriously and repeated thatExperiment. It expected radium isotopes, received however barium. Lise Meitner, which had had to flee in the meantime as a Austrian Jewess to Sweden, supplied finally the correct interpretation: Uranium disintegrates under the bombardment with neutrons into two fragments, whereby a tremendous energy freelybecomes, the nuclear energy in such a way specified.
Irène Joliot Curies work was interrupted by the Second World War and a Tuberkulose - illness. After the war it ensured still for the fact that the first French accelerator, a Synchro cyclotron for protons, in Orsay, 25Kilometer south of Paris was built.
Irène curie was the older daughter of the Nobelpreisträger Marie and Pierre curie. As it died their father was eight years old. It grew therefore under the Obhut of its grandfather EugèneCurie up, which affected above all its political opinions. Its nut/mother Marie curie organized first together with friendly scientists a learn-cooperative, in which they informed their children. Among other things Marie curie demonstrated physical experiments, and Paul Langevin taughtMathematics. Later Irène visited the Collège Sévigné.
In the First World War organized Marie curie a mobile Roentgen service for the front. First those helped 17-jährige Irène as a female assistant of its nut/mother, soon at that time led it however independently a Röntgenstation in the military hospital of Amiens. Besides it studied mathematics and physics at the university of Paris and locked 1920 both fan with the Lizenziat. After the war she became first an unpaid, scientific woman employee in the institute for radium of their nut/mother, kept there her later to oneUnterassistenten post. At Institut she became acquainted with also a chemistry Laboranten named Frédéric Joliot, which she should train. The two married to 9. October 1926. Frédéric retrieved its Abitur, which he had been able to lock because of the war, made its Lizenziatand one attained a doctorate to 1930. In the same year as a first child Hélène was born, 1932 the son Pierre.
Irène Joliot curie engaged itself strongly in the policy. 1934 took part it for the first time together with its man in an action committee of anti-fascist intellectual. InSpring 1936 won the people front under Léon Bluem the elections. The Nobelpreisträgerin occurred as state secretary for science and research the government and belonged thereby to the first group of three women, whom at all ever in France in the cabinet appointbecame - at that time women in France did not even have the right to vote. Irène Joliot curie remained only three months on the post; it had concerned to it to set an indication of the women's movement.
1937 became it on a lecturer placeto the Sorbonne appoint. After the occupation of Paris by German troops the married couple fled in June 1940 after Clermont Ferrand, returned however again to the capital. In Paris their man played a risky double role as a researcher at the Collègede France and as Résistance fighters. The Nobelpreisträgerin was already 1935 at Tuberkulose gets sick; to 6. June 1944 traveled it with its children to Switzerland, in order to let a new accumulation of Tuberkulose treat.
To 18. October 1945 becamein France a Kommissariat for atomic energy (Commisariat à l' énergie atomique) based, when its High Commissioner Frédéric Joliot curie became to appoint. Its wife became one of three commissioners. Because it engaged itself further also politically in the communist intimate organizations, their term of office becamehowever does not extend. Between 1951 and 1954 it applied four times for a seat in the Academy of Sciences, for the misogynic tradition of this institution anzuprangern. It was rejected each mark.
Irène Joliot curie died 1956 at a leukaemia, probably oneFollow its handling large quantities polonium and its work in the Roentgen service during the First World War. The government arranged a state funeral.
- Sabine soaping ore: An element of success, all the same in which occupation, is the desire toHandicraft, in Charlotte Kerner: Not only madame curie - women, who got the Nobelpreis, Belz publishing house Weinheim and Basel 1999, ISBN 3-407-80862-3
- Pierre Radvanyi: The Curies: a dynasty by Nobelpreisträgern, Spektrum der Wissenschaft Weinheim 2003, ISBN 3-936278-49-0
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|NAME||Joliot curie, Irène|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||curie, Irène|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||French Chemikerin|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12. September 1897|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris, France|
|DYING DATE||17. March 1956|
|DYING PLACE||Paris, France|