|of these articles treats the Turkish city, for the province of the same name sees Istanbul (province).|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 41° 0 ′ 36 " N, 28° 57 ′ 37 " O 41° 0 ′ 36 " N, 28° 57 ′ 37 " O
|Height:||40 m and. NN|
|surface:||1.538, 77 km ²|
|inhabitants (official):|| 10.034.830 |
(conditions 1. January 2006)
|Population density:||6,521 Einwohner/km ²|
|telephone preselections:|| 0212 (European part)|
0216 (asiatic part)
|city arrangement:||27 districts|
Istanbul [ˈɪstambuːl] (Turkishly İstanbul [isˈtɑmbul]), the old Konstantinopel, is the largest city of Turkey and became under the name Byzantion (griech.: Βυζάντιον ; lat.: Byzantium ; today also: Byzanz) based. On the city liveapproximately ten million humans, in the dye nearly twelve million.
Istanbul extends both on the European and on the asiatic side of the Bosphorus and is thereby the only metropolis, which is on two continents. Due to their three-thousand-year old historyit is considered as one of the oldest still existing cities of the world. Istanbul is culture and economic center of Turkey.
Istanbul encloses the southern Bosphorus and by it into a western, European and an eastern, asiatic area one divides. The golden horn, a Bosphorus bay running to the west, separates the European part into a southern, between Marmarameer and golden horn lying peninsula with the historical Istanbul and the northern quarters following to the historical Galata. Both to the west and northwardand the east exceeds Istanbul the far over historical quarters. In the southeast the prince islands belonging to Istanbul lie.
The city boundaries cover a surface of 1.538, 77 km ². The Metropolregion Istanbul (=Provinz Istanbul) has a surface of 5,220 square kilometers.
Istanbul is appropriate for a Grabenbruch, which drags on from the northern Anatolien to the Marmarameer in the proximity of the large Nordanatoli disturbance. Two ground plates, the African and the eurasische, push here together. In the main quake regions of Turkey occuritself for this reason in distances of few years strong earthquakes.
One of the catastrophic quake, connected with a gigantic Flutwelle, which broke in over the sea-walls of the city, occurred 1509: Over 100 mosques, more than 10,000 humans were destroyeddied. In the year 1766 the Eyüp mosque was completely destroyed. 1894 collapsed with a quake far parts of the covered bazaar. Reasons for the devastating effects are still the close settlement and existing lack of building.
Earth scientists prognosticate a further quakestarting from strength 7.0 on the judge scale until 2025. Devastating quake from August 1999 with Kocaeli with 18.000 dead ones and in the winter 2001 in the province Afyon harbingers are to have been in addition.
the city has mild,damp sea-climate. The average yearly temperature is with 14,1 degrees Celsius. The warmest month is July with on the average 23.2 degrees Celsius, coldest January with 5,4 degrees Celsius on the average. The winter is certain by changeful weather: It givesspringful sun days, frequently rains and cooling break-downs, sometimes also snows. The annual amount of precipitation amounts to 698 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in the month Decembers with on the average 122 millimeters, few in July with 19 the millimeters on the average.
|Month||maximum temperature||lowest temperature||rain days||sun hours|
|January||9||19||3||< math> -< /math> 10||18||2.6|
|February||9||24||2||< math> -< /math> 10||15||3.3|
|March||11||27||3||< math> -< /math> 7||14||4.4|
|April||16||33||7||< math> -< /math> 1||9||6.6|
|November||15||27||9||< math> -< /math> 7||13||,4.6|
|Decembers||11||22||5||< math> -< /math> 11||17||2.3|
major item: Quarters of Istanbul
Istanbul is divided into three ranges:
- The old, city centre Konstantinopels with the quarters Eminönü, convenient in the south of the European sideand Fatih is separated by the golden horn from more north lain, the younger quarters and limited in the west of the Theodosiani land wall.
- North the golden horn are the European coined/shaped Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş, where the last Sultanspalast is,followed of a chain of former villages such as Ortaköy and Bebek along the bank of the Bosphorus. Here established wealthy Istanbuler up to the beginning 20. Century luxuriöse wood mansions, Yalı mentioned, which served as summer domicile.
- Opposite on the asiatic sidelying quarters Üsküdar and Kadıköy were originally independent cities. Today they are above all living and business quarters, here live approx. a third of the Istanbuler population.
Under strong growth Istanbuls since the second half 20. Century, make thatlargest part of the city surface today modern, in the hinterland established quarters out. They were established partly than Gecekondus and attached only after years or decades to the urban infrastructure, like for example Gaziosmanpaşa west the golden horn. Elevated office and residential areasenststehen particularly in the north on height of the second Bosphorus bridge above Bebek in the quarters of Levent and Etiler.
major item: History Istanbuls
In the year 658 v. Chr. dorische Greeks from Megara created a colony on the European bank of the Bosphorus, in a calm and protected port. Because of the favorable geographical situation - by the strait at the Bosphorus is the black sea with that Marmarameer connected, and this for his part flows over the Dardanellen into the Mediterranean - Byzantion became very soon an important commercial centre.
In the year 513 v. Chr. conquered the Persian king Darius I. the city. 324 n. Chr. combined Konstantin I.bothParts of the Roman realm and at the 11. May 330 he baptized the new capital solemnly on the name new Rome. It becomes however late well-known under the name Konstantinopel.
