Hunt

hunt marks a visiting, a placing behind, a catching, a hunting and an acquiring of game. Where the hunt is subject to legal regulations or the hunting grounds may be used only by certain circles of acquaintances, the bad hunt is called Wilderei.
By “hunting” one understandspurposeful killing of game.

“November”, Joachim of Sandrart, oil on canvas, 1643

table of contents

tasks and motives

the hunt originally took place for different reasons:

  • Food production
  • production of animal parts of all kinds (like for example skins, Horns, antlers, etc.)
  • leisure activities

in more recent time was added than further reasons:

  • Economic reasons outside of the hunt (for example inventory adjustment, around game damage in the forest - to prevent and agriculture)
  • ecological reasons (population dynamics, natural equilibrium, replacement of the exterminatedBooty grip arms, prevention of epidemics)

also today are to be found the motives mentioned further next to each other. However is a substantial component of the hunt preserves beyond that. In addition for example also feeding of game animals belong in times of distress and the plant of game fields, with which thatnatural food bottleneck in the winter and thus verb-eat in the forest to be reduced is. This proceeding does not remain without criticism (see paragraph:Criticism). Further within the framework preserve however also measures moved those the goals of the nature protection to generally serve,as for instance measures for the protection of valuable biotopes, biotope improvements (approximately by plant of hedges) and Renaturierungen. Since the hunt is not any more part of the creation of the food basis, it is regarded as hobby (hunt haven).

history andTradition

illustration from the hour book of the duke of Berry (France, 15. Jh.)
Râjâ Râm Singh II. on the hunt (India, approx. 1830)

origin

in the paleolithic age were already hunted by humans - “hunters and collecting tanks “is the usual name for humans of this time. The hunt served mainly for the food supply and supplied beside meat valuable animal by-products such as bones and skins.

With the increasing permanence and associated Domestizierung of animals the hunt stepped asBase of life in far parts of the population increasingly into the background. Already in the antique advanced cultures the hunt was regarded as leisure pleasure. It was increasingly only exercised by a small part of the total population. But there were hunt-referred cults for divinities,those the chase particularly sanctified was kind bad - so the Greek and the Roman Diana. Also the catholic church has particularly a patron of the hunters, the Hl. Hubertus.

To in the Middle Ages the hunt became ever more the privilegethe aristocracy, as well as national and church dignitary. From the Middle Ages also the distinction originates in “high hunt” - those the aristocracy reserved hunt for big game - and “low hunt” on smaller animals such as hares and feather/spring game (small game). Districts in those the hunting right alone the king were entitled as game spell are designated. In 18. and 19. Century became the hunt and/or. the hunter also as “Parforce” designates.

Today the hunt in Germany is exercised with priority by private hunters.The hunting right is firmly linked with the landed property, so that in hunt cooperatives united basic owners lease the hunt practice right on on time third. Besides also an active hunt tourism exists abroad. In the state and national forests the hunting right becomes by the Forstämterexercised and partially likewise further-leases.

customs - hunter in fairy tales and stories

also in Germany exists jagdliches customs with different jagdlichen customs, among other things a hunter language is maintained. The traditional green clothing is well-known everyoneto exclude and hardly more. The jagdlichen traditions are maintained in the hunter shank actively and are also frequently in practice.

Like few other occupational groups the hunters in numerous fairy tales and stories were mystifiziert. In (north and Central German)Fairy tales and stories appear them particularly as noble shapes. In fairy tales they are often it, which cause the turn at the end to the good one or seal (for example rescue before the “bad wolf”).

Also in the homeland films of the 50'sYears often appeared to hunter as noble Kavaliere and began thereby the follow-up of the knight shape in medieval stories.

On the other hand the hunters or hunter in South German, in Bavarian people narrations are particularly explained often negatively. The forest belonged in feeling of thePeople everything. Thus the Wildern was regarded as legitimate. This applies particularly to songs and stories from the time of the absolutism. There the conflict between the “game contactors” (Wilderer) often becomes and the hunters as assistants of the hated absolutist authoritydescribed. While all, the courageous men dividing with the arms are explained to game contactors, the hunters are described as cowardly and behind jerk. In the Bavarian song of protecting the Jennerwein comes particularly clearly to the expression (see.The legend Jennerwein).

hunt today

hunt is one of the oldest forms of resources use, apart from collecting as it were the prototype at all. However the jagdlichen basic conditions and the attitudes of the society about hunt have themselves profