of these articles concerns itself with the Islamic Republic of Iran; concerning Iran in the antique one see Perserreich as well as Achämenidenreich, part ago and to Sassanidenreich.
جمهوریاسلامیایران Jomhûri ye Eslâmî ye Îrân
Islamic Republic of Iran
Flagge Irans
Wappen Irans
(detail) (detail)
office language Persian (Farsi)
capital Teheran (Tehran)
system of government Islamic republic
of highest lawyers Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī
president Mahmūd Ahmadī Nežād

(Ahmadinedschad ) surface

1.648.195 km dt.meist ²
number of inhabitants 68.017.860 (July 2005)
population density of 42 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2055 US-$ (2004)
establishment 550 v. Chr. under Kyros II.
Currency of Iranian Rial
time belt UTC +3.5
national anthem Sorud e Melli ye
Dschomhuri ye Eslami
Kfz Nationalitätszeichen IR
Internet TLD .ir
preselection +98
Lagekarte des Iran
Karte des Iran

Iran (Persia, Persian: ایران /iːˈrɔːn/) an Islamic coined/shaped state is in Anterior Asia (west Asia), which lies between Arabia and Afghanistan. With 68 million inhabitants it ranks among the 10% of the most densely populated states.

Table of contents

national name

since earliest time was called the country of its population Iran (an abbreviation of the centralPersian Eran Schahr). The old-Iranian form of this name, Aryānām Xšaθra, means „country of the Arier “.

In the evening country to in 20. Century common designation Persia decreases/goes back to the time of the Achämeniden , in 6. Century v. Chr. a first Persian large realm created. Its central area was the landscape Persis, the today's province Fars so mentioned by the Greeks around Schiraz. From it also the name is derived Farsi („Perser “) for the Persian language and for the ethnical Perser (heifers).

The geographical term Iran refers to the entire Iranian high country, over the State of Iran outside thus also to regions of neighboring countries.

It is disputed whether it is to be used in the German language with or without certain article. The Duden deutscht the national names and writes contrary to some specializedspecific publications and the Foreign Office „Iran “.


Iran borders on 7 states and 2 seas: in the east and northeast at the Iraq (boundary line 1,458 km), Turkey and Azerbaijan (ever approx. 500 km), to Armenia (35 km) and the Kaspi sea (500 km);
in the east and southeast at Turkmenistan (approx. 1,000 km), Afghanistan (936 km) and Pakistan (province Belutschistan, 909 km) as well as at two Ausläufer of the Indian ocean (gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). The Iranian border province to Pakistan is called likewise Belutschistan.

Today's Iran was called in the antique one and until approximately 1950 Persia. It is an expressed mountain country, which makes the climate - apart from the deserts - quite bearable also for Europeans. Geologically the country is arranged by several nearly parallel mountain chains painting after southeast, which reach mountains in the Zagros - and Kuhrud - several times over 4000 m. East these of fruitful valleys and Hochebenen durchzogenen mountains lie the large deserts Dasht e Kavir and Dasht e Lut, close of the national center also expanded salt pans. Due to the geological conditions and the probably still continuous Gebirgsbildung frequently earthquakes arise in Iran. The situation is comparable with the quake frequency in Turkey and at the US west coast, where the slowly shifting ground plates cause likewise noticeable pressure in the upper earth's crust.


the highest mountain of Iran is northeast of the 5,671 m high Damavand (Demawend, Dēmāwend) in the Elburs - mountains on 35,9° broad - an extinct, glacier-covered volcano the capital Tehran. To only 60 km removed Kaspisee has it nearly 6000 m difference in height, which even the Chilean Anden “does not create”. One already sees the Demawand from the gebirgigen suburbs Teherans.
In the south and southwest the country, which was in the antique one as Persia Rome an equal great power , has 2,000 km a long coast to the gulf of Oman and to Persian Gulf, which are separate from Hormuz from each other by the road. At this sea tightness with Bandar Abbas and the island Quesm - lies on the named-giving hearing MON -, important for the oil routes, the distance hardly amounts to to Arabia ( Oman and combined Arab emirates) 50 kilometers.


the climate in Iran is very different, under the geographical expansion. Arid climate conditions outweigh, but arise regionally - in particular in the north (Kaspi sea) and at some mountain edges - annual precipitation up to 2,000 mm. The salt lakes are driest in the interior, while it can come in the desert areas at the southern coasts nächtens also to the formation of fog.


53% of the national surface of Iran are desert area (to Kavir in the north, Lut in the south, see deserts of Afghanistan and Iran), 27% pastureland, 9% field (75,620 km ² watered), 11% forest.

The forests are over-used mostly, between Elburs mountains and Kaspi sea are however wide jungles of the beech, which kept in this expansion only in the extreme east of the beech area.


of Iran Ethnien

the population of Iran (68 million - conditions July 2005) sits down together out approx. 51% Persern, approx. 24% Aserbaidschanern, approx. 7% Kurds, 8% Gilaki and Mazandarani, approx. 3% Arabs, 2% Turkomanen, 2% Luren and 2% Belut and unite smaller minorities, like Christian Armenians, Assyrer, Georgier as well as Jews. Besides numerous refugees live in Iran: 2 million from Afghanistan and 203,000 from the Iraq.

Altogether 98% of the population profess themselves to the Islam; 90% of it are Shiites and 8% Sunniten.

20,000 Iranians are as refugees in the neighbouring Iraq.

Among the largest cities Teheran ( city 7.1 millions rank; Population centre 12 millions), Maschhad (2.3 millions), Isfahan (1.5 millions), Karadsch (1.4 millions), Täbris (1.4 millions), Schiraz (1.2 millions), Qom (1.0 millions), Ahwas (850.000) and Kermānschāh (770.000).

See also: List of the cities in Iran


office language of Iran is newPersian, locally also Farsi mentioned. It is a indogermanische language and at the same time the most important one under all Iranian languages, which form the Ostindogermani language branch “Indoirani languages “together with the Indian languages. Persian the only office language of Iran is and of approximately 58% of the Iranian population is spoken, it is not however not the exclusive national language. The portion of the Azerbaijani -, and Turkmenisch - speaker is numbered with 26%; Kurdish with 9%; Lurisch with 2%; and others, under it Arab speakers, with 1%.


the twelve-he-Shiite Islam is state religion. 98% of the population are Muslims. Besides there are Orientchristen, whose number decreased/went back after the revolution however strongly. Today there are probably still about 280.000. To 90% this trailers of the Armenian apostolischen church, 20,000 to maximally 40,000 assyrische Christians, are about 3,000 Chaldäer and few Protestanten. There are Jews depending upon estimation 11,000 to 30,000, whereby most estimations of approx. 20.000 goes out, besides 33,000 Parsen and some thousand Mandäer. That approx. 300.000 in Iran as ketzerisch designated and entrechteten Baha'i, their friedliebende religion in 19. Century in Iran developed, hardly for tolerance is granted, what entails partly bloody Pogrome and executions.


major item: History Iran

the today's State of Iran is in the area, which one called in the German linguistic usage for a long time Persia. The geographical situation between the Caucasus in the north, the Arab peninsula in the south, India and China in the east and Mesopotamien and Syria in the west let the country become the scene of an eventful history.

In the Persian region history of the realm of the Meder leads to the Perserreich of the Achämeniden (Kyros II. the large one to Dareios III.) over Alexander the large one to the Parthern and Sassaniden. Since the Middle Ages followed after the Islamic Kalifat, which beerbte the Sassanidenreich (see Islamic expansion), different native-Persian, Mongolian and Turkish dynasties up to the Safawiden, Kadscharen and the today's State of Iran.

Iran occurred as monarchy with a Schah as head and soon also with its own, free government the modern times.

With Reza Schah Pahlavi (Reza Chan) began 1921 under the influence from Great Britain a political re-orientation of Persia toward the west. The contact between rulers and people decreased ever more. The discontent in the country rose. Rage concentrated first on Great Britain.

A purpose alliance with Germany and the erstarkte self understanding of the again-arranged state arranged the Schah to request the international community of states to designate the country with „Iran, called on the part of the British persistent Persia, “; the national name, under which it the Persern for centuries a term was. By the wealth linked with the oil Iran developed to regional power.

To the Second World War it came 1951, under the government Mohammed Mossadeghs, to a nationalization of the oil industry. Trip was British BP, which controlled the oil business in Iran and which refused itself in negotiations strictly dividing their profits from the oil business to the half with the Iranian state. In the consequence it came in front to the international boycott of the Iranian oil, everything by the USA and Great Britain, which led in the further process to an economic crisis and to the state deficit. Despite these results the parliament selected later in democratic choice Mossadegh to the president of the country.

Prime Minister Mossadegh was fallen by the operation Ajax, an action of the US Government under Eisenhower with the help of the CIA.

The 1941, originally against the will of the USA, as successors of his father in the office Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi come, placed themselves with support of the USA against Mossadegh and expressed themselves for a trade agreement with the USA. In this oil promotion rights should to US-American enterprises be transferred and Iran 50% of the profit from the oil business be awarded (with the British BP were it approx. 5 %). Mossadegh refused, since he wanted to keep the wealth of Iran in the country, connected with the oil. The Schah and Mossadegh came to unrests and tensions between. The latter had to leave however large support in the people, which arranged the Schah, on the high point of the crisis in August 1953 the country. (1946) the USA the Schah had helped the Republic of Mahabad too to smash already before and the city Mahabad of the Kurds to back-conquer.

Monarchistic forces under guidance of the general (i. organized nevertheless. R.) Fazlollah Zahedi a coup d'etat (militarily supports from the USA) and got the Schah again back to power. The government at that time, with Zahedi as an Prime Minister, locked new contracts with the USA. These continued up to the first oil crisis, caused by clear price increases of Iran. Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1941-1979) introduced „the white revolution “, lost however in the future of its rule increasingly the contact to the people. At the beginning of of 1979 it had to finally leave Iran due to an Islamic revolution.

The Shiite leader Ruhollah Chomeini returned from the French exile, was established as the highest authority of the state and transformed the Empire of Iran and/or. Persia (official designations of the country until 1979) into one „Islamic republic “. Its politics were coined/shaped by a fundamentalist, strongly anti-western line.

From 1980 to 1988 the country was in a war (the first Gulf War), after the Iraq had attacked the country. The continuous international isolation of Iran loosened only to end of the 1990er.

Since 2005 Iran as well as India is, Pakistan and Mongolia observer with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).


since the revolution of 1979 are a highest lawyer („revolution leaders “) either the Rahbar (D. h. „Leaders “) or in its absence an advice of religious office-holders. The revolution leader, since 1989 Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī, has unrestricted power and appoints the highest judges (all together clergyman) and is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He is selected by the expert advice on lifetime. This is selected again every eight years by the people, whereby the guard advice must approve the candidates.

The head of state and a head of the government Irans is the president (since 2005 Mahmud Ahmadinedschad). It is determined in general elections for a 4-jährige term of office and is at the same time a head of the government. The president appoints the members of the cabinet and also manages this. It coordinates the government work and submits to the parliament the government bills. The power of president, government and parliament is however strongly limited, because all candidates who can be selected and all laws must be confirmed by the guard advice. Besides the last word of the revolution leaders has in all questions.

The guard advice consists religious clergyman and 6 lay of 6 jurisprudence-learns. The clergymen are appointed by the revolution leader. Their task is it to examine each law for its conformity with the Islamic principles. The lawyers are appointed by the highest judge, the boss of the Judikative. Their task is it to examine the condition conformity of legislativer document. The highest judge for his part is appointed by the revolution leader. The guard advice is authorized to reject or explain afterwards for invalid each law to refuse and to candidates the participation in the choice for the parliament and the office for president. The guard advice decides by simple majority. With same being correct portions the revolution leader has the final say.

