|of these articles treats the State of Israel, for other meanings sees Israel (term clarifying).|
Medinat Jisra'el (hebr.)
|office languages||Hebrew, Arab|
|system of government||parliamentary democracy|
|prime minister||Ehud Olmert|
|surface|| 20,991 km ² (heartland) |
6,831 km ² (occupied areas)
|number of inhabitants||6.997.000 Einw. (I/2006)|
|Population density||of 333 inhabitants for each km ²|
| GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT |
| 2005 (estimated) |
$122,987 millions (39)
|Establishment||14. May 1948 - 5. Ijar 5708|
|national anthem||haTikwa (dt: „hope “)|
|national holiday||5. Ijar (day of independence)|
|currency||1 new Israeli Schekel (₪/NIS) = 100 Agorot|
|time belt||UTC +2 (summer time: UTC +3)|
|(1) on international level fulfills above all Tel Aviv the functions of a capital of Israel; up to the messages of the USA, Costa Ricas and El Salvadors the messages of other states are in Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan and Hertzlija (to see Jerusalem would background).|
Israel (Hebrew: ? / License Medinat Jisra'el, Arab: دولةإسرائيل Daulat Isrā'īl) is a state in the Near East, which at Syria, which Lebanon, Egypt, Jordanian one borders as well as on the Palestinian autonomy areas.
Table of contents
in the length measures the country from the north to the south 470 km. The broadest place of the country measures 135 km, narrowest only 15 km. Although Israel is only a small country, it has several climate zones. In the north moderately and wooded, Israel in the south is hot and wild. Altogether 50% of the country are desert, whereby the Negev - desert the largest surface represents. At the coast to the Mediterranean and in the Jordan valley subtropical climate prevails. In the Jordan valley Israel with Jordanian ones divides the deepest point of the earth's surface, the sea-surface of the dead sea, an extremely salzhaltigen and dischargeless lake.
with its not completely sieved millions inhabitants belongs to Israel to the smaller States of (100. Place). In surface size and population density it can be compared with the Land of the Federal Republic Hessen.
About 91 per cent of the Israeli population lives in cities. The Israeli society consists of different religions, cultures and social traditions. The nationality is acquired by birth or naturalization. Double nationality is possible.
The declaration of independence of the State of Israel guarantees religious liberty and makes worship and faith affiliation to the thing of the personal decision. The religious communities administered their own holy places themselves. Legal regulations guarantee the free entrance and protect against Entweihungen.
With respect to official statistics between Jews and Nichtjuden one differentiates with priority. In the year 2001 were 81 per cent of the Israeli population of Jewish origin (in this calculation the population of the occupied areas is not contained).
The Jewish population is divided into
- Watikim, that is inhabitants of the Jischuw, the old Jewish settlement, and such, those before the establishment of state immigrated
- Olim, after the state State of Tzabarim
- immigrated, in the country bearing
under the Israeli population have 26 per cent at least parents born in Israel, 37 per cent are Israelis of the first generation, 27 per cent are immigrants from the west, and 42 per cent originate from Asia or Africa including the Arab countries. 
From the earlier Soviet Union over one million Jewish immigrant came into the country (a Sechstel of the population), of it alone in the time of 1989 to 1999 more than 750,000.
More than half of the 170,000 Arab Beduinen of the country have a firm domicile. Others hold to their traditional way of life, are however usually in the same areas.
To 31. Decembers 2003 lived about 224,200 Israeli citizens in community in the West Jordan territory; in this number the Israelis of east Jerusalem are not contained. Approximately 7500 Israelis lived until August 2005 in the settlements of the Gaza Strip.
Office languages were already in the mandate time apart from English Arab and Hebrew. In this time the again animated Hebrew language is spoken today of the majority of the Israelis. Beside it the native language of approximately one million Arab and drusischer citizen of Israel is Arab. At Arab schools in Israel on Arab one teaches. At Hebrew schools Arab apart from English is offered as the second foreign language. All right texts are present in Hebrew and Arab.
An important employer is the public service, in which 33 per cent of the Israeli employees are busy. In the industry work 17 per cent, in tourism, trade and finances 20 per cent. 28 per cent are active in other ranges (services etc.).
The life expectancy belonged in Israel also to the highest world and amounts to for women 80.9 years and for men 76.7 years.
(Numbers of 2003)
see major items: Religions in Israel
six per cent of the Israeli Jews call themselves as Charedim (ultra orthodox religiously), further 9 per cent than „religiously”, 34 per cent call themselves than „Traditionalisten” (to the Jewish Halacha do not adhere strict), and 51 per cent than „more secular”.