See also: Byzantion
particularly among emperors Justinian I. (527 - 565), to the last large ruler of late ancient times, Konstantinopel arrived at fame and was magnificently developed (Hagia Sophia). In the Middle Ages the city remained the center of the Byzantine one Rich and was long time the city of Europe largest richest with distance and. In April then however Kreuzritter Konstantinopel conquered 1204. The city was geplündert, numerous inhabitants were murdered and works of art of inestimable value went irrevocablly lost. On approximately 100.000Inhabitant reduced, their earlier fame robbed, became the city 1261 of the Byzantine realm under Michael VIII. back-conquered.
To 5. April 1453 began the FE storage Konstantinopels by osmanische armed forces under Sultan Mehmed II.and in the morning 29. May became thoseCity occupies. Konstantinopel became after Bursa and Adrianopel the new osmanischen power center. The Sultane saw itself in the follow-up of the Christian emperors. The partial destroyed and depopulated city was again-settled in a well-planned manner and rebuilt. The power of the Osmani realm reached theirHigh point with Sultan Süleyman I. (1520 - 1566), whose coined/shaped architect Sinan the townscape with numerous mosques, bridges, palaces and wells. With the progressive purge of the osmanischen influence in the region and the reduction of the realm to beginning20. Century suffered also the kosmopolitische meaning Konstantinopels.
The weakness of the Osmani realm after the collapse of the osmanischen army in the Balkans war 1912/1913 led European powers and Russia the danger of a power vacuum in the strategically meaning straits before eyesand the “eastern question” raised after control of the straits and allocation of the realm into western spheres of interests. The Sultan and the young Turks looked for the support of the erstarkten German one of Reich for the threatening argument. The access of the Entente to Konstantinopelthe Osmani realm in the First World War at the side of the Central Powers could reject in the battle of Gallipoli impressively, but was finally lost the war. In the peace treaty of Sèvres of 10. August 1920 became the realm under the alliedAllied powers divided and had enormous area losses to accept. Konstantinopel with the straits Bosphorus and Dardanellen first occupied by the allied ones, above all Greece demanded the “return” Konstantinopels, which wanted to make it its new capital. Called under Mustafa Kemal, Atatürk, a war of liberation began.
Konstantinopel lost 1923 the status as capital of modern Turkey at Ankara in the central high country Anatoliens, probably, because the new republic wanted to distinguish itself from the tradition of the Osmanen: Sultanate and Kalifat were abolished, thoseArab writing was replaced by latin, an education system oriented at western ideals was installed, a juridical system after western model was introduced, among them a general right to vote (also for women: before many European states).
See also: Konstantinopel
To 28. March 1930 was renamed Konstantinopel on Veranlassung by Kemal Atatürk in Istanbul. The city maintained its cultural and economic meaning, which by move influx by humans from Anatolien for the 1950er years still one strengthened. Gigantic one Building projects over and underground were the result, which cannot keep up however with the rapid population growth.1994 became a current Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan as a candidate far right Refah of the Partisi (RP) (welfare party) mayor.The current mayor Kadir Topbaş is, like the Prime Minister, of the Adalet VE Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (a party for justice and development).
development of the name
the originally thrakische name Istanbuls, Byzantion, became later on onethe legendary founders led back. From Byzantion among the Romans Byzantium, eingedeutscht Byzanz. The name Konstantinupolis, from which in the German Konstantinopel, in English Constantinople became, originates from the Greek one and means “city of the Konstantin”. The osmanische variantthe name reads Kosţanţiniye, in the Armenian one is it Gostantnubolis. For the slawischen peoples (Russians, Serben, Slowenen and Bulgaren) the city Tsarigrad ( city of the Zaren was called and/or. Emperor).
The today's name Istanbul followed onlythe income of the city by the Osmanen in use. It is derived from the Greek Εις την Πόλιν , which means as much as “into the city”. The Zwischenform Stambul was during 19. Century common. From the habit a “i” forwardsWords to set, begin those with two consonants (for example “İzmir “of Smyrna: When meeting “s " + " m” is spoken the “s” be correctful and therefore as “z” written and a “i” placed in front), became from Stambul the Turkish İstanbul. The Turks express the name as “Istambul” [isˈtɑmbul]. In the Turkish one as also in the Persian one the consonant connections “n " are always expressed + " b” as “MT”.
From other sources it is to be experienced that the word “Istanbul” the Turkish Verballhornung of the name thatCity (Kon “stan” - tino “pel” --> I “stan” - “bul”) is, like that as with many other Byzantine city names (e.g.Hadrianopolis at Edirne, Ikonion at Konya or Nikomedia at İzmit) also happened. A further interpretation, which is to due to the word similarity, leads thatName “Istanbul” of” Islam bol “off, which means in Turkish as much as “much Islam”.
the townscape of Istanbul one coins/shapes by Sakralbauten of different religions. In someTo quarters, like for example in Kuzguncuk, are the religious mechanisms of different religions closely neighbouring. The by far largest part of the population professes itself to the Islam. Important ones religious minorities are the Greek-orthodox Christians, the Armenian Christians, and the sephardischen Jew.
The city is seat of the Patriarchen of Konstantinopel, to which some orthodox churches belong in the today's Turkey and which as head of the entire Orthodoxie is recognized. Further reside here the archbishop of the Turkish-orthodox municipality, more Armenian Archbishop and the Turkish waiter more rabbiner.
thoseMuslims are the largest group of religions in Istanbul and split up into different faith directions. Most Muslims of the city are Sunniten. About 15 to 30 per cent ranks themselves among the Aleviten and Alawiten (arabischsprachig).
