Istrien (Croatian and Slovenian Istra, Italian Istria, lat. Histria, German in former times also Histerreich) is the largest peninsula to the northern Adria between the gulf of Triest and the Kvarner bay before Rijeka.
The designation Istrien decreases/goes back to the name of the Histri, a trunk of the Illyrer, which lived in this region in the antique one.
Table of contents
the by far largest part of Istriens belongs to Croatia, inPart the north however to Slovenia, and a small region around the locality Muggia finally to Italy. The Croatian part of Istriens forms - with exception of the area around the city Opatija, that to the Gespanschaft (Komitat, gau) for Primorje Gorski kotar (Croatian Primorsko goranska županija) belongs - the Gespanschaft Istrien (Croatian Istarska županija). This covers 2,813 km ² with 206.344 inhabitants (census of 2001). Administrative seat of the Gespanschaft Istrien is the city Pazin lain in the interior.
the population Istriens exists by the majority out Croat, in the Slovenian part from Slovenes. Particularly in the area along the west coast there is a larger Italian minority. In the mountain country of the northeast Istrien in some localities also Istrorumäni is spoken. The population concentrates in the coastal regions, while the interior only thinlyis settled.
From the inhabitants of the Croatian Gespanschaft Istrien 14,284 (6.92%) Italians were, 6,613 (3.20%) Serbs, 3,077 ( 1.49%) Bosniaken, 2,032 ( 0.98%) Albanians, 2,020 ( 0.98%) Slovenes according to census of 2001 148,328 (71.88%) Croats. 8.865 (4.30%)indicated no nationality (in the officially defined sense), but a regional affiliation (Istrianer).
geography and economics
the peninsula Istrien consists to a large extent of Kalkgestein. The coast is deeply arranged, some arms of the sea like the Limfjord (between Vrsar and Rovinj) or the bay of Plomin hand deeply in the interior country and have a fjord-similar character. The tourism is importantat the coast, the one to in 19. Century going back tradition has.
Economical center and largest city Istriens is the port Pula. Well-known bathing resorts are Medulin, Rovinj, Poreč, Ičići, Lovran, Medveja, Mošćenička Draga, Opatija and Umag inCroatian as well as Koper, Portorož and Izola in the Slovenian part.
In the northern and middle part Istriens lie the places usually on salient hills, which lends a special attraction to the landscape. Inneristrien is quite thinly populated. The most important places are Motovun , Buzet , Buje here as well as Grožnjan, which admits particularly by its artist colony as well as by music performances became. The population lives on for decades the traditionally existing tourism, from agriculture and works in the local industrial companies. Viticulture will become intensively operated in these regions, above all the yellow to greenish,easily bitter Malvazija as well as the bright red Teran GEC ELT ore. In the area around Motovun outstanding Trüffel are found, which are counted from some connoisseurs to the best world. Also the Kaiserling (Amanita caesarea) ranks among the istrischen mushroom specialities.
The interior Istriens is richly at remarkable architectural monuments. Often there is small, inconspicuous churches, which impress with usually well received Fresken. The Marienkirchlein of Beram with a grandiosen dead dance cycle is most well-known. In the fields finds one isolates age-old Kažun - protection huts from stone, those in earlier times the farmersand Hirten built.
The southern point of the peninsula forms the protected area cape coming yak (blank coming yak or also Donji coming yak) with its singular Flora and fauna.
The coastal length of the westCroatian region Istrien amounts to 537 kilometers. At some rock coast regions among other things close Rovinj and in the national park Brijuni one finds petrified dinosaur foot castings direct at the beach.
Istrien is climatically very favorably convenient with annually 2,380 sun hours: In the summer it becomes usually not too hot, while the winters are mild. The coldest month is statisticFebruary with on the average 6 °C and the warmest month is July with on the average 23 °C. The annual average amounts to 14 °C.
with Pula, Rijeka (Croatia) and Portorož (Slovenia) exist international airports. The airport Rijeka becomessince the year 2005 among other things of cheap airlines such as z. B. Hapag Lloyd express approached. The airport Pula is appropriate also for takeoffs and landings Boeing 747 (jumbo jet jet).
early history and antique one
one of the oldest proven settlements inIstrien, the today's place Premantura, goes back into the Bronzezeit . In the antique one as Histria , Istrien belonged admits to Illyrien. The Romans became acquainted with the inhabitants as bold pirates and subjugated them in the 3. Century v. Chr.. Under Augustus and TiberiusIstrien the Roman realm was slammed shut.
the Middle Ages
789 subjected Karl man, Son of Karl of the large one, Istrien the Frankish realm. 803 it was integrated into the Frankish Marks of Friaul. the Patriarchat Aquileia the metropolitan force over Istrien received 827 and its bishop seats. 830 the Mark of Friaul was divided into 4 counties; Istrien formed starting from then alsoanother county the Mark of Aquileia.