In Israel also about 25,000 Karäer live (2002); there they are classified as not-religious Jews. Outside of Israel the number of the Karäer on 20,000 becomes estimated. The world-wide only municipality of Samaritanern is divided between Israel and the Palestinian areas (approx. 800).
About 2.1 per cent of the population are Christians. The number of the non-Arab Christians amounts to 25,400 and those of the Christians of Arab origin 113,100. Are from that together 138,500 Christians about 75,000 catholics.
Israeli Arabs place about 18 per cent of the Israeli population. Within this group is the minority of 10 per cent of Arab Christians, mentioned above. The majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims (about 14.6 per cent of the total population of the State of Israel).
the Volksetymologie of the old person of will interprets „Israel” as „a God eating rider” (gene compares 32.29). The name corresponds to a wide-spread semitischen name form, which contains a verb in the imperfect and the theophore element אֵל (God) as subject. The verbal element is regarded in this interpretation as of the root שרה (to argue, fight) derived. Possible is however also a derivative of the root שרר (prevail). The Hebrew imperfect can be shown with the German present or the German desire form, so that as possible translations arise: „God argues (for us)” or „God may (for us) argue” and „God prevails” or „God may prevail”.
development up to 20. Century
in 13. Century v. Chr. the country Israel is settled by different halbnomadische trunks of the Israeliten. Some cities are conquered thereby. Jerusalem becomes after Biblical excessive quantity about 1000 v. Chr. Capital of David's Kingdom of Israel; this disintegrates after the death of its successor to the throne Salomo into two partial realms. The north realm Israel, goes to 722 v.Chr. in the fight against the Assyrer under, which south realm Juda 587 v.Chr conquered by Babylon. The country is in further consequence part of the Perserreichs, then the realm of Alexander the large one, last the realm of the Seleukiden.
The rebellion of the Makkabäer 165 v.Chr. Israel brings liberty for short time, but begins 63 v.Chr. the time of the Roman upper rule. 70. n.Chr. Jerusalem and the temple are destroyed perfectly. The last Jewish rebellion in Israel against the Roman rule (bar Kochba rebellion) becomes 135 n.Chr. struck down. The Jews are scattered over the whole world (Diaspora).
The country is called since then „Palestine”. , The country received this name (on at that time the people of the Philister already disappeared decreases/goes back) due to a decree from emperor Hadrian, in order to erase the memory of the judäischen inhabitants, whose rebellion it struck down. Between 636 and 1099 n. Chr. the Arab rule follows. Since this time Palestine is inhabited by the majority by Arabs. The cross drivers govern the country under the name from 1099 1291 „latin Kingdom of Jerusalem”. The Mameluken from 1291 to 1517 follows and then the Osmani rule 1517 1918. None of these authorities had planned its own administration for Palestine or had regarded the area as independent geographical unit. Also for the Turks the region is some of Syria. The country is divided into three districts.
During the osmanischen rule Palestine is only thinly populated and stagnated economical. Of the arrival of the first Jewish immigrants in the eighties-years 19. Century go out impulses for the economic development of the country. In the following decades moving also therefore - many further humans, Jews such as Arabs, in Palestine.
The first mass immigration (Alija) from Jews to Palestine takes place around 1882. These immigrants were primarily Jews, who had fled before political and religious suppression from their countries of origin. Theodor Herzl calls up 1897 the first Zionistenkongress in Basel and puts thereby an important foundation-stone for the later establishment of a Jewish state. Only with the second immigration wave the thought of the Zionismus played a role. According to data „of the Jewish Colonization Association” for the year 1903 1898 5 200 Jews in Palestine in agricultural sample settlements lived in the year (see also „old new ground”, 1904 number 11, page 339).
in the religious and historical consciousness of the Jews (and weakened way in the consciousness of the Okzidents) had remained Israel always „the holy country”, which is connected with the Bible and the history of the Jewish people. The needs of the Arab population hardly played a role in this tradition. Prominent Zionisten was however aware of the problem and aimed at apart from an international authentication, which was coined/shaped certainly by the way of thinking of the colonialism, also an agreement with the Arabs.
by the victory of the British in the 1. World war is terminated 1917 the osmanische rule. 1922 transfer the Völkerbund on the conference of peace of of Paris Great Britain the mandate for Palestine with the area, which is taken together today by Israel and Jordanian one. To the mandate conditions that the British are to make the implementation for the Balfour declaration possible, in that it belongs to 2. November 1917 „the establishment of a national homestead for the Jewish people” promised, whose borders were however certain. For this the mandate power is requested to make the Jewish immigration possible to settle these Jewish immigrants closed and to use for this also the former osmanische state country. It should thereby expressly for it concern be carried that „nothing is to be done, what the civil and the religious rights of existing not-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and the political position, of them itself the Jews in any other country please, präjudizieren could”.