To 2. September 1925 forbade Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, the then numerous and member-strong the wiping medals. Most trailers of the Sufismus, the Islamic Mystik, acted afterwards in the secret one, some of them have still in today's time large trailer shank. Around thatto escape, these appear to still valid prohibition however usually as “culture associations”.
the city is traditionally seat of the ökumenischen Patriarchen, to some orthodox churches belong and seat oneArmenian archbishop as well as the archbishop of the Syrian-orthodox (aramäische) municipality. The everyday life of the Armenian, Greek and aramäischen minorities still living in Istanbul was coined/shaped after the First World War of discrimination and constant Repressalien. 1942 came it to the introduction of a special wealth tax(varlik vergisi), in September 1955 to proper Pogromen. 1964 was finally referred all Greeks without Turkish nationality of the country. The number of the Armenians in Istanbul therefore today only about 60,000, the number of the Greeks amounts enclosureitself on 2.000. Beside the Levantinern there is also a small, scattered number of Bosphorus Germans.
the sephardischen Jews live in the city for over 500 years. They fled in the year 1492 of the iberischen peninsula, when they should be forced after the fall of the maurischen realm to go over to the Christianity. The then dominant Sultan Beyazit II. (1481 - 1512) sent a large part of the osmanischen fleet to Spain, around the sephardischen Jewsto save. More than 200,000 of them, that wanted not to let themselves be bekehren to the Christianity, fled first to Tanger, Algiers, Genova and Marseille, later after Saloniki and finally also after Istanbul. The Sultan granted at that time over 50.000these Spanish Jews refuge in the osmanischen realm. In Istanbul the sephardischen Jews until today remained. Their number becomes estimated on approximately 20,000. Altogether 20 synagogs are to be found in the city, the most important of it are the 1951 inaugurated Neve Shalom synagogin the quarter Beyoğlu. In Istanbul the Turkish Oberrabbiner sits (current Ishak Haleva).
development of the numbers of inhabitants
the number of inhabitants of the megacity trebled itself since beginning of the 1980er years until today. Live on the 9.797.536 inhabitants of the town center6.486.993 in the European part of Istanbul and 3.310.543 on the asiatic side (conditions 1. January 2005).
About are tightened 70 per cent of the population Istanbuls by migration from the land from Anatolien, predominantly from southeast and Ostanatolien. Each year result from it at the outskirts of a town new Gecekondus, which are developed with the time and to new quarters to group itself.
The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1914 it acts usually around estimations, those depending upon researcher opinion over up to ±50 per cent vary. The numbers from 1927 to 2000 are results of censuses. The numbers of 2005 and 2006 are based on computer forecasts. The duplication of the population Istanbuls between 1980 and 1985 is also on influx, natural increase in population and upto lead back administrative measures.
quality of life
The typical, in osmanischer tradition built, timber buildings belong to Marmara sea to the townscape. In the last decades into and around the city numerous, high settlements were built by the fast growth of the population.
Successes became since center of the 1990er years with the solution of the garbage problem, which traffic conditions and the air improvement obtain by the employment of natural gas. Air and water pollution belong nevertheless by the numerous factories, motor vehicles and private householdsand the noise pollution by traffic further to the concerns of the population Istanbuls. Diseases such as bronchitis and asthma are far common among the inhabitants of the city. Special problems result from the often direct neighbourhood of poorer populated areas and the industry.
spare time and recovery
ways of the contamination of the sea disappeared in the city traditional bathing resorts lain gradually, for some years however again open old places. To the most popular places within the city belong Bakirköy, Küçükçekmece, Sarıyer and thatBosphorus, outside of the city are there at the Marmarameer the prince islands, Silivri and Tuzla as well as at the black sea Kilyos and Şile.
The prince islands (Kızıl Adalar) are a Inselgruppe in the Marmarameer before the quarters Kartal and Pendik. With their Kiefernand Pinienwäldern, wooden by art nouveau coined/shaped summer mansions from the turn to 20. Century, Pferdekut (motor vehicles are not permitted) and fish restaurants are them a popular trip goal. They can be attained with ferry boats and high-speed ferries (Deniz otobüsü) from Eminönu and Kartal.From the nine islands four are settled.
Şile is distant a well-known Turkish bathing resort at the black sea, 50 kilometers from Istanbul. The hoist and the waves are not completely harmless rau and the currents of the black sea. Since the 1980erYears holidays settlements and hotels were removed. Outside by Şile unaffected white sand beaches are to be found, which invite to staying.
Kilyos is a small calm bathing resort nearby the European entrance of the Bosphorus at the black sea. The place has good bath possibilitiesand became popular in the last years among the inhabitants of Istanbul as place for excursions. Kilyos offers a Ferienresort with (fish) restaurants and discotheques.
mayor von Istanbul are an architect Kadir Topbaş of the Islamic-conservative AKP, onea moderate follow-up party of the likewise Islamic welfare party (RP). He took over the office of its predecessor Ali Müfit Gürtuna (RP), which was for November a 1998 mayor. Islamic politicians govern Istanbul thus since 1994, as Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (likewise RP) the layParties with the local elections defeated. The RP in the slum areas received most voices from Istanbul.