The high Middle Ages
in the high Middle Ages Otto I. assigned. the Marks of Aquileia (together with the Mark of Verona) starting from 952 at Bavaria; starting from 976 the Mark of Aquileia came at Kärnten. 1040 became Istrien of Heinrich III. converted into an own Mark county of the holy Roman realm seperate of Friaul.
With this Mark county, which ran also under the name Meranien, successively different became from 1040 to 1208Aristocracy sexes belehnt, last starting from 1170 to the counts von Andechs, mentioned Andechs Meranien. First of them was count Berthold V., who was also Titularherzog of Dalmatien (Merania, Meran). 1188 its son Berthold VI. followed it. and this 1204 his fourth son, duke Heinrichof Dalmatien. King Philipp took, there it it to this with the Gegenkönig Otto IV. , if the Mark county held, and because Heinrich had participated in the murder Philipps, it had to flee.
Since the Andechs Meranier practically never resided in Istrien, there relatively independent possession complexes of the Patriarchats Aquileia, the local bishops, venezianischer monasteries, for the ravennatischen bishop church San Apollinare, formed the dynasty of Duino(with Triest) and the counts von Görz (Gorizia) out. Additionally Venice, first successfully, tried to achieve the rule over the coastal towns. Its influence became however in the first half 13. Century back-pushed toward the Patriarchen of Aquileia again.
In the second half of this centuryhowever, when the realm was weakened after end of the Staufer dynasty, Venice could win debited to the Patriarchats of Aquileia influence. Parallel to it the counts von Görz their influence removal inside the peninsula - likewise at expense Aquileias -. In peacetime ofTreviso 1291 received then finally the sovereignty to Venice over the coast from Koper (Capodistra) to Rovinj (Rovigno) and the counts von Görz over the Karstgebiete on the inside. Pola, which had made itself independent, came only 1331 under venezianische rule. Triest could itself still longer independentlyhold.
early modern times
the areas conquered by the counts von Görz in the interior came later with their areas to the having citizens. The venezianische Istrien, which covered mainly the coastal regions, remained four hundred years under venezianischer rule. From this time also that originatesclearly recognizable venezianische flair of the coastal towns Istriens. Venezianisch Istrien covered among other things Monfalcone, Grado, Koper (Capo d'Istria), Pula (Pola), Poreč (Parenzo), Rovinj (Rovigno), Umag (Umago), Labin (Albona) and other cities.
after the peace of Campo Formio 1797 occupied Austria the country. When however Austria in peacetime had carried renouncement out to press castle of all “venezianische possessions”, it also Istrien at France transfer had, and the same was slammed shut the Kingdom of Italy.One formed from it and from some other areas the Département Istrien (2,900 km ² with 82.300 inhabitants, capital Koper/Capo d'Istria). 1808 appointed Napoleon I. the marshal Bessières to „the duke of Istrien “. Later Istrien of Napoleon with the illyrischen provinces was combined. 1813 became the two areasfrom the Austrians back-conquers, and with the dissolution of the Republic of Venice Istrien formed 1815 again a part of the Austrian monarchy. 1849 are organized Istrien as own crowning country, which with Triest and Görz was united to the coastal country.
The Mark county Istrien, also the islandsthe Kvarner - bay also covered, had in the year 1900 a surface of 4.955 km ² with 345.000 inhabitants. In Pula the main base of the k was since 1867. and. k. War navy.
first world war and intermediate wartime
in the Londoner contract of 26. April 1915Italy territorial promises were made among other things concerning Istrien, in order to move it the war entrance at the side of the allied ones. For history Istriens played the contract in as much a weighty role as itself in the peace negotiations the irredentistische Italian diplomacy in circles of the large fouragain and again and increasingly more persistent to the present Treaty appointed, in order to intersperse of Italy territorial claims. To the Londoner according to contract also Istrien with Triest should be assigned and the dalmatinischen islands to Italy beside Görz and Gradisca. It secured for Italy thus irredentistische territorial extensions debited to by the majority from Slovenes and Croats settled territories of Austria Hungary and/or the later kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes too.
