Italy

Repubblica Italiana
Italian Republic of
Flagge Italiens: Drei vertikale Blockstreifen, von links: grün, weiß, rot. Wappen Italiens
(detail) (detail)
office languages Italian; regionally additionally German, French, Ladinisch, Slovenian, Sardisch
capital Rome
president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi
surface 301,336 km ²
number of inhabitants 58.679.441 (2005)
population density of 193 inhabitants per km ²
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
- total
- BIP/Einw.
2005 (estimated)
$1,836 billion (7.)
$31,874 (20.)
Currency euro
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Fratelli d'Italia
republic Republic of 2. June
national holiday 25. April
Kfz characteristic I
internet TLD .it
preselection +39
Lage von Italien in Europa
Karte Italiens
Satellitenbild Italiens

Italy (Italian Italia) is a state in Europe at the Mediterranean. Of Italy capital is Rome. Adjacent states are France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, as well as Croatia over a sea-border and the enclaves San Marino and the Vatikanstadt (in Rome). To Italy the Mediterranean islands Sicilies , Sardinien and Elba belong.

Italy is among other things admits for its kitchen, mode and designer article, clothing industry, architecture, car, football, research, art, films, music and tourist goals. Today's Italy was in the antique output country of the Roman realm with Rome as capital of the Imperiums. In addition Italy is also the country of origin of the Renaissance and the Risorgimento.

Table of contents

Geografie

the form of the country reminds of a boot. This peninsula becomes from the mountain course, which Apennin pulled through, in the longitudinal axis. In the north a part of the alps belongs to Italy. Along the west coast of Italy pull themselves from the north toward the south and. A. the Italian Riviera in Ligurien, the Etruski Riviera in the Toskana as well as the gulf of Neapel in Kampanien. The east coast becomes of Triest in the north up to the Gargano in the north Apuliens (after other representations: up to the road of Otranto) as the Italian Adriaküste designates.

The longest rivers are Po, Etsch, Arno and Tiber. Among the largest Italian lakes the Gardasee , the Lago Maggiore and the Comer lake in upper Italy as well as the Lago di Bolsena and the Lago Trasimeno in central Italy rank.

Beside the Vesuv on the Italian mainland equivalent two further well-known volcanos stand on Italian islands: the Ätna and the Stromboli (and further smaller around Sicilies ).

Beside the capital Rome are the most important cities Milan, Neapel, Genova, Turin, Venice, Bologna, Florenz, Bari, Catania and Palermo.

Highest mountain of Italy is the Mont blank de Courmayeur 4,748 M.

Population

Italy has a number of inhabitants of 58.679.441 inhabitants and ranked in the world rank list at place 22, within the European union is appropriate the country on that for 4. Rank behind Germany, France and Great Britain.

City and Landbevölkerung

round 67% the inhabitant of Italy, primarily in the north, live in cities. Particularly from 1950 to 1960 a strong drift from the underdeveloped land regions prevailed into the cities (migration from the land). For years this trend turned around the 1980er to favour of the suburbs and towns.

Largest cities

(inhabitant 31. December 2004)

see: List of the cities in Italy

the ten largest provinces

(inhabitant 31. December 2004)

see: List of the Italian provinces

largest ones Italian dyes and centers of dense development

City inhabitant world rank list European rank list
Milan 6.600.000 n.b. n.b.
Neapel 4.500.000 n.b n.b.
Rome 4.400.000 n.b. n.b.
Turin 2.400.000 n.b. n.b
Palermo 1.400.000 n.b. n.b.
Florenz 1.000.000 n.b n.b.
Genova 1.000.000 n.b. n.b.


Life expectancy

Italy has one of the highest life expectancies of the world. Them amount to with men 78 years, with Mrs. approximately 83. Approximately 19% of the Italians are older than 65 years. After Swiss thus the Italians in Europe state the list of the “most long-lived populations before the Greeks and Sweden. As reason frequently the Italian kitchen, thus the mediterrane nutrition, is stated.

Religion

with 80,2% catholic and 16.2% denomination lots is Italy a catholic coined/shaped country. Only 3.6% the inhabitant belong to other religions, among them 231,226 witnesses Jehovas and 35,000 Jews as well as Protestanten and Muslims (estimated 1 million). The catholic church is traditionally influential and importantly in Italy, what reflects itself in a high number at priests (25,823) and cardinals (38) [1].

Italian

there still the regional office languages German (in South Tyrol) , French ( Aostatal), Ladinisch and Slovenian are languages apart from the office language. Beyond that further minority languages stand under special protection (by the condition and a specifying law from the year 1999): Albanian, Catalan, Greek, Croatian, Franko Provenzalisch, Furlanisch, Zimbrisch, Okzitanisch and Sardisch. Partially the respective communities aim at a development of their language to the office language.