In its four years as a mayor von Istanbul attained Erdoğan a increased popularity. Already with its assumption of office it presented its Islamic coined/shaped version ofa “clean and decent” city, in which among other things brothels were forbidden and own bath beaches for women were furnished. By its regional policy Erdoğan attained respect also with its political opponents. During its term of office for example the notorious problems with the water supply becamerepaired and additional green belts production. The heaps of garbage in the roads, in former times typical for Istanbul, disappeared. Disputes around different measures made fast noticeable that the RP had a religiously coined/shaped party program inspired by the Koran. A complete revolution of the past way of life in„the westernmost “and kosmopolitischsten city of the country is today however inconceivable until.
partnerships between cities
Istanbul maintains with the following cities partnerships:
culture and objects of interest
the most well-known museums in Istanbul are the Topkapı Sarayı, a former Sultanspalast, the Hagia Sophia, the Chora church, the archaeological museum, the museum for Turkish and Islamic art, the museum Istanbul decaying and that Dolmabahçe Sarayı, likewise an earlier Sultanspalast, in 19. Century in the again-baroque style was built.
Many auxiliary buildings of the famous mosques were transformed in the meantime into museums, which grant impressive views into the time of the Osmanen. There are also still furtherArt museums, at which it is worth itself to visit it. The most important and most valuable paintings of Turkey, also valuable miniatures are to be found in the museums from Istanbul to.
the tremendous abundance of concerning town construction, art-historically and routistic meaningOnly scarcely, ausschnittsweise can be represented to buildings and exemplary.
Byzanz and Christian Konstantinopel to 1453
in the today's townscape alto Istanbuls one discovers still the antique origins.
Some places and buildings are in thatPlant or as ruins receive. Only few outlasted the centuries almost invariably.
- the Hippodrom (RK Meydanı), put on 203 n. Chr.
- the constant in forum with the Relikt of the constant in column (Çemberli Taş, set up 328 n. Chr.)
- that Valens aquaduct (Bozdoğan Kemeri), against 368 n. Chr. completes
- the Theodosiani land wall, 424 n. Chr. completes
- the sea-wall at the Marmarameer, 439 n. Chr. of Theodosius II. given in order
- different honour columns and -, z would bend. B. the 20 m high Obelisk Thutmosis III. (15. Jhd. v. Chr.) from rose granite, in 4. Jhd. n. Chr. brought by Karnak (Egypt) after Konstantinopel and 390 n. Chr. on the Spina of the Hippodroms set up cisterns
- are as the “sunkPalace " Yerebatan Sarnıcı, 6. Jh. n. Chr.
Nearly intact some churches survived first as mosques, then as museums:
- the Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Camii, church of the holy wisdom), 537 n. Chr. geweiht
- the Pammakaristós church (Fethiye Camii), in the 11. or 12. Jh. n. Chr. based
- the lateByzantine Chora church (Kariye Camii), in their current manifestation from that 14. Jh.
the osmanischen Sultane and their highest dignitaries strove immediately for thatConquest Konstantinopels to visibly demonstrate their power and their faith as also the Christian rulers had done. The assumption of Greek craftsmen, Greek designs and even whole Greek buildings served this purpose. Thus it does not surprise by any means that thatmost important osmanische architect, Sinan, no Turk was. Its own osmanischer architectural style developed nevertheless.
Starting from that 18. Century turned out osmanische architecture ever more under the influence of Western European styles such as baroque (Lâleli Camii), classicism and art nouveau (Kamondo Merdivenleri,Beyoğlu). The attempt to maintain at least outwardly Osmani even if the core were certain of western technologies long, led in second clings 19. Century to a osmanischen historicism, still into the recent time of the Turkish republic the projecting“First national architecture movement” characterized.
Osmanische architecture points itself particularly
- to the palaces and residences
- in the mosques and the associated donation buildings, Külliyen mentioned
- in the large, mehrstöckigen trading firms, lodgings and magazines
- in the bazaars
- in purpose and buildings of decorations
- of the Top Kapı Sarayı (German “the Topkapi Serail”) was until 1856 dwelling of the Sultansfamilie (Harem) and ruler seat (Diwan) and thus center of power. This again and again transformed, vielgliederige Sultanspalast liesexposed at the point of the peninsula lain between golden horn , Bosphorus and Marmarameer. It is a routistic main attraction of the today's Istanbul.
- The Dolmabahçe Sarayı of 1856 on the European side of the Bosphorus shows sense-due that the Sultane in 19.Century also outwardly strove to adapt itself to the European west.
constant expression of faith, power and imperial will of the osmanischen dignitaries are usually donated to their relative, the Wesiren the large mosques, by the Sultanen ,and other dignitaries of the state. Most mosques follow the building idea of the Hagia Sophia .
To the over-coupled prayer area belong besides a circumscribed forecourt (avlu) and usually a Külliye with Medresen, z. B. used as primary school (mektep), theological school or physician school, with living units of the students (hücre), hospital (üş şifa), Hospiz (tabhane), arm kitchen (imaret), library (kütüphane), Karawanserei (kervansaray), bath (hamam) and buildings of graves (türbe), sometimes also with an observatory for faith-relevant time and calendar computations (muvakkithane).