In the Iranian condition article § 57 becomes the national force, thus legislation, executive and Judikative, which subordinate religious guidance (welayat e faghi). All three Gewalten depend thus not autonomously in their decisions, but on the religious leader Rahbar.

The Iranian a chamber parliament (Islamic consultative council; Persian Majles e-Shura ye-Eslami) consists of 290 delegates, who are selected in general, direct and secret elections for a 4-jährige term of office. Because of the selection of the guard advice the parliament (except of 2000-2003) is dominated by the Islamic-conservative forces.

With the surprising choice victory Mohammad Chātemīs 1997 was established the political movement of the Reformer in the Iranian parliament. They face the religious power monopoly critically and try to strengthen the republican elements of the state. Thus it succeeded to Chatemi at the beginning of its term of office to implement a liberalisation of the national press. The system-critical voices got a public organ in order to lend to its reform will reproduction.

Reviving the Pressefreiheit persisted however not for a very long time. The guard advice cancels the laws with reference to incompatibility with the Islam and blocked from now on almost all reform attempts of the parliament.

Since then the Reformer sees itself confronted with large confidence losses in the reform-willing subpopulations. The disappointment over the faint of the parliament led with the last local elections (2003) too much small election turnout (national cut 36%, in Teheran 25%) and to a clear victory of the conservative forces.

With the parliamentary elections to 17. June 2005 stepped for the time being the parliamentary end of the Reformer , particularly since Chātemī was not allowed to again stand as a candidate after two terms of office.

The election campaign was led on the television, in the radio, on posters and on speech meetings. Dominance which the picture of a man: Alī Akbar Hāschemī Rafsandschānī. The former president of Iran (1989-1997) stood as a candidate again for the post of the head of the government. From western view he was the safe choice winner, since he as a strong man of the act, when Pragmatiker applied and stood for economic upswing, whose radiating, ungezwungen appearances oriented west diminished if necessary corruption and Kungelleivorwürfe.

But completely surprisingly (for western observers) Mahmud Ahmadinedschad in the first ballot of Iranian history won the elections. Ahmadinedschad is considered as hard liner. In western newspapers it was called among other things „religious fascist “. On its political agenda stand many points, which remind of Ruhollah Mousavi Chomeini: Islamizing the society, dress order obligation for Mrs., substantial cuts pressing and of the liberty of opinion, a prevention of diplomatic confessions in international negotiations (atomic controversy), etc.

But because of this politics it was not mainly selected. It recruited also for a solution of the problems, which have the simple Iranians daily. High unemployment, poverty, hunger, lack of perspectives. With the solution of these problems, or at least their weakening, Ahmadinedschad in the election campaign arose. The unemployed persons, arms, many humans without future in a country with unusually many young inhabitants, who simple people have it selected - because they regard it as one of them.

Whether Mahmud Ahmadinedschad will be able to keep hopes, which are projected into him, remains to be waiting. It is safe that Iran experienced a heavy setback in things democratization and liberalisation of the society and the state system.

In a speech of 26. October 2005 demanded the president the destruction of Israel, a procedure unique in UN-history, which was unanimously condemned by most UN-states.

