Ireland

of these articles treats the State of Ireland, which geographical island described under Ireland (island ).
Poblacht well hÉireann (Irish)
Republic of OF Irish country (English)
Republic of Ireland
Flagge Irlands: Vertikal verlaufende Blockstreifen. Von links: grün, weiß, orange.
Wappen Irlands
(detail) (detail)
office languages Irish, English
capital Dublin (IR. Baile Átha Cliath)
president Mary McAleese
Prime Minister Bertie Ahern
surface 70,280 km ²
number of inhabitants 4.015.676 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 55 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 50,303 US-$ (2005)
currency euro
time belt UTC +0
national anthem Amhrán well bhFiann
national holiday 17. March (pc. Patrick's Day)
Kfz characteristic IRL
Internet TLD .ie
preselection +353
Lage von Irland in Europa
map of the island Ireland
Karte der Insel Irland

Ireland (official German name, Irish Éire [ˈeːrʲə], English. Irish country), frequently also Republic of Ireland (Irish Poblacht well hÉireann, English. Republic of OF Irish country) is an island state on the island of the same name Ireland. It borders on the united Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland and is member of the European union. The majority of the population professes itself to the Roman-catholic faith.


Table of contents

Geografie

in the interior of the island finding predominantly levels, which are enclosed by hilly area outward. The river Shannon, which runs from north to south, is the longestRiver of the island. In the levels lie a large number of lakes, which coined/shaped the landscape considerably.Lough Neagh is the most well-known of the Irish seas, even if this belongs exactly taken to Northern Ireland.

Distributed over the country there is a set of national park.

History

major item: History of Ireland

the history of Ireland begins with the settlement in the Steinzeit. Keltischsprachige families brought approximately around 300 v. Chr., the transition from the Bronzezeit to the Eisenzeit, gradually the celtic language. Already in the Roman realm the island was Ireland under thatName Hibernia admits. In the course of history there was a set of kingdoms and principalities in Ireland.

The Christianisierung at the beginning 5. Century by British slaves, among them also the today's nationalholy Patrick of Ireland, followed the first Irish bloom time, those suddenly by the booty coursesthe Wikinger was interrupted. Conquest followed by the Normannen in the year 1169, which rang in a continued dominance of England over Ireland. English conquerers konfiszierten the Landbesitz of the Irish and drove them out into the unfruchtbaren west of the island.

The policy of the large English basic owners inIreland caused the hunger emergency of 1845-1847. 1,5 million Irish verhungerten and many emigrated to America.

A first step toward political independence was the Dominion status to 6. December 1921, which guaranteed a larger self-sufficiency relating to domestic affairs and only after bloody excesses one granted. Six countiesin the province Ulster remained however after the agreement a component of Great Britain. The Northern Ireland question has therein its origin and overshadows the Irish-British and internal-Irish policy until today. Also as Ireland to 18. April 1949 after over three centuries British rule from the Commonwealth separated, remaining thosesix northIrish counties in the united kingdom. However Ireland appears a clear relaxation since the Karfreitagsabkommen and the renouncement of Northern Ireland by the republic.

Economics

general

Ireland, former “poorhouse” of the EEC, is in the year 2005 after strong growth of several years one of the richest States of thatEuropean Union and world-wide. The inflation-adjusted Pro-Kopf-Einkommen in Ireland is within the European Union to Luxembourg on rank 2 and is about 30% more highly than in Germany. Ireland is called because of its good economic development often celtic tiger.

Base data

conditions 2002:

  • Gross domestic product per head inUS Dollar: 31.000
  • material gross national product in PPP dollar: 36,360
  • agriculture in per cent of the Bruttoinalndsprodukts: 3.5%
  • personal computer per 1000 inhabitant: 2002

the portion of the public expenditures was to 359.1 public expenditures in per cent of the total expenditure of the state for

(source: EUROSTAT/Lenka Pulpanova: Expenditures of the state, in: Statistics briefly seized 43/2004. www.eds-destatis.de/de/downloads/sif/nj_04_43.pdf)

religion

in the Irish republic gives it to two groups of religions, the catholics and the Protestanten. Often it gave because ofthe denomination also Auseinanderschreitungen and riots.

Politics

major item: Politics (Ireland)

the prime minister (IR. Taoiseach, spoken “Tíschach”) is nominated by the parliament and appointed by the president. Usually he is a party chief of the strongest parliament party or the largest coalition party.

The parliament (Oireachtas) consists of twoChambers and the president: The senate (Seanad Éireann) forms the upper house and the house of representatives (Dáil Éireann) the House of Commons. The senate consists of 60 members, by whom 11 is appointed by the prime minister and 49 is selected by different social groups (agriculture and workersever 11, industry and trade 9, public administration 7, Universities of 6 and culture and education 5). These elections take place within 90 days after the dissolution of the house of representatives.

The House of Commons consists of 166 members, whereby the number of the members of the number of inhabitants of Ireland depends.On ever 20,000 to 30,000 inhabitants a delegate comes. The members of the House of Commons become after the transferable single being correct giving (English.Single Transferable Vote) in 42 constituencies, in which ever between three and five mandates are to be assigned, selected. Elections must within 30 daystake place after the dissolution of the house of representatives. The House of Commons is selected for at the most five years, an earlier dissolution is however possible at present.

The government (at Rialtas) consists of at the most 15 members. Any more than two Ministers may not come from the senate, the Prime Minister,the deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Finance must belong to the house of representatives.

A selection of Irish parties:

Ireland placed the presidents from 2002 to 2004the European parliament Pat Cox, the Irish European Union commissioner for the time of 2004 to 2009 is Charlie McCreevy (domestic market and services), its predecessor was David Byrne (health and consumer protection).

Current policy

Dublin bei Nacht
Dublin at night

to 29. March 2004 led Ireland as the first European Union country a total Prohibition of smoking in all public mechanisms. After an inquiry in past November approximately 80 per cent of the citizens, among them also over 60 per cent smokers had expressed themselves, for a prohibition of smoking. The law came into force around 0:00 clock. A part of the 10,000 Pubbesitzer does not only fear,with income losses, but, to have to count on ignoring the law, also on a punishment of € up to 3.000. According to commissioner Byrne develop however completely new turnover chances, then in the future also person's groups a Pub will visit, which would have before never done this. Around the observance toosupervise, approximately 400 official testers were adjusted. The prohibition does not apply to hotel rooms, prisons and psychiatric institutes. With this decision Ireland wants to take a role of the pioneer in Europe and hopes for similar reactions of other states.

To 25. /26. June 2004 visited the US president George W. Bushfor 18 hours Ireland. It met with the Irish prime minister Bertie Ahern and discussed together with his guidance crew the European-American relations. 6,000 policemen and the army ensured for the security of the president, during some thousand demonstrators against the policy of Bush at the airport Shannon protested.

Provinces

major items: Arrangement of Ireland

Ireland consists of 4 provinces (Connacht, Leinster, Münster, Ulster), which split up again into districts (counties). These provinces have no more meaning in this form however for the administration of the state. They are historically grown and play only in the sport still another role, since this is organized in Ireland on local basis.

See also: List of the cities in the Republic of Ireland

infrastructure

Ireland has airports in Dublin, Kerry, Cork, Shannon (Ireland) among other things, those from Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, Swiss, Ryanair, HLX and the native airline Aer Lingus to be approached.

Ireland has a quite thin Eisenbahnnetz, which is however developed.

Bus Eireann is the national bus company, which offers a large number of connections. Comparably with the AmericanGreyhound penalties, connect numerous cross-country penalty the individual regions. Of the central critical points - which do not lie however always compellingly in the center of the started cities - Buslinien drive local even into more distant areas. The timetables are to be studied however exactly, there some connections nevertheless quite rarely drive.For example only once daily. The roads in the republic are usually worse under the small population density than on the European mainland; there are quasi no motorways up to the ring around Dublin and some extensions its. Since end of the 90's the Irish buildsGovernment the road system by investment programs to the extent several billion EUR out. At the beginning of of 2005 changed the republic over to the metric system, since speeds in km/h and no more become in mph measured. Distances were indicated before it already mainly in km.

Culture

library nature

1947 became alsothat publicly LIBRARY act the library advice at Chomhairle Leabharlanna in the life called. Thus the library nature was revolutionized. Today the Leabharlann Náisiúnta fulfills well hÉireann the function of a national library. At Chomhairle Leabharlanna to ensure first based around the supply and development from library services to got 2001additional tasks. These tasks essentially are, which support main libraries to advise and them, to provide recommendations and appraisals for the Ministries and to support and facilitate co-operation between the public libraries and the scientific libraries. In addition is at Chomhairle Leabharlanna into manyActivities and programs, which promote the libraries, integrates. (To the comparison: in Germany there is neither a library law, nor - since the locking of the German institute for library (DBI) in the year 2000 - a central consulting and development development)

of Ireland give it to 32 main libraries. Of it27 is carried by the districts and 4 by the cities Cork, Dublin, Limerick and Waterford. A library lies thereby between two Counties and by both is therefore supported. The strategies and methods of the libraries vary from city to city, because the main libraries act independentlyfrom each other.

To the 32 main libraries further 345 branch libraries are added. In addition also libraries count communication centers so by hospitals, schools, prisons and mentioned. Also the 29 driving libraries are here with installation-counted, which remote or population-poor regions supply with books and other media.

To the offers thatLibraries belong generally to special literature and barking trichloroethylene TIC, service and programs for children and young people, reference media, information for the further training and general, local information. In addition in each library a public entrance is offered for the Internet. All main libraries offer additionally in the library Opacs, which the usersare available. That is, that all libraries possess an electronic management system. Some catalogs are callable also over Internet.

In the public libraries it gives approx. 12,5 million medium units. In addition books, manuscripts, pictures, collections of sheets, CDs, CD-ROM, DVDs, cartridges, videos belong and much more besides. InContrast to Germany is lent less in Irish public libraries per inhabitant. In Germany there is 4.1 medium units per inhabitant, in Ireland 3,4. The public libraries become nevertheless from approx. 21% of the population used. 2002 gave it 809,158 readers with a library document of identification.

With the non-personnel costslie the Irish libraries however more highly than German libraries. In Ireland 2.10 € per inhabitant is spent and in Germany € 1.10 per inhabitant.

The libraries are financed mainly over taxes. Approx. 10% are financed over membership dues, user fees and penalties. In addition the department supportsOF the Environment and local Government the libraries since 1998 with 34 million €, which for the building and renting buildings are used. In addition, the automation of operational sequences and the inventory structure are promoted with these funds.

Irish Renaissance

major item: Irish Renaissance

landmark

acquaintance Irish

major item: Irish

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Ireland - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Irish proverbs - Quotations
Wiktionary: Ireland - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 51°-55° N, 6°-11° W

 

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