A selection of typical mosques:
- from the osmanischen early period
- Mahmut Paşa Camii - oldest received large mosque of 1462
- Sultan Beyazıt Camii - oldest received Sultans mosque of1506
- mosques of the architect (Mimar) Sinan
- İskele Camii in Üsküdar - first mosque of 1548 Şehzade Camii -
- Sinans “ piece of apprentice” of 1548 Sultan Süleyman Camii
- - Sinans “ journeywork” of 1557 Rüstem Paşa Camii
- -, created by Sinan, donationa Grosswesirs, equipped with marvelous Iznik tiles, by 1561
- Piyale Paşa Camii - Sinans (?) Resort to the Ulu Cami type with several smaller domes, 1578 ago
- Yeni Camii - pictorial because of the golden horn been, construction period from 1597 to 1663
- SultanCamii - the famous “blue mosque” of 1617
- Sultan Mehmet Fatih Camii - new building of the conquerer mosque after an earthquake 1766, center of a style-forming Külliye
- Eyüp Sultan Camii - mosque with the grave of Mohammeds banner carrier, important mirror-image-ritual Heiligtum Islam, based 1458, new building in rather tradtionellem style finished by
- 1798-1800 Osmani
- baroque Nuru Osmaniye Camii - bold domed structure from originally white marble with semicircular forecourt, of
- 1755 Lâleli Camii - 1763, after earthquake 1783 renew, impressive baroque mosque with smallBazaar in the basement
- Nusretiye Camii, mosque for the soldiers once next door of the convenient barracks, of 1826
- Dolmabahçe Camii - direct on the bank of the Bosphorus, of 1853
bazaars and trading firms
- the large covered bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı), the Egyptian bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı) and the book bazaar (Sahaflar Çarşısı)
- the Valide Hanı and the Rüstem Paşa Hanı.
purpose and buildings of decorations
- of baths (hamam)
- Çemberlitaş Hamam in alto Stambul
- Galatasaray Hamam in Beyoğlu
- Reinigungsbrunnen (şadırvan) within a mosque forecourt (avsu), z. B. the octagonal well of the Yeni Cami
- well house (sebil), z. B. the Valide Sultan Turhan Hadice Sebili with thatYeni Cami
- run well (çeşme), z. B. the well of 1906 at the German Consulate General
- a strange thing is of the German emperor Wilhelm II. donated wells on the Hippodrom
- military plants
- Selimiye barracks in Üsküdar
- of towers
- old Galatabrücke, between 1845 and 1912 several times converted, now replaces and shifted
- Sirkeci Garı, the European head station
- Haydarpaşa Garı - the asiatic head station
- residential building
- of road courses with usuallymehrstöckigen timber buildings finds she one to z. B. still in Fatih and in Üsküdar
- summer mansions from wood (Yali) at both sides of the Bosphorus, in recent time partly exemplary reconditions
- dwelling houses with business and crafts enterprises in the basement developed after EuropeanModels particularly in 19. Jhd., z. B. in Beyoğlu
- embassy building in Beyoğlu, today usually consulates
- churches and synagogs
Konstantinopel/Istanbul of the decay of the Osmani realm to briefly after the Second World War
firstNational architecture movement (1912-1929)
up to the end of the 20's stood the architecture of the republic still completely in the spell of one already after that for 1. World war phase begun, which one called “first national architecture current”. In this phase Turkish architects led such as KemalettinBey historicism away, itself in late 19. Century particularly with the ornamentalen external organization of buildings had oriented at seldschukischen and osmanischen models.
- Beşiktaş İskelesi (ship landing place), 1913, architect Ali Talat
- Haydarpaşa İskelesi, 1915, architect Vedat Tek
- Vakıf Hanıin Eminönü, 1912-26, architect Kemalettin Bey
- hotel Merit Antique in Lâleli, 1912-22, architect Kemalettin Bey
strengthened starting from approximately 1930 one engaged foreign architects for the planning of public buildings. They released the fronts to a large extent from the “Turkish” ornamentations and maintained oneinternational, functional style. As teachers they passing on their views to Turkish architects.
second national architecture movement (1940-1950)
as a developer of the “second national architecture movement” is considered to Bruno thaws (1880-1938). It demanded as a director/conductor of the department of architecture at the academy thatBeautiful arts in Istanbul and boss of the building department in the Board of Education in Ankara an exact analysis of the architectural style of the osmanischen time and before it. On this basis the modernism should be overcome and an own Turkish architectural style be found.
- İstanbul Ünivertesisi, Fen Fakültesi,1942
Pluralismus of the architectural styles starting from approximately 1960
the Istanbuler architecture of the last decades are coined/shaped by a heterogeneous style mixture, from the Sinan copied mosque to multistoried buildings with international appearance, from altertümelnden hotels to most modernMost varied aspects to residential areas offers. Each only conceivable architectural suggestion is taken up. Istanbul became thereby an experimentation field of today's architecture.
- Buildings of the architect Sedad Hakkı Eldem in the “Turkish” style
- Sosyal Sigortalar Külliyesi (1970),
- Atatürk Kütüphanesi (1976)
- Koç getting thing A.S. NakkaştepeTesisleri (1986)
- multistoried buildings (existence in October 2005: 2.110, statistic data finished after Emporis 10/2005
- ) hotel intercontinental in Beyoğlu, height of 87 m, 1968
- Barbaros Plaza finished in Levent, two multistoried buildings, height of 80 m, 1987
- Yapı of VE Kredi Bankası in Levent, height120 m, finished 1995
- Işbank Tower 1 finished in Beşiktaş, height of 181 m, 2000
- Sun Plaza finished in Şişli, height of 147 m, 2005
- TV towers
to monument protection
the first systematic monument protection project in Istanbul became toward end of the First World War of thatCity administration initiates, after in war confusions fires and plunderings had led to destruction of important monuments. The project became 1917-18 among other things of the German-Turkish art historian and journalist Friedrich Schrader led.
For the sixties particularly Çelik Gülersoy has itself around the IstanbulerMonument protection earns made. It let secure numerous art-historically meaning buildings of the city and with the “Istanbul LIBRARY” an important collection by bibliography over history Istanbuler of architectural monuments put on let.