The German Bundeskanzlerin Merkel has Iran on the 42. Resident of Munich safety conference to 4. February 2006 seriously for giving in in the atomic controversy requested. „Iran exceeded, accused deliberately the red lines “Merkel Teheran. It gives „the entitled fear “that its atomic program serves not the peaceful use, but military options: „We want to have and the development of Iranian nuclear weapons to prevent. “The country may not take a possible transfer of the conflict into the UN security council to the cause to break the relations off with the international community. It does not concern a provocation - rather the security council is the legitimate place for the solution of the conflict. Merkel underlined also the meaning of the role of Russia. The broader the international agreement is, the rather is possible giving in Iran. To the address of the Iranian vice-minister of foreign affairs Abbas Araghtschi present at the conference Mrs. Merkel said, it is missing also a clear statement to the expressions of president Achmadi Nedschad to the existence right of Israel. Straight one of Germany cannot expect Iran in this question „the smallest tolerance “([1]).


major item: Armed forces of Iran

the Iranian military still is in one starting period, in which the country tries to adjust the losses by the first Gulf War. US estimations assume that that the Iraq destroyed in the eight war years between 20 and 40% of the Iranian military capacity, both soldiers and material. Which concerns the crew strength, the process of the re-establishment of the impact force is to a large extent final, something similar might also to earthbound weapon systems apply, with which it concerns to the country less today particularly around modernization and numerical armament. Yet balanced the wastes are not by the war on the field of the Air Force, in much higher measure however with the larger surface units of the navy. On these fields Iran for a country of its size is under-armed. Apart from the war losses above all the restriction ofs export of numerous states are the reason for this condition. A majority of the existing weapon systems originates from US weapon assistance and in more recent time from weapon businesses with Russia and the People's Republic of China.

  • Information to the Iranian intelligence service under: VEVAK

juridical system

by the Islamic revolution was again introduced the Islamic right, the Scharia, as law. Since the Scharia was never successfully codified, the justice and development of the Islamic jurisprudence in a kind Case Law are incumbent on - system. From a point of view of the division of power out the activity of the first highest judge affected itself after the revolution Chalkali catastrophically. Until today it gives no division of power in Iran, the highest of religious to leaders has extensive powers.

Civil company and human right problems

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Of western view 1997 with the choice of president Khatami hope for improvement of the human right situation consisted. So also various Nichtregierungsorganisationen could be based in the consequence. The efforts experienced finally by the award of the Nobel peace prize in the year 2003 to the Iranian Menschenrechtsaktivistin Shirin Ebadi international acknowledgment.

Death penalties (public executions like stony ones or Erhängen) or public Auspeit are imposed also for persons under 18 years as punishments for rape , murder , drug trade; also consumption of alcohol is punished. In the Islam boys are starting from 15 years and girls already starting from 9 years punishable of age and fully. In the Iranian penal code there is a regulation those „the waste of the true faith “(the Islam is meant) punished with death. Loud amnesty internationally in the year 2005 three death sentences were executed by Erhängen due to this law.

Homosexualität contradicts the Islam, whereby according to international human right organizations for Homosexualität alone no death sentences were expressed. For Homosexualität in connection with rape lately however death sentences were imposed. The message from two young people, who were executed in July 2005 because of homosexual actions, provided world-wide for attention and because of international frightening by Iranian authorities in such a way was later extended that the two a further, unknown thirteen-year old to have raped to be supposed.

Due to a Fatwa of Chomeini are permitted contrary to other Islamic countries in Iran sex-adapting measures as well as the following change of the legal sex in Iran.

Heads of state

highest lawyers
Ruhollah Mousavi Chomeini 1979-1989
Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī since 1989
Abū l-Hasan Banīsadr 1980-1981
Mohammad Alī Radschāʾī 1981
Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī 1981-1989
Alī Akbar Hāschemī Rafsandschānī 1989-1997
Mohammad Chātemī 1997-2005
Mahmūd Ahmadī Nežād since 6. August 2005
Prime Ministers (office 1989 abolished)
Amir Abbas Hoveyda 1965-1977
Mehdi Basargan 1979
Mohammad Alī Radschāʾī 1980-1981
Mohammed Javad Bahonar 1981
Mohammed Reza Mahdavi Kani 1981
me Hossein Moussavi 1981-1990

see also: List of the rulers of Iran

administrative arrangement

major item: Administrative arrangement Iran

Iran is arranged into 30 provinces. The largest cities are the capital Teheran with officially 7.1 millions (and/or. 12 millions in the population centre) and Maschhad with approximately 2.1 millions Inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in Iran



Iran possessed a power station capacity of 41,000 megawatts in the year 2005. In order to have the promoted oil for the export available, is the building of approx. 20 nuclear power stations planned. Besides the building is intended by plants for the production of nuclear fuels.


the Iranian economy is subject mostly to national control. In private hand smaller enterprises are excluding.