History

major item: History of Italy

Italy, above all central and South Italies, is already since the antique one an important European cultural center and was center of the Roman realm. After the idea of the Goten the country splintered political ball “of the surrounding great powers into many small states and became in such a way one . In the Risorgimento - epoch, in the middle 19. Century, Italy under supremacy of the Kingdom of Piemont Sardinien, particularly by the federationfederation federations under Giuseppe Garibaldi, was combined to the Kingdom of Italy. Since Italy had separated at the beginning of the First World War from the three-federation and the Entente had joined, the kingdom on the side of winner powers the Austrian South Tyrol could annektieren.

In October 1922 transferred Benito Mussolini and its Fascii Gefolgsleute mentioned by the march on Rome power to Italy. Step by step Mussolini converted the kingdom into a totalitarian state and sat down, similarly as late Hitler, even as “Duce” to the point of people and state. Still before beginning of the Second World War Italy Abessinien attacked, this occupation contrary to international law was part of Mussolinis an explained goal of letting the old (antique ) Roman realm revive again. By different agreements Mussolini committed itself at the German Reich and Adolf Hitler. Finally Italy on the side of the Axis powers , after noticeable hesitating of the Duce , the Second World War occurred . With the retreat of the Italian troops before the moving forward allied ones and the fall of the fascist government in Rome in the autumn 1943, Italy changed the fronts and explained now to its before times allied one the war. The following invasion of the German armed forces was answered with the resistance of the Resistenza. After release Mussolinis by German paratroopers in the Apenninen took place the installation of a puppet government under Mussolini in north Italy to down to Rome to 23. September 1943 (Italian social republic). This new state remained allied with Germany and avowed for his part the part of Italy the war occupied by the allied ones. When the German federations withdrew themselves in June 1944 up to „the Gotenlinie “ in the Apennin and partisans its assaults strengthened Italian on German soldiers, it came to massacres at the civilian population and further heavy war crimes by the German Besatzer and troops of the social republic Italy. To 28. April 1945 the armed forces federations in Italy before the westallied, the fights capitulated however still held up to 2. May 1945 on. By the front change Italy remained exempted after end of war from larger cessions of territory (surrounding countryside of Triest at Yugoslavia and/or. today's Slovenia and Croatia, Dodekanes at Greece, smaller frontier revisions in favor of of France).

The recent history of Italy is characterised by frequent changes of government and high inflation . Italy is initial member of the European Economic Community (forerunner of the European Union) and 2001 its currency „Lira” by the euro replaced.

Politics

major item: Political system of Italy

Italy is since 1946 a parliamentary republic. Head of state is a president, the parliament consists of two chambers (chamber of deputies and senate), which are selected every five years and are absolutely equal. Head of the government is an Prime Minister, since 2001 Silvio Berlusconi.

Besides Italy is member in several supra-national organizations. With that 4. April 1949 took place the entrance into NATO. Since that 14. December 1955 belongs to Italy the United Nations . Besides the country is as initial member of the European union at the 1. January 1958 an important partner in Europe.

See also: List of the Italian Prime Ministers

Schulwesen and Bildung

major item: Educational system in Italy

the public education of Italy actual particularly in the obligation school sphere - by large uniformity characterized. The substantial regulations for instruction and education are not in Milan different than in Palermo. There are differences only within the range of the vocational education, which belongs to the jurisdiction of the individual regions. The educational system is divided into the following three ranges: Kindergarten (scuola dell' infanzia, 3-6), compulsory school (scuola elementary, 6-11; scuola media 11-14), upper stage (Liceo: classico, scientifico, linguistico, artistico, economico, tecnologico, musicals, depression scienze umane; 14-19). The earlier specialized high schools (istituti tecnici), already in former times to the general university-level graduation led, into High Schools are converted. Italy made meaning progress in the foreign language training in the last years: English in the primary school is informed, a second living foreign language is already added in the secondary school I. The 5-jährigen High Schools sees beside it i.d.R. Latin instruction forwards, with the old-linguistic Liceo Classico is added still oldGreek. The compulsory schooling was extended 2004 by 9 years (6-15) to 12 years (6-18). Who already after the 12. Class the High School without Abitur (Diploma di Maturitá, 13. Class) leaves, receives automatically an access authorization to a kind professional school. Who does not want to go with 14 on the High School, training at a regional Technical High School must make (those possibly. with a state examination and the vocational Abitur to be locked can). After the first practical training year alternatively operational training can be accomplished. Who before completion 18. Lebensjahres first occupation-qualifying conclusion reached, from the twelve-year-old boys training and obligation to train one exempts.