In July the British Palestine divide 1922 into two administrative districts. It is only permitted to Jews in the following, west Jordan to settle (is called in 22% of the total area). This made hopes to an Israel within the borders the time of the king David and Salomon destroyed. In the eastern part, which is called Transjordanien (the today's Jordanian), begins the British a Hashemite ruler named Abdullah , who had been driven out by the Arab peninsula.
Between 1924 and 1932 the fourth immigration wave , from 1933 to 1939 the fifth, follows whereby the Jewish population grows in Palestine strongly. First Transjordanien and Palestine still become as administrative unit with uniform mandate laws, which currency and same mandate passports resemble regarded (see also: White Paper of 1939). With independence Transjordaniens in the year 1946 is however finally divided the Palestine of the British mandate time.
Already 1937 submit the British Peel commission a partition plan, which, in accordance with the proportional population distribution, plans Galliläa and a coastal strip as Israeli and the larger remainder than Arab part. The Jews immigrated again are immediately inspired, the locally stämmigen Arabs react rejecting. The plan fails.
To 29. November 1947 tunes the general assembly of the United Nations with two-thirds majority for the partition plan, the west Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state to divide is. With the goal of creating and the survivor of the Schoa a homeland of creating actually an independent Jewish state, the Jewish population the plan accepts. The Arabs reject the plan against it.
Shortly thereafter Israel begins the escape and/or in connection with the attack of the Arab states on the new state. Driving of the Arab population out from now Israel assigned areas, accompanies partial by the destruction of their villages, buildings and documents; often thereby the proof of the existence of the Palestinian population was lost and thus their requirement for right.
See also: History of the region Palestine for the time before the establishment of state.
to 14. May 1948 came it to the formal establishment of the State of Israel; still at the establishment night explained Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordanian one, Lebanon, Iraq and Syria the new State of the war. The Israeli war of independence ( 1 followed. Israeli-Arab war; see also: Jom haAtzma'ut), which lasted from May 1948 to July 1949 and which brought Israel opposite the partition plan substantial area gains - particularly in the western Galiläa around Akko and in the northern Negev -. 1949 were signed in each case with the Arab aggressors a truce. The Iraq withdrew itself without such an agreement from the West Jordan territory. The areas planned after the partition plan for the Palestinians arrived under Jordanian (West Jordan territory including East Jerusalem) and/or Egyptian administration (Gaza Strip).
After the nationalization of the Suez channel decided France, Great Britain and Israel 1956 the Sues campaign. After an Israeli attack the two former great powers should intervene as apparently neutral forces and occupy the canal area. To 29. Octobers 1956 pushed Israeli troops into the Gaza Strip and the Sinai before and to 5. The European troops began to land November, but the campaign had to be terminated. Under the pressure of the United States and the UN the three aggressors withdrew themselves by March 1957 from the occupied areas. However the Israeli-Egyptian border in the consequence became by discord troops secured and the entrance to the gulf of Akaba was free for the Israeli navigation. The USA made a commitment to Israel to keep this international water route open.
To 5. June 1967 it came to the six-day war, with which Israel forestalled appearing the common attack of Egypt, Syria and Jordan by a preventive strike. Egyptian armed forces had advanced the border area into the demilitarisierte zone of the Sinai, wet requested the UN-troops, to Israel too abandoned and the road of Tiran became closed for the Israeli navigation. In the following days Israel finally conquered the Gaza Strip and the Sinai peninsula, the West Jordan territory and East Jerusalem and the Golanhöhen. At the 11. June was signed the armistice. To 19. June decided to return the Israeli cabinet the areas in peace negotiations. At the 1. Septembers decided the Arab states in Chartum not to negotiate with Israel. In the UN-resolution 242 of the security council of 22. November 1967 had been demanded by Israel, captured from areas, those in the six-day war was to be withdrawn. In response Israel territorial soundness should be guaranteed.
More than 175,000 Palestinians fled from their homeland. After the war Israel began with the building of Jewish settlements, in order to increase and the areas better to control be able the strategic depth of Israel.
1973 at Jom Kippur, the Jewish reconciliation day, followed again a war, Jom Kippur war mentioned. Under preceding Soviet arms assistance Egypt and Syria attacked the country. This day was selected by the aggressors, since one believed, at the highest Jewish holiday, at which the public life in Israel stands still to a large extent, substantial successes to obtain to be able. This turned out however as fallacy - Israel succeeded it to strike the Arab armies. As reaction to the lost war the Arab oil promotion states reduced the oil delivery drastically, in order to exert so political pressure. 1979 were set on initiative of the Egyptian president Anwar as-Sadat a peace process on and the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty was signed, which regulated among other things the return of the Sinai until 1982.