Most important restaurant section are the rich oil - and natural gas - occurrence in Iran. Further important restaurant sections are the textile industry, the agriculture and the cement - and building material production.

Iran has a population able to work of 23.68 million humans, who are however trained lacking. Unemployment amounts to about 11.2%. The service sector offers 45% of the jobs, whereby the state operates a very large administrative machinery; The agriculture offers 30% and the industry 25%.

Oil and natural gas

Iran the second largest supplier of oil (to Saudi Arabia) is world-wide and from natural gas (to Russia). In the year 2000 the country was been still because of the 4.Platz (behind the USA), after the Islamic revolution had brought the oil production to 1979 nearly to succumbing and had released the second oil crisis after 1974.

Today the country promotes on the average daily 3.979 Mill. at oil Barrel (approximately 632.7 million litre). Of it are void 1.425 million barrel (approximately 226.6 million litre or 0.194 Mill. Tons daily; in the year about 71 Mill.t) on the internal requirement, the remaining 2.5 million barrel (annually 910 Mill. Barrels) are exported. Of that world-wide admitted, with modern techniques promotable Erdöl-Reserven are of 10 11% (depending upon source 125 to 135 billion barrels) on the national territory Iran. It would know thus its present promotion whole 21. Century maintained, theoretically even still increase.

For the 20. March 2006 one plans the establishment of its own oil stock exchange, which is to act the oil in Petroeuro under the contraction IOB ( Iranian oil stock exchange) in place of the so far usual Petrodollar. The euro is in the meantime a more stable price base than the US Dollar, but might this change also politically against the USA be directed, which apply since the fall of the Schah as public enemy.

The annual output of natural gas amounted to 2003 79 billion m ³. Of it 72.4 billion m ³ (nearly 92%) for the internal requirement of Iran were needed, with which the country of ninth-largest natural gas consumers of the world is. In the same year 4.92 billion m ³ natural gas were imported and 3.4 billion m ³ were exported. Well-known natural gas resources amount to about 26.7 trillion m ³, after other sources (3.Weblink) even 940 trillion
[Note Geof: the contradictions would be to be examined; evt. carry possible translation errors (English. trillion = billion) in addition with].

The government wants to reduce the high internal requirement at natural gas by its own atomic program. Many states are afraid however that the Islamic government thereby will advance also the development of the atom bomb (see IAEO and UN - to security council, March April 2006).

The Iranian natural gas industry limps however to the competitors in the Gulf region (e.g. Qatar) after and is only in the structure; 62% of well-known stores are not opened yet, for which a time horizon is planned by 25 years. There are already some gas exports from Iran to the neighboring countries (particularly into Turkey), but is Iran because of its imported goods from Turkmenistan at present still another net gas importer! [Source: Energy information administration - a service of the external trade of Austria (AWO)].

The largest oil fields

the most important Iranian oil fields - counted in bpd after the level of knowledge 2005 - are:

 To country (Onshore)                  In the shelf area (offshore one)AghaJari     200,000 bbl/d           Abuzar         125,000 bbl/dAhwaz - Asmari 700,000                 Dorood         130,000 Bangestan approx. 245.000 (is to rise to over 550,000)BibiHakimeh  130,000                 Salman         130,000Gachsaran    560,000                 Sirri A&E       95,000 Karanj - Parsi 200,000                 Soroush/Nowruz     60,000 bbl/dMarun        520,000 Pazanan       70,000 Rise up e Safid  180.000 bbl/d           [as per. Energy info. administration]


the agricultural effective area amounts to despite numerous mountains and deserts 10% of the national surface, whereby however a third is artificially watered . The agriculture is one of the largest employers of the country.