After the K.u.K. Censusin the year 1846 completely Istrien had 228,035 inhabitants, under it 134,445 Croats (59%), 60,000 Italians (26%), 31,995 Slovenes (14%). After the K.u.K. Census of 1910 had Istrien 386,463 inhabitants, under it 168,184 Croats (43%), 147,417 Italians (38%), 55,134 Slovenes (14%), 15.728other one (4%). In order to change the audience composition in favor of the Italian subpopulation, at that time Italians were settled. Against native Croats regulations using chicanery were introduced. The Italian fascists accomplished (similarly as in South Tyrol) Zwangsitalianisierungsmassnahmen. The Slovenian and Croatian language became in the publicLives forbidden, Slovenian and Croatian newspapers were not allowed to appear any more and also in the school teaching could no more on Slovenian or Croatian be informed. About 30,000 Croats and Slovene left Istrien during the Italian rule. Already into the 1920er - years came it to first, at that time howeverrelatively unsuccessful, anti-fascist resistance actions of the Croatian and Slovenian inhabitants.
To 2. March 1921 the Croatian mountain workers of Labin stepped because of bad conditions of work into were pending. After 36 days this was by force terminated and the responsible persons leaders was punished. This episode went as Labinska Republika (Republic of Labin)into the historiography. (Source [])
the Second World War
during the Second World War Croatian and Slovenian partisans fought against Italian fascism and for the combination with the Yugoslav partial republics Croatia and Slovenia. After the front change of Italy on the sidethe allied one in the year 1943 partisans first in parts the Istriens could disarm the Italian troops and transfer power, however Istrien as well as the neighbouring areas was occupied immediately after it by the German armed forces and placed as area of operations Adriati coastal country under German crew rule, thoseup to the spring 1945 persisted. In the consequence it came to retaliatory measures and massacres under the Italian civilian population by the partisan federations.
Yugoslavia, free territory Triest
with the establishment second Yugoslavia of the 1945 arrived the main partthe partial republic Croatia, the northwest part of Istriens belonged first to the territory of the free territory Triest. When 1954 the area of the free territory between Yugoslavia and Italy were divided, the Yugoslav portion was divided for his part under the partial republics Slovenia and Croatia. Numerous Italian Optanten (afterYugoslav/Croatian Lesart) and/or. “Esuli “(dt. “Exilierte “or “banished”) moved to the emergence of the socialist federal republic Yugoslavia to Italy. Due to ethnical disadvantage, and in the course Deportation and driving out (see also: AVNOJ resolutions) it came to the drift of 90% of the Italian population Istriens. The area around the cities Koper and Portorož came to Slovenia, that far area lain south to Croatia. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia was finally contractually specified 1975 in the contract by Osimo. By the agreement to the protection, locked at the same timethe minorities on both sides the border in Yugoslav (and/or today) area Slovenian Croatian in right follow-up and the rights of the Italian minority were guaranteed. Bilingual place name signs and road designations mark today the multi-cultural Istrien in the Slovenian and Croatian part, during itself into and around Triest if necessary bilingual signposts/guidesfind.
decay of Yugoslavia
contrary to the border to Italy was relatively inaccurately fixed the border between the partial republics Croatia and Slovenia in the northwest Istriens to Yugoslav time in some few places. To the independence of the two republics 1991/1992 it cameto one to today not finally settled controversy between the two states about the accurate course of the border in this area, particularly around the sea-border in the gulf of Piran. The negotiations run at present still (see:International conflicts of the succession states of Yugoslavia).
During the largeSerbian aggression approximatelyCroatia remained this region exempted from direct war influences and destruction and offered to a large number of refugees from at that time Serbian occupied and “ethnical cleaned” parts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegowinas refuge in tourism mechanisms and hotels.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Category: Istria - pictures,Video and/or audio files|
Banovina | Baranja | Biokovo Neretva | Dalmatinska Zagora (Dalmatini hinterland) | Fermenting ski kotar | Kordun | Lika | Međimurje | Moslavina | Plešivica | Podravina | Pokuplje | Posavina | Prigorje Bilogora | Primorje (Croatian coastal country) | Syrmien | Zagorje