Already directly after the six-day war 1967 the Israeli legislation was expanded also on the occupied East part Jerusalems. To 30. July 1980 discharged the Knesset the Jerusalemgesetz and explained thereby Jerusalem as the eternal and indivisible capital of Israel. The Annexion East Jerusalem like also the 1981 effected Annektierung of the Golanhöhen is however internationally not recognized and is not condemned.
In June 1981 Israel intervened in the Iraqi-Iranian conflict: Israeli airplanes bombarded the atomic reactor Osirak in close proximity to Bagdad and destroyed it. This incident with the atomic threat of Israel was justified by the Iraq.
Starting from years the tensions between Israelis and Palestinians increased the 1980er ever more. In the year 1987 violent unrests between Palestinians and Israelis broke, the first Intifada off in such a way specified. The subsequent years stood in the indication of this argument, in addition, from peace negotiations, which led to the introduction of a Palestinian autonomy for the areas of the Gaza Strip and the West Jordan territory. Backward steps and heavy crises - for example the murder Jitzhak Rabins by a Jewish extremist as well as repeated suicide assassination attempts of Palestinian terrorists - faced intermediate progress. The peace process achieved the for the time being largest stop, after itself 2000 the Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and the PLO - boss Jassir Arafat in Camp David under the switching of the US president at that time Bill Clinton not to unite knew. Contentious points were above all the return of the Palestinian refugees, the division Jerusalems and the task of areas, which Israel in the six-day war had conquered. Also relatively extensive concessions of the Israelis, like the renouncement of 95% of the disputed areas, could not prevent a failure of the negotiations. During the evaluation of the negotiations and the reasons for their failure there are different, controversially discussed opinions (see Camp David II).
Only few months later it came to a dramatic degradation of the situation. In September 2000 the aluminium-Aqsa-Intifada broke out , in whose process the peace negotiations were broken off. Palestinian suicide assassination attempts and Israeli counterreactions, like the invasion into Arab cities, cost the life to several thousand humans of both sides to beginning of 2005. With the agreement of Sharm El-Sheikh, to 8. February 2005 of Prime Minister Ariel Scharon, the boss of the Palestinian autonomy authority Mahmud Abbas, the Egyptian president Husni Mubarak and king Abdullah II. by Jordanian ones, ended the aluminium-Aqsa-Intifada was signed.
major item: Political system of Israel
the State of Israel is a parliamentary democracy after western model. The parliament, the Knesset, became to 25. January 1949 for the first time selected. She selects the head of state, the president for a seven-year-old term of office. The president has the task to appoint the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms the executive.
Prime Minister is since 2001 Ariel Scharon, its deputy in a large coalition was to 2002 Schimon Peres of the work party. Due to diversities of opinion over the seriousness Palestinian peace and armistice suggestions the work party end of 2002 left the coalition. From the new elections from January 2003 Likud followed as a strongest parliamentary group in the parliament. 2005 dominated the one-sided renouncement of the settlements in the Gaza Strip, implemented by Prime Minister Scharon , the policy, whereby Scharon encountered straight in its own party resistance. In November 2005 he announced his resignation and thus premature new elections and withdrew from the Likud, in order to begin with the elections with a new party , Kadima. To 4. Since that time January 2006 it suffered an impact accumulation and is incapable of holding office. At Sharons place leads Ehud Olmert the office business.
A multiple party system possesses parties
and political organizations Israel. Traditionally the two large parties, the nationalistic Likud face each other - block and rather on the left of an adjusted work party (Awoda). Crucially for the majority formation however often the smaller parties, for example the religious Schas , are the Russian immigrant party Israel Beitenu or the nationalreligious party. The position of the Likud is endangered now - after the withdrawal Scharons and the establishment of the Kadima - apparent strongly. Further parties are the social-democratic party Jachad, successor of Meretz, Schinui (laizistisch) and the left antizionistische party Chadasch, besides several exist among other things also in the Israeli parliament represented Arab parties such as Balad or Ra'am. From the strongly socialist beginnings of the Israeli state the important role, which the Histadrut, explains itself , which plays general federation of the workers of Israel, in the political life.
In Germany the most well-known groups of the Israeli peace movement are Gusch Schalom and Peace Now. Besides there are many further important independent human right organizations such as B'Tselem and MachsomWatch.
agenda of the Israeli foreign policy is the solution of the Middle East conflict as well as the long-term improvement of the relationship with the Arab countries, which is to attach to it. With Egypt and Jordanian one Israel maintains one „cold peace “, i.e. that up to a reliable, concerted peace no further exchange takes place. In case of Egypt this loosened itself up lately a little.