Important products are wheat, rice, sugar, cotton, fruits, Nüsse, Datteln, wool and caviar.

Since the revolution of 1979 the cultivation of Weintrauben was changed over because of the Islamic alcohol prohibition on the 200,000 hectares Rebfläche nearly completely to board grapes/clusters and raisins. With raisins Iran is in the meantime to Turkey the second largest exporter of the world.


2005 exported Iran goods in the value of 55.25 billion US Dollar. The largest export partners were 2004 Japan (18.4%), China (9.7%), Italy (6%), South Africa (5.8%), South Korea (5.4%), Taiwan (4.6%), Turkey (4.4%) and the Netherlands (4%).

The most important export property is oil. The high petroleum price permits Iran to transverse subsidies of its industry and treasury.

The import amounted to 2005 about 42.5 billion US Dollar. The largest import partners were 2004 Germany (12.8%), France (8.3%), Italy (7.7%), China (7.2%), united Arab emirates (7.2%), South Korea (6.1%) and Russia (5.4%).


1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service


in the Dichtkunst exhibits Persia - special the southern Fars - since the Middle Ages numerous famousnesses, the most well-known of which Ferdousi , Hafis and Saadi are.

See also: Persian literature, Iranian music


Teheran is the medium center of the country. Here the most important daily papers (Jumhori yi Islami, Resalat , Kayhan , Akhbar , Ettelaat ) appear, also some English-language under it (Tehran Time, Kayhan international, Iran DAILY one, Iran news). The newspapers and also the national broadcast and television station are subject to national censorship.

Additionally it gives over 30 Iranian television stations from the San Fernando Valley , lying with Los Angeles , California, which over satellite or Internet in Iran will receive can. This transmitter not attainable of the Iranian censorship played with the student protests 2003 an important role with the co-ordination of the demonstrations.

Literature to Iran

  • Christopher de Bellaigue: In the rose garden of the martyrs. A Portrait Iran. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2006. - 1. Edition. - ISBN 3-40654-374-X
  • Bruno Schirra: Iran - explosive for Europe. Berlin: Econ, March 2006. - ISBN 3-43017-957-2
  • Lilli Gruber: Tschador. In the divided heart Iran. Munich: Karl Blessing publishing house, March 2006. - ISBN 3-89667-299-1
  • Luise Rinser: Khomeini and the Islamic God state. A large idea, a large mistake? Star mountain: R. S. Schulz, 1979. - ISBN 3-79620-111-3
  • Katajun Amirpur, pure hard Witzke: Scene Iran - a report. Freiburg 2004, Herder publishing house, ISBN 3-45105535-X
  • Columbia University (Hrsg.): Encyclopædia Iranica. (The most detailed reference book to Iran, of that so far 12 volumes appeared.)
  • Navid Kermani: Iran. The revolution of the children. Munich: Publishing house C.H. Beck, 2001. - ISBN 3-406-47625-2
  • W. G. Lerch: Iranian traumata. Persia was attacked or foreigndetermined in the last century by many. FAZ v. 21.6.2003. (Lights up the role Iran as a victim of the imperialism)
  • Roy Mottadeh: The coat of the prophet or the life of a Persian Mullah between religion and politics. Munich: C.H. Beck, 1988. - ISBN 3-406-32289-1
  • Olya Roohizadegan: Olyas history. The shaking report of a woman, who - together with others - was arrested and abused because of their affiliation to the Bahai religion by the Mullahs in Iran. Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei Lübbe publishing house, 1995. - (Row “experiences”). - ISBN 3-40461322-8

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Wiktionary: Iran - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Iranian proverbs - quotations

coordinates: 32° 29 ′ 46 " N, 54° 17 ′ 42 " O


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