Health and health system

the health system in Italy is as in GB as national health service structured. The family doctors receive a head lump sum for the patients, who were registered in a list. The long waiting period is seen negative on stationary treatment. Nevertheless the WHO in a Ranking of the health systems has Italy to France on the 2. Place posed. Those statistically somewhat longer life expectancy becomes with a so-called. mediterranen food avowedly. This e.g. contains. much fish and olive oil. Unfortunately is also in Italy over weightyness on the advance.

Political arrangement

Regionen in Italien
regions in Italy

Italy is politically in 20 regions (regioni) with own in each case government arranged, which have however fewer authority than for instance the German Lands of the Federal Republic or Swiss of cantons. These regions are in altogether 108 provinces (province) and this in municipalities partitions. Five regions granted them a special status (statuto speciale), a larger autonomy; these are marked in the following list with a star.

see: List of the Italian regions, list of the Italian provinces

economics

general

Italy is a guided national economy, which was increasingly dereguliert and denationalized in the last years . The Italian economy is the sixth-largest of the world (2003) and is more vergleichber concerning of its GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT with that France and Great Britain. Italy saw the second highest debt conditions European Union far based on the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. With 106,5% national indebtedness at the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT in the year 2004 was appropriate for Italy only scarcely before Greece, which in the same year 109.3% proved.

Raw materials and industries

Italy hardly possesses, up to some Erdgasvorkommen in the Poebene and into the Adria natural resources such as iron, coal or oil. The strength of the Italian economy lies in the processing trade, before all in small and medium-size family-led enterprises. Among the most important industries rank mechanical engineering, cars, chemistry, Pharmaprodukte, electronic products, mode and clothes.

Currency

since 2002 is the euro in Italy legal tender. This replaced the Italian Lira .

Export

Italy is with approx. 52 million Hektolitern the second largest wine producer of the world (to France, conditions: 2000). See for this to viticulture in Italy

among the most important Italian export goods ranking machine-builder certifications, textiles/clothing, motor vehicles and products of the chemical industry

power supply

Italy had to 1990 some nuclear power stations. Released by the Tschernobyl disaster Italy accomplished a gradual atomic door starting from 1987 . 1990 were switched off the last Italian atomic power plant. Today Italy produces its river particularly in thermal power stations and imports a substantial part of the river, predominantly from France and Switzerland.

North-south gap

characteristic of Italy is the division in two parts of the country. The strongly industrialized north with its large restaurant centers and metropolises Milan, Turin, Bologna and Genova had a well developed service sector and is thus economically comparable with the northern neighboring countries. The south of the country, also Mezzogiorno mentioned, is one of the structure-weakest regions of the EU-15 and is still strongly agriculturally coined/shaped. The result from it are very high unemployment rates, which accepts extremes for the youth, a increased criminality rate and not least the organized crime, which particularly exercise power over many industries in Kalabrien and on Sicilies.

Between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

Italy in Europe already very early a crucial role in art and culture played. The Roman antique one was in the time of the Roman realm model of all buildings of Europe. Also in the Middle Ages and in the time of the Renaissance Italy was the output country of the European art, culture and research. In the area of the painting, sculpture and architecture Italy brought an abundance out of important personalities such as Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Raphael, Fra Angelico and Michelangelo .

Italy is exactly the same as for its meal (Pizza, Pasta, etc.) , wine, way of life , elegance, Design, film, theatre , literature, poetry , painting, and generally spoken music (in particular the opera ) world well-known for its art and culture, for its buildings like the Kolosseum and the inclined tower of Pisa, for good taste.


Important persons of Italy

major item: List of famous Italians

of holidays

Date designation Italian name note
1. January New Year's Day Capodanno
6. January Epiphanias Epifania
- Easter Pasqua Ostersonntag
- Ostermontag Pasquetta
25. April day of release Liberazione 1945
1. May day of the work Festa del Lavoro
2. June day of the Republic of Festa della Repubblica establishment of the Italian Republic of 1946
15. August Maria Himmelfahrt Ferragosto
1. November all-holy Ognissanti
8. December Maria receipt-sneeze Immacolata
25. December Christmas Natale
26. December Stefan day Santo Stefano
31. December Silvester San Silvestro

media

Italy has a very large net at mass media. Beside the traditional newspaper and the television ever more strongly Internet becomes generally accepted . The mobile telephone experienced a very large success in Italy, which continues still. Prepaid - maps the over hand, there the tariffs in the comparison with other states of the European Union, above all however with Postpaid - have tariffs are cheap. The organization Freedom House gradated the Italian media 2004 of “freely” on “partly freely” down. This can be led back with the increasing and large influence of Silvio Berlusconi on the Italian television and parts of the Italian press.