A further goal is if possible the migration all Jews, straight for those, which are suppressed from Israeli view. In several spectacular actions Israel has Jew, z. T. with help of the military, to Israel brought, even if these not Israeli citizens were.
An additional guideline of the Israeli foreign policy is the relationship with the USA, close since establishment of state. Often with the fact it is assumed that Jewish groups of interests pressurize the there policy. It is surveyed that the by far largest trailers of Israel in the USA from the spectrum of the conservative to fundamentalist Christians come and that the USA on its part an extensive interest in the region and to continued Israel has. Thus Israel ranks among those states, to which the congress grants military means of the highest stage, however and. A. on the condition to be assigned that the taker country procures military equipment exclusively from American armaments companies. Besides it gave quite strong diplomatic controversies between the USA and Israel in the past, and/or. the USA Israel pushed to compromises with third countries.
For years carries the 1950er out Israel development policy in Africa and with less expenditure also in Asia. Driving Kraft behind it were Golda Meier and/or. Mo Scharett. For some years journalists and politics scientists see signs for the fact that Israel notices interests particularly in Africa its strengthened. Thus Peter Scholl Latour in its book writes „African dead complaint “, Israel trains on the African continent both national as well as oppositional troops in different countries and supports the interests of its companies, in order to hold connection in the competition to China and the USA. To be weakened a goal of the development policy was the unrestricted support for the Arab countries it the encirclement by hostile Arab states to be broken through and by Black African nations. In case of of Ethiopia one had also interest to grant the security of the there Jewish minority.
major item: Israeli armed forces
in Israel apply to women 24 months and to men 36 months military service. From the military service are excluded only orthodox Jews, Israeli Arabs as well as all not-Jewish, pregnant women or married women. Legally it only women is permitted to follow the military service out for conscience reasons not and to carry a civilian alternative service of or two years.
Israel has with Israel Defense Forces in the best way an armed force trained in the international comparison. The peacetime strength of approximately 160,000 men can in the case of defense in shortest time on approx. 800.000 to be increased. The reservists possess due to the regular reserve service (one month per year with NCOs and crew up to the completion 42. Lebensjahres and/or. 51. with officers, with women up to the completion 24. Lebensjahres) a high degree at training and usableness. The IDF accomplishes also in co-operation with the USA and other Nato-countries regularly exercises and sends their Führungsnachwuchs frequently for training into these states.
Although the IDF leads a Low Intensity Conflict in the occupied areas for decades mainly, the backbone of the army is the armor branch with approximately 4000 modern battle tanks of the type “Merkava” Mk-i - Mk-IV . The Air Force has 900 combat aircraft and helicopters mainly from US-American production. The navy consists of over 50 smaller Patrollieboote “Dabur”/“Dvora” (12-25m with more easily armament; 6-8 person crew) and approx. 20 Corvetten “Saar 2” - “Saar 5” (50-80m; 40-70 person crew; Sea-sea-rockets, 20/40/76 mm of cannons, torpedoes, underwater and electronic clearing-up plants; Helicopter landing surfaces)  and three modern submarines of the Dolphin class . Israel is protected by the superior bar AC air defense system against long-range rockets, but from the bombardment with Qassam - there are rockets with extremely short range and according to short flying time no technical defense means.
Israel probably possesses since the 1960er years nuclear weapons. 1986 had passed Mordechai on Vanunu, a former technician of the atomic research center of Dimona, in Great Britain photo of this atomic plant to the press, which supported the assumption. Israel confirmed the possession of nuclear weapons since then neither nor added denied (the policy in such a way specified „of the atomic ambiguity "), to at the end of of July 2004 prime minister Ariel Scharon indirectly the possession of nuclear weapons. Israel belongs with India and Pakistan to the only states, which never signed the nuclear weapon check contract.
okkupierten since 1967 were established in the occupied areas and to be allowed only by Jewish Israelis to be inhabited. About 250,000 Israelis live at present in these settlements; in the Gaza Strip about 7,500 Israelis between more than one million Palestinians lived by August 2005. The settlements are often generously built after American model. The settlements are protected by a solid safety apparatus from attacks of militant Palestinian groups. A network of roads, which may be used only by Israeli citizens, offers a good traffic infrastructure between the settlements and the Israeli territory. It at the same time makes the development more difficult in the Palestinian autonomy areas. The comfortable settlement development like also the constant military operational readiness level constitute annually a substantial part of the Israeli public expenditures.