- Galatasaray Istanbul became since 1959 15 times Turkish national master and won in the year 2000 that UEFA cup and the UEFA super Cup. The association plays in the Ali Sami Yen stadium with a capacity of scarcely 25,000 places. A modern arena, which is to replace the current stadium, is planned with Seyrantepe. It is place for tooffer spectators to 50,000. Galatasaray sports club delivers its international plays in the Atatürk Olympiastadion . The stadium was distinguished 2004 as five-star stadium and is the second largest football stadium in Europe.
- Fenerbahçe Istanbul erspielte since 1965 of 16 national Meistertitel. The Heimspiele of the crew findin the stadium F. Sükrü Saraçoğlu in the quarter Kadıköy instead of. It offers place for 55.000 spectators. Coach of the Turkish Erstligisten is since summer 2003 Christoph Daum from Germany.
- Beşiktaş Istanbul is the oldest Turkish soccer association (1903). The 13malige master carries itsHeimspiele in the Inönü stadium in the quarter Beşiktaş out. It has a capacity of 36.000 places.
Further kinds of sport
also basketball and Volleyball are very popular. Several professional clubs exist - in the basketball Efes Pilsen Istanbul and Ülker Istanbul as well as in the VolleyballEczacıbaşı Istanbul and Vakıfbank Istanbul - which train in their own schools the players of the future.
Gulf, shooting, riding and tennis gain ever more significance, by foreigners and wealthy native ones are however predominantly operated.
For Aerobic, Bodybuilding and equipment gymnastic are available numerous Fitnessstudios.
Paintball belonged to the new kinds of sport, is however already in two large clubs represented in close proximity to Istanbul.
Remoteeastern kinds of sport such as Aikido and Yoga are in the last years ever more popularbecome. There are several centers in the city, where they can be exercised.
in the numerous restaurants and Lokalitäten in Istanbul are served to the guest meals from international and native kitchen.
Native kitchen means herethe kitchens of all traditionally in Istanbul of living peoples and language's groups, thus z. B. the Turks, Kurds, Caucasus peoples, Greeks and Jews. Also a historical osmanische kitchen is offered rarely.
Culinary specialities form besides typical products, which are manufactured in Istanbuland a special development or validity has, z. B. Sweets, beverages or freshly roasted coffee.
In the long run one must state however that there is no original Istanbuler specialities, which also are not offered elsewhere. The characteristic of the culinary specialities Istanbuls liesrather in the Ambiente and the unique environment of the restaurants, Lokantas and Cafés as well as the places, where the specialities are to be acquired.
The large culinary variety however threatened by a “internationalization” of inferior kind like e.g. the propagation of Fastfoodlokalen, for whatbeside the American chains also the Dönerbuden reimportierten from Europe belongs.
The tourist appearing typical and in the meantime also products such as z, liked with the Istanbulern. B. the synthetically aromatized apple dte, which with original Turkish apple dte a little in common has, show,that traditional can be displaced quite fast by new.
One finds Koschere Jewish kitchen in Beyoğlu and in the old Stambul, in fine development z. B. in the restaurant of theHotel Merit Antique.
Istanbuler of products, which have a special development or validity:
Lokum, a sweet Konfekt from sugar (original honey), strength flour (original Weizenmehl), Pistazien, almonds, Nüssen and others added manufactured. The traditional company Hacı Bekir in Eminönü z.B. produces 18 locomotive around places, z. B. enriched with extra Pistazien (twice roasted Pistazien), with rose flavour, with Mastix, with coffee, with Zimt or with ginger.
Boza, an alcoholic grain beverage from wheat or millet, z. B. Vefa bozacısı from the Katip ÇelebiCad. NO: 104/1 in the proximity of the Süleymaniye Camii. Moderate Bozagenuss is not forbidden after an Islamic legal opinion (fetvâ) (not haram). Boza is drunk particularly in the winter.
of bazaars and
- The entire year is almost opened markets the large bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı) over daily. Only in the Ramaḍān (Turkish Ramazan) it remains Sundays closed. In him one can experience the atmosphere of the historical Istanbuls. It is completeconsidered and accommodates many Hans, Hallen, Strassen and bent lanes, in whose business different goods are sold such as antiques, carpets, decoration, ceramic(s) and other one.
- A further large market in Istanbul is the Egyptian bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı). It becamein the year 1660 on instruction of the nut/mother of the Sultans Mehmed IV. (1642 - 1693) establishes. There as in earlier times with spices, fruit, vegetable and animals one acts.
- In the triangle between large bazaar, Egyptian bazaar and that One finds an immense number to Süleymanye Camii small department stores mentioned by shopping streets and - lanes with stands, open shops, Manufakturen , Hans and Pasaj. These roads carry as still in the medieval cities of Europe the names and of the acting professions producing formerly here.
- That Balık Pazarı in Beyoğlu is a large fish market with enormous selection. In addition, fruit and vegetables as well as Meze and Rakı are offered here.
- Street traders are everywhere on the way; so the salesmen of beverages, of Sesamkringeln (Simit) and all erdenklichenKrimskrams.
One finds modern business of international cut - under it also a German bookshop - particularly in Beyoğlu.
To the most important modern shopping centres Istanbuls belong
- in the European part
- the fully airconditioned Carousell in Bakırköy with several department stores, fashion shops and different restaurants
- the Akmerkez in Etiler with numerous branches of all well-known marks, a large selection of fashion shops, a entertainment center with play halls, cinemas, restaurants and Fastfood - chains
- the Metro town center in Levent
- in the asiatic part
- the Capitol in Kadıköy (asiatic part) with manyhigh-quality shops, gastronomischen mechanisms and cinemas.
economics and infrastructure
the economy in Istanbul registered an upward trend in the last years. The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) grew since 1980 by on the average five per cent per year. Those Asia crisis between July 1997 and at the beginning of of 1998 and the crisis in Russia between August 1998 and in the middle of 1999 was in all ranges, particularly with the export to feel and showed negative effects to the economy.
