Józef Piłsudski

Józef Klemens Piłsudski (* 5. December 1867 in Zułów (lit. Zalavas) with Wilna; † 12. May 1935 in Warsaw) was a Polish marshal and dictator in the time between the world wars.

Marshal Józef Piłsudski

was born Piłsudski 1867 in Zułówwith Wilna (lit. Vilnius, polarize. Wilno), which belonged at that time to the Russian realm (today Lithuania). Piłsudski was son of Polish smallnoble, its Roman-catholic baptism found in Podbrodzie (lit. Pabrade) instead of.

Already early Piłsudski used itself for Polish independence, approximately during the medicine study in Charkow.Thereupon it was banished from the Russians to Siberia.

Since 1893 it was prominent member of the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna within the Russian realm. The trailers Piłsudskis could only organize themselves in the Austrian governed part of Poland ( Galizien and parts of Schlesiens) unhindered. Accordingly placed itselfPiłsudski in the First World War in the interest of a Polish autonomy first on the side having citizens of the realm (see: History of Poland).

When the Central Powers played the Polish will to independence not respected and on time to deliver and by its refusal opposite the Austrian emperor a loyalty oath,only quite, came to the internment Piłsudskis did not along-play it to the break and 1917 into Magdeburg by the German authorities. In confusions of the November revolution was decided to bring it accompanied by Harry count Kessler to Berlin and from there with the course to Warsaw, where it was enthusiastically received from the population.1918, after the regained and complete independence of Poland, became Piłsudski head of state (until 1922). He pursued the goal of the re-establishment of the Polish borders from the time before the Polish divisions, also over the bordersthe Polish settlement area outside. By this politics it came first to, by the Versailler contract fixed, integration of large Poland, as well as to martial conflicts with the Soviet Union and in the consequence also to disputes with Lithuania because of from both sides desired area around Wilna, in which Poland formed the majority of the population at that time (today those form after the Russians the second-strongest minority for Poland in Lithuania with scarcely 7%).

Józef Piłsudski, Portrait of Jacek Malczewski, 1916

after initial successes in the alliance with the Ukrainian president Symon Petljura,had of Piłsudski, in the war against the Soviet Union 1920, befehligte army strong losses to accept. The Soviet troops were stopped only before Warsaw and by just as waghalsiges, as ingenious pliers maneuver succeeded to the Polish army under Piłsudskis command the break-through and an almost complete destructionthe Soviet units (“miracles to the Weichsel “). To 18. March 1921 signed Poland the peace treaty of Riga, in which the east border was defined in such a way that also a set of areas, which were not inhabited by Poland by the majority part of the Polish state it became.Nevertheless a larger number of Poland remained outside of the new state. Also opposite Lithuania Piłsudskis became generally accepted politics. Although Poland in the contract of Suwałki (7. October 1920 had done) without the largest part of the contentious area of Wilna with its Polish population majority,9 already took to. October Polish troops in a hand caper the city. After the town council the connection at Poland to 20. February 1922 had approved of, became it to 20. April 1922 finally carried out.

1923 educated prime minister Wincenty Witos a new government. Marshal Piłsudski, thatnot with the admission of some politicians into the new government agreed, laid down all offices and withdrew themselves into his country house into Sulejówek with Warsaw.

The next years were coined/shaped of political and economic crises. After the refusal of president Stanisław Wojciechowski of oneFormation of a government with Alexander Skrzyński as prime ministers, the trailers Piłsudskis in the military decided to a coup d'etat, which took place in May 1926. Piłsudski was selected again from the Polish Sejm to the head of state, did however without the further presidency and left the office to its candidate Ignacy Mościcki.In the consequence Piłsudski controlled the country in changing functions, among other things as Secretaries of Defense.

Der Marschall auf seinem Pferd "Kasztanka", Gemälde von Wojciech Kossak, 1928
The marshal on its horse “Kasztanka”, paintings of Wojciech Kossak, 1928

in its late lifetime he strove for a safety device of the Polish state borders and a stabilization of the country inward (“Sanacja “, thus “recovery” of the state). The political opposition could participate in elections, however with partly police-national means was fought (arrests of members of the farmer party and of national democrats as well as Wincenty Witos). The insurgent Ukrainian and Byelorussian minorities in the east became partial brutal withpolice methods fights. Antisemitismus did not play however in the policy Piłsudski a role.

In the year 1932 the Polish-Soviet nonaggression treaty was signed and to 26. January 1934 the GermanPolish nonaggression treaty, which should secure Poland from both sides. The relations with France and England continued to become simultaneousdeepens, which became later in the Second World War allied Poland.

The Privatmann Piłsudski was coined/shaped of large material modesty. It was married in first marriage with Maria Juszkiewiczówna. Since this was divorced, he stepped before the marriage ceremony (in Paprocie with Łomża) to the Evangelical-LutheranChurch over. During the First World War it returned to the Roman-catholic church . With its later companion Aleksandra Szczerbińska it had two daughters, Wanda and Jadwiga. He married Aleksandra however only after the death of the first wife.

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