In August 2005 the government Scharon in close coalition with the work party vacated all settlements in the Gaza Strip as well as four smaller settlements in the West Jordan territory. Here it concerned a one-sided and world-wide recognized step of Israel, which was not compiled in the framework the 'Road map '(see crowd on plan). From the surrounding field Scharons was to be however also heard that was to be aimed at removing the largest settlements in the West Jordan territory. In response territorial concessions are to be made for the Palestinians. The Palestinian militant organizations felt this step of the Israelis as a confirmation of their politics of the terrorism against Israeli civilians and strove to represent the retreat of Israel as a victory of their actions.
The Jewish municipalities and settlements in the occupied Palestinian areas are condemned of the international community of states mostly as contrary to international law. International law permits temporary seizing of country in occupied areas exclusively for military purposes, not however for the durable address of own citizens, agriculture and other civilian uses. Israel has its own evaluation of the legal situation, stands with it however, up to tolerating by the USA, internationally isolated there. In different resolutions the United Nations requested Israel in vain to stop the building of settlements.
Israel has a technologically highly developed free-market economy with high state portion. Israel depends with fossil sources of energy (crude oil, natural gas, coal), during grain , beef , raw materials and military equipment on imported goods. Despite limited natural resources Israel developed its agricultural and industriellen sector intensively in the last twenty years. With food Israel, apart from grain and beef, supplies itself to a large extent. Israel possesses important capacities with oil refineries, Diamantenschleifereien and in the production of semiconductors. Important export articles are polished diamonds, high technology, military equipment, software, medicament, fine chemicals and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables and flowers).
1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service
Israel stands usually in the deficit on the balance of payments on current account, which becomes balanced by loans by large transfer payments from the foreign country and. About half of the national foreign debts has Israel with the USA, its main source for political, economic and military support. A relatively large portion of the Israeli foreign debts is held in the form of Israel bond by private investors. The combination of American credit warranties and direct loans with private investors make Israel possible to borrow to favorable interest rates sometimes below the usual market interest rates. This politics also by the Federal Republic of Germany is waited and supported, in order to reach the strategic goal of the existence safety device of the only Jewish state and work against the economic boykott forced by the Arab league against Israel.
Influence of immigration
by immigrations from the former Soviet Union scientists and university graduates came into the country, who are for of Israel future from considerable value. The inflow, connected with the opening of new markets after the end of the cold war, animated of Israel economy and provided during the 1990er years for a rapid growth. But at 1996 growth began itself to slow down, when the government a tauter tax and monetary policy pursued and the immigrant stream slowed down. But the inflation sank 1999 to a record minimum.
of most important Verkehrsträger is the road, and of special importance is the cross-country penalty the bus-cooperative Egged. Is of increasing importance the Eisenbahnnetz Israel Railways, which is modernized and developed after neglect for many decades for some years.
most important airport is the Ben Gurion airport with Lod in the region Tel Aviv. Further airports: Airport Atarot in Jerusalem, airport Sde Dow in the city Tel Aviv, airport Haifa, airport Eilat, airport Owda 40km von Eilat removes, airport Machanajim with Rosch Pina.
Haifa, Aschdod and Eilat are the three ports of the country. In Chadera, Tel Aviv and Aschkelon gives it likewise smaller ports, which supply however only coal, natural gas or oil for close lying electricity power stations. In Aschkelon, Aschdod, Tel Aviv, Herzlia, Haifa and Eilat exist to yachting ports. Cruise ships put on occasionally in Haifa, Aschdod and Eilat . Seasonal driving connections to Cyprus and to Greece and Italy continue to operate only starting from Haifa.
The official border crossings with Jordanian ones are:
- the Sheikh Hussein bridge over Jordan with pray Shean
- the Allenby bridge over Jordan with Jericho (West Jordan territory)
- the Arava transition with Eilat and Aqaba
the official border crossings with Egypt are:
- the Kerem scarf COM transition with the Gaza Strip
- the Nizanna transition
- the Netafim transition north of Eilat
- the Taba transition south of Eilat
since the retreat from the Gaza Strip the transitions Karni and Erez are considered as in fact border post (the de jure status is to still determine). The border crossing Rafah between the Gaza Strip and Egypt is handled no more of the Israeli.
the administration and financing of the Israeli education system is carried by the ministry of education, by the Ministry for science, culture and sport and of the cities.
In Israel exists for children in the age of five to sixteen years compulsory schooling. Up to 18. Lebensjahr is free the school attendance. Usually three to four years old ones visits a liable to pay the costs Vorschulkindergarten.
The educational system is co-ordinated with the multi-cultural population. There are different national schools, whose curriculum to special points of face, like language and religion of the pupils are adapted. The smaller part of the Israeli pupils visits Privatschulen, which work under the patronage of religious and international organizations.