Press

Italian daily papers has an offer from supraregional newspapers and many regionally very important sheets. They differ less in their contents than many more in their spreading and prestige. Beside the large daily papers La Repubblica from Rome, IL Corriere della Sera from Milan and La Stampa from Turin exist many important local newspapers, z. B. La Nazione from Florenz or IL Mattino from Neapel. Both the newspapers of a regional and supraregional character have contentwise messages from in and foreign country, regional and local of events in the large daily papers are likewise mentioned.

Most daily papers call themselves quotidiano indipendente, thus “independent daily paper”, are however more or less affected of political and commercial interests. The designation comes therefore, because they differ from the pure party newspapers like the communist L'Unita or the Christian democratic IL Popolo, which their party membership not denials.

Most daily papers are in a relatively fastidious opening and organization, it very consciously for a qualitative and intellectual write style are striven. In the European comparison in Italy little newspaper is read nevertheless, Italy ranked thereby relatively far down.

An exception and a characteristic in the Italian press landscape represent the daily sport newspapers. At present nevertheless exist three daily papers, which concern themselves only with sport and achieve all together relatively high editions. The most widely read Italian sport newspaper, La Gazzetta dello sport, reaches on its turnover-strongest day into for instance the edition of the usually-common Italian daily paper.


The range of the Italian weekly newspapers is comparable with that of the German-speaking countries. One can recognize also the distinction between gossip press and fastidious magazines. But also popular weekly newspapers, z. B. Oggi, Gente or La Domenica del Corriere, strive for very high quality. Some daily papers publish likewise sunday editions.

Broadcast and television

the three national radio programs as well as the television stations RAI UN, RAI Due as well as RAI Tre are summarized under the nationally controlled organization RAI-TV. Besides exists a multiplicity at private stations, which have their stations in nearly each larger city. These finance themselves by a very high portion of advertisement, the program exist to large parts from music and shows.

There are large qualitative differences. Some few established transmitters united to a large transmitter net, others however are limited to the radiant emittance of films, whose quality is partly questionable. Altogether approximately 1,700 TV organizations in Italy, which reach approximately 30 million spectator, exist.

Thereby the large influence of the still officiating Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi on the media is undisputed. Since its presidency it exerts also increasingly influence on the public media, approximately on the organization RAI. Further three Italy far terrestrial receiptable transmitters are in the private property Berlusconis. Under the name Mediaset are summarized the private stations Canale 5 , Italia 1 and Rete 4. Berlusconi has these transmitters in the years 1980 - 1984 bought up and them daily a million-public popular transmission formats reach and radiate such as Reality shows and sport transmissions. Into the criticism the transmitters came particularly by the one-sided reporting relating to domestic affairs during the last parliamentary elections in Italy.

Sport

the most popular Italian kind of sport is the football (Calcio). The Italian football had very well-known soccer associations, which achieved many successes with international tournaments, like for example Juventus Turin, inter Milan, AC Milan, Lazio Rome, AS Roma and AC Parma. Unfortunately right-wing extremists actions in connection with soccer games mehren themselves in recent time. So dark-membranous players in stages repeated expenditure-whistled. The national team of Italy won already three times the world champion title (1934, 1938, 1982) and could 1968 the European champion title achieve.

Particularly in the northern regions, in the Aostatal, in the Veltlin and in South Tyrol the Skisport attained large popularity. Many tourists spend their vacation in the proximity of one of these Italian skiing areas. Two the nowadays most well-known ski driver with the gentlemen is Giorgio Rocca and with the ladies Isolde Kostner. The abroad probably most famous Italian ski driver is Alberto Tomba.

The moreover Italy applies also than a cycle racing country. The giro d'Italia applies after the route de France as the secondarymost important Radrennen of the world. Important a daily running, which are counted to the classical authors, are Milan San Remo and the Lombardei Rundfahrt. To the most important cycle racing-learn to belong among other things the deceased Marco Pantani and Mario Cipollini and/or in cycle racing history Fausto Coppi and Gino Bartali.

Besides basketball and Volleyball belong to the more popular kinds of sport in Italy.

Military

the Italian army consists of the armed services army, Air Force, navy and the Carabinieri. Altogether 190,000 men and women in the Streikräften serve, in addition 110,000 Carabinieri and 50,000 civilian coworkers come.

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