As despite this load aboutIn the middle of 1999 a slow reorganization of the economy Istanbuls to observe was, caused after the crisis in Russia the earthquake of 17. August 1999 with Epizentrum with Kocaeli east the city the second large economic shock. Beside by the disastercaused capital losses and the human losses was also a decrease GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT of approximately up to two per cent to be registered.
Istanbul is today the controlling market and place of transshipment of Turkey. Dominate the economic life controlled by services stock exchange, wholesale, traffic, bank,Pressing and publishing trade. There are several bazaars as well as modern shopping streets in the western style. The relating to crafts and industriellen of enterprises produce above all textiles and food. Besides are still leather and imitation leather goods as well as ceramic products of importance. Also the building of penaltiesand tractors as well as diesel engines is an important industry. Along new plants for the industry developed for the Bosphorus and the Marmarameer. Turkish investors and investors from all world made and make Istanbul an important restaurant metropolis.
One of the most important restaurant branchesis the tourism: The offer at hotels is large, from styleful luxury lodgings to inexpensive Etablissements is present everything. Istanbuls historical buildings, its kosmopolitischer charm, its many plates of satisfying Orientalismus, its rising internationalism and its rich culture life pull many foreignand domestic tourists on.
The city is an important junction in national and international long-distance traffic.
Istanbul has two international airports: The larger is that Atatürk internationally air haven at the edge of the European part of the city with Yeşilköy, 24 kilometers from the city center far away, the more modern is the airport Sabiha Gökcen, 20 kilometers east asiatic and 45 kilometers eastern of the European city centre.
The station Sirkeci is final stop for all railways on the European side. In long-distance traffic only one course drives daily (to Bucharest). Beyond the Bosphorus at the station Haydarpasa drive several times daily courses to Ankara, more rarely to other goals into Anatolien, andonly isolates after Teheran or Aleppo. The two stations are connected by ferry; across the Bosphorus no railroad line leads.
From Istanbul drive penalty into all important cities and regions of the country. The motorway net around Istanbul is very well developed and constantly one extends. Motorways lead after Ankara and/or Edirne and it give two ring motorways. Two road bridges cross the Bosphorus.
city and suburban traffic
traffic in the city suffer still from the osmanischen structure of the city and its accomodation closed in itself. The buildingsa osmanischen quarter (mahalle) grouped themselves nearly concentrically usually around a mosquemosque mosque. Few public approach roads (Tarîk i âmm) and confine “private” - roads (Tarîk i hâss), often dead ends, determined the labyrinthische picture. Durchgangsstrassen were missing. These accomodation was onlydraws connected.
Only after the Second World War with international consultation in the old Istanbul broad roads and far places for modern traffic were created. A centerline formed thereby also today a still important durchgangsstrasse of Sultan to beyondthe land wall, which oriented itself consciously at the konstantinischen road system. Similar conditions prevailed in the asiatic quarters. Open road courses determined against it always the genuesisch coined/shaped Pera or Galata in the today's Beyoğlu.
In the meantime generous within and durchgangsstrassen became in the entire cityas well as connecting roads to the quarters at the periphery production, whereby old built volumes had to yield. The European quarters interconnected by the golden horn by the Galatabrücke (new building of 1992) and the Haliç bridge (Fatih bridge), over which an evasion motorway runs.
In different places passenger liners cross and - boats the golden horn. An active traffic prevails between the European and the asiatic quarters. Car ferries and passenger liners queren the Bosphorus. For force travel traffic two suspension bridges exist, the 1973 open Bosphorus bridge with 1074 metersLength and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge with 1090 m, which were handed over 1988 to traffic.
In traffic in the city play besides penalty, collecting taxes (Dolmuş), taxes and private cars an important role. The transport of goods take over truck of all sizes. From time to timeone sees still another carrier (Hamal), particularly on the stairs of the shopping streets between large bazaar and Galatabrücke.
Streetcars and undergrounds are gradually removed. However Istanbul is far from it, a closed, to possess clear suburban traffic system. ThoseLines supplement one that only rarely. The lines are appropriate usually to bring workers of the suburbs in the center. On the other hand still connections between different next to the town centre quarters are missing.
The most important rail-bound means of transport are:
- still the old 574Meter long underground endless rope haulage system Tünel between Karaköy and Tünel/Beyoğlu from the year 1875, one of the oldest subways of the world
- the historical streetcar in the former Pera road, the today's İstiklâl Caddesi in Beyoğlu, between Tünel and Taksim
- an again-opened streetcarbetween Kadıköy and Moda in the asiatic part
- a modern streetcar of Kabataş (Fındıklı) after Zeytinburnu, opens at the 3. September 1989
- a Metro between Taksim and 4. Levent, opens to 16. September 2000
- a Metro finished from Aksaray to the airport, finallyin December 2002, with a branching from Otogar to Esenler
- an underground - line, which crosses the Bosphorus, is in the building and becomes - so planning - 2008 open
- suburb railways of Sirkeçi and Haydarpaşa from
Istanbul accommodates numerous universities, high and technical schools, High Schools, research institutes and libraries.
The most important universities are in the year 1453 the created Istanbul university (İstanbul Üniversitesi), the technical University of Istanbul (İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, 1773), the Bosphorus university (Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, based 1863 as Robert college, formerly the American university in the city, in which English is also today still training language), the Marmara university (Marmara Üniversitesi, 1883), those in the year 1911 opened technical universityYıldız (Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi) and the 1996 opened Fatih university (Fatih Üniversitesi) again.
Further important universities in Istanbul are the Bahçeşehir university, the Beykent university, the Deniz Harp Okulu (naval war school), the Doğuş university, the Galatasaray university, the Haliç university, the HavaHarp Okulu (school of the Air Force), the Işık university, the Istanbul Bilgi university, the Istanbul culture university, the Istanbul Ticaret university, the Kadir Has university, the Koç university, the painting PE university, the Mimar Sinan university for screen end of arts (Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi), the Okan university, the Sabancı university and the Yeditepe university.
To the university-level graduation resuming schools
General screen end resuming schools:
- classical national and private türkischsprachige High Schools, like the Galatasaray High School in Beyoğlu
- fremdsprachige national High Schools, z. B. the İstanbul Erkek Lisesi in Cağaloğlu
- fremdsprachige private High Schools, z. B. the Özel Alman Lisesi (German school)
- Anadolu Lisesiler („Anatoliengymnasien “), originallyfor the Turkish children returned home from the foreign country furnished, like z. B. the Üsküdar Anadolu Lisesi with German as first foreign language and technical instruction on German
professional training-technical resuming schools:
- Islamic aligned Imam Hatip schools, z. B. the İstanbul İmam Hatip Lisesi
- occupation specialized high schools
the Marmara research center (TÜBİTAK Marmara Araştırma Merkezi - TÜBİTAK MAM) in Gebze is with approximately 650 researcher inside and researchers the largest non-university research establishment in Turkey. It covers the institutes for information technologies, energy research, food research, chemistry and environmental research, material research,as well as ground connection and sea sciences. A technology park is attached in addition to the research center.
- national library Beyazıt (Beyazıt)
- Süleymaniye library (Beyazıt)
- Istanbuler Çelik Gülersoy - library (Sultanahmet)
- library of the Topkapı palace (Sultanahmet)
- library of the archaeological museum (Sultanahmet)
- Kadın Eserleri Kütüphanesi (library of the woman works,Haliç)
- Atatürk library (Taksim)
- library of the Goethe Institute (Beyoğlu)
- American LIBRARY (Tepebaşı)
- libraries of the universities
of sons and daughters of the city
from Istanbul come many emperors, kings and Sultane, poets and philosophers as well as many other historically important persons.
for foreigners a maintenance seed view of the everyday life life of Istanbul the detective stories appeared in the cunning publishing house give to the English authoress Barbara needle with the main figure of the commissionerCetin İkmen and its colleague Süleyman.
Scientific and popular-scientific works
- Wolfgang Mueller Viennese: Picture encyclopedia to the topography Istanbuls. Byzantion - Konstantinupolis - Istanbul up to the beginning 17. Century, Tübingen 1977. ISBN 3-8030-1022-5 (standard work)
- Heinz Jürgen Sauermost, wolf Christian of the Mülbe: Istanbuler mosques, Munich 1981, ISBN 3-7654-1830-7
- John Freely; Hilary Sumner Boyd: Istanbul: a leader, 3. , durchges. Aufl., Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7913-0098-9
- Wolfgang Mueller Viennese: The ports of Byzantion - Konstantinopolis - Istanbul., Tübingen, 1997, ISBN 3-8030-1042-X
- Refik Turan,Refuge Nusser, Susi Mayer:Istanbul as antique and Islamic city, 2. , erw. and suppl. Aufl., Munich 1990, ISBN 3-86120-051-1
- Dogan Kuban: Istanbul - on urban history: Byzantion, Constantinopolis, Istanbul, Istanbul 1996, ISBN 975-7306-20-7
- Stéphane Yerasimos: Konstantinopel, Istanbulshistorical inheritance, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-1896-7
- Klaus Kreiser: Istanbul: a historical-literary city leader, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47191-9
- Hendrikje Kilian, Vera comfort: Historical photographies from Istanbul, Heidelberg 2001, ISBN 3-926318-91-0
- Steven Runciman: The conquest of Konstantinopel 1453,5. Aufl., Munich 2005, ISBN 3406025285
Istanbul in novels and narrations of Turkish writers
- Metin Cacan: Cholera Blues, Berlin 2003, ISBN 393559738X
- Leyla Erbil: A strange Mrs., Zurich 2005, ISBN 3293100015
- Yaşar Kemal: Also the birdsaway, Zurich 1994 ISBN 3293200451 Demir
- Özlü are: The beginning of a love, Frankfurt 2002, ISBN 393553504X
- Orhan Pamuk: My name, Frankfurt is red 2003, ISBN 3596156602
- Orhan Pamuk: The black book, Frankfurt 1997 ISBN 3596129923
- Orhan Pamuk: Istanbul, London 2005, ISBN 0571227538
- Elif Shafak: Mirrors of the city, Frankfurt 2004, ISBN 3935535066
- Ümüt: Night and fog, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3293100023
- Kaan Arslanoglu: Characters, Münster 2000, ISBN 3897716410
Web on the left of
|Commons: Istanbul - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Istanbul - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- official Internet operational readiness level of the city Istanbul
- http://www.living-turkey.com/living_in_turkey/photos_from_istanbul_Bosphorus.htm photo of quarters
- resuming information to Istanbul
- Igor Schestkow - photo of Istanbul
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