In the upper stage the pupils between an academic, technological, agrarianscientific or military field can select.
About 216,000 students are registered at one of the university institutions of the country. The eight universities of Israel offer a broad training offer in nature and to spirit-scientific subjects.
- Hebrew University of (HUJI) in Jerusalem
- University of Tel Aviv (ROPE)
- University of Haifa
- Technion - Israeli technology university in Haifa
- bar Ilan university (BIU) in Ramat Gan
- Ben Gurion university of the Negev (BGU) in Beerscheba
- Weizmann institute for sciences (POINTED) in Rechowot
- open University of
additional exists a multiplicity of academic universities, which do not possess universitären status, however recognized academic diplomas to issue may and often with the universities cooperate:
in Israel ten thousands. For new immigrants special language schools are available, in which Hebrew in intensive courses is offered.
Science and technology
the necessity, a relatively unfruchtbares to transform underdeveloped country into the modern industrial nation today were determining since the establishment of Israel for its scientific and technological development. Water scarceness, wild-like landscape and lack of workers led also to the development of new agricultural methods.
Israel invests today based on the worldwide scale above average much in research and development. Eighty per cent of the research results thereby by the universities are furnished, which co-operate closely with the industry. Partially universities created even companies for the marketing of practical applications of their research results. More than half of all scientific publications are settled in the ranges of the biotechnology, the biomedicine and the clinical research.
Israeli scientists were considerably involved in the development by interferon and the medicine of copilot axons. The genetic engineering brought diagnostic procedures out, which are based on cloned anti-bodies and other micro-biological products. Highly developed medical diagnostic and treatment devices are developed and exported world-wide. Among them are devices for Computertomografie and Magnetresonanztomografie, ultrasonic scanners, nuclear-medical cameras, surgical lasers and a miniature camera, which are used as a sipable cap for the investigation of the digestive tract.
An emphasis of the Israeli research is on electronics and communicationses. Israel is one of the prominent countries in the research and development of glass fibers, electrooptical control systems and of heat sensitive night-vision devices. Beside software for large and office computers robots for most diverse ranges of application are developed.
1983 were created Israel space Agency. Since 1988 Israel in a the position is to carry satellites in the universe with the help of its own rocket (Shavit). Beyond that different display systems, aero-nautical computers, instruments and flight simulators were developed. Ilan Ramon was 2003 within the STS-107 - mission the first Israeli in space. It had an accident together with its six NASA colleagues with the reentry of the space shuttle Columbia deadly.
The water scarceness advanced the development of computer-controlled irrigation systems. In this connection also the dripping method was developed, with which the water is led directly to the roots of the plants. It is to be owed to intensive research that the enormous underground reservoir at brackish water under the Negev could be made usable.
The unavailability of conventional energy sources made the intensive development of alternative energy sources necessary such as solar, warming and wind energy. A part of the power requirement is covered by nuclear power.
major item: Israeli culture
in Israel very different media for the different language's groups of the country exist. Beside newspapers and broadcast programs on Hebrew and Russian it gives also some on German and Jiddisch. The most important German-language publication of Israel is the daily paper Israel message from Tel Aviv. The most important newspapers are Maariw, Haaretz, Jerusalem post office, Jediot oh aero emergency and haOlam haWeh. Haaretz and Jerusalem post office appear (also) on English.
controlling bodies (UEFA, ULEB, etc.) belong to sport most sport associations on supranational level due to the political problem, therefore Israeli crews in competitions delivered by these organizations play also.
Sport associations (selection):
- Maccabi Tel Aviv (European Cup 1977, 1981, 2001 (SL), 2004 and 2005 in the basketball won)
- Hapoel Tel Aviv
- Hapoel Petach Tikva
- Maccabi Netanya
- Maccabi Haifa
- Beitar Jerusalem
- Hapoel Haifa
- Hapoel Jerusalem (2004 the ULEB Cup of the union OF European Leagues OF basketball won)
the early Israeli library nature resulted from the 1892 created Jewish national and university library (JNUL), which were also into the 1930er years the only training facility for librarians. Only after it further library schools formed, but JNUL could maintain their position in particular as one of the first training facilities for librarians by other proceedings in the indexing. The prevailing multilingualness by immigration of Jews from Europe and the whole world resulted in two office languages: Hebrew and Arab. Hebrew as new or led national language for all Jews living in Israel and Arab for the Palestinians. In addition still English comes as language of the former Kolonisatoren, the British, and after the decay of the Soviet Union Russian increases by immigrants of the Russian federation. The use of an artificial number language instead of a natural speech facilitated the subject cataloging and was an ideal solution to open multilingual literature existence and to make it accessible the library users. The university library Haifa was then first, which decided from work and cost reasons, the already existing Key words of the LIBRARY OF Congress (locomotive) to use, which due to other university libraries followed, with which the Jewish national and university library is connected.
The library nature in Israel developed strengthened under immigration of German book experts after 1933. The first director of the Jewish national and university library was Hugo Shmuel miner, who was active formerly at the German-language Karl university in Prague. Miner developed the collections accordingly and assigned for the individual ranges specialists. For the Hebraica collection it could win the young Gershom Scholem. Also the second director was a German, Gotthold because, which lost its position in the Prussian state library in Berlin. Starting from 1949 the position the Curt Wormann likewise originating from Germany took over. It coined/shaped the Israeli library system lastingly, for the fact was however criticized that it reacted too inflexibly to the needs of the new immigrants and the requirements of the mass immigrations after the establishment of state. Should be differentiated however between the individual libraries and their purpose. For the municipal libraries thought for the public Tel Avivs may be applicable that, the national and university library had however to the international scientific standard to attach. An obligation copy law existed since 1953, which in the year 2001 one renewed. The old regulation referred only to books, magazines and newspapers; now in addition, on CDs, video, audio cartridges etc. Net resources are further impossible. The obligation copy law specifies the delivery at altogether five institutions. These are the State OF Israel Archives, the LIBRARY OF the Knesset, the Ministry OF Education and the Jewish national and University LIBRARY JNUL, which receives two copies. Israeli the center for LIBRARies (ICL) publishes annually a catalog of registered Periodica on CD-ROM and as on-line version. So far around the 4800 ISSN in Israel were assigned. The Israeli state has a close network of libraries in large cities as well as on the country, which are connected all by Internet.
- history of Israel
- portal: Israel and Palestine
- the Near East
- Roadmap (Middle East conflict)
- list of the cities in Israel
- list of famous Israelis (cunning OF Israeli English.)
- List of the cities in the Palestinian autonomy areas
- portal: Judentum
- glass-hit a corner, Johannes/Timm, Angelika: Israel. The history of the state since its establishment, Bonn 1992. ISBN of 3416027531
- burners, Michael: History of the Zionismus, Munich 2002. ISBN 3406479847
- Wolffsohn, Michael, Douglas Bokovoy: Israel history, politics, society, economics 1882-1996, ISBN 3-8100-2721-9
- Benny Morris: The birth OF the Palestinian refugee problem of 1947 -1949; 1. Edition 1987
- society, economics
- information for political education No. 278 Israel 2003 (with maps), also on-line observably www.bpb.de.
- Moshe sugar man: Two different Israel, Hamburg 2003. ISBN 3930786397
- Hans Rau: Israel, Europe and the new Antisemitismus, ISBN 3-85485-122-7
- Alan M. Dershowitz: Final speech for Israel. Why the accusations against Israel from prejudices exist. ISBN 3-203-76026-6
- Michael Warschawski, with hell speed. The crisis of the Israeli society, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-89401-448-2
- Wolffsohn, Michael: Whom the holy country belongs?. Updated and extended New edition, Munich 1997. ISBN 349223495X
- Leon Uris: Exodus, novel over the emergence of Israel, 1958.
Web on the left of
|Wikinews: Israel - current messages|
|Commons: Israel - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Israel - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Israel message the German-language daily paper from Tel Aviv
- Jerusalem post office (English)
- hectar-Aretz (English)
- German-language press mirror of Israeli media of the German message in Israel
- Israel net (Christl. Message)
- official net operational readiness level of the message of the State of Israel in Berlin
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- Magisterarbeit to the Israeli settlement politics of 1967 - 1997
- economics of Israel, short overview
- maps and city plans of Israel
- singular Israel: Historical ones and religious background over Israel and the Middle East conflict
47 asiatic UN member states:
Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | China, People's Republic | Georgien | India | Indonesia | Iraq | Iran | Israel | Japan | Yemen | Jordanian one | Kambodscha | Kazakhstan | Qatar | Kirgisistan | Kuwait | Laos | Lebanon | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Myanmar | Nepal | North Korea | Oman | Osttimor | Pakistan | The Philippines | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | Sri Lanka | South Korea | Syria | Tadschikistan | Thailand | Turkmenistan | Turkey | Usbekistan | Combined Arab emirates | Viet Nam | Cyprus
other one, disputed states:
Abchasien | Republic of Bergkarabach | Palestine | Südossetien | China, Republic of (Taiwan) | Turkish Republic of north Cyprus
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
Hong Kong | Macao | Tschagos archipelago | Tibet
coordinates: 31° 36 ′ 29 " N, 34° 49 ′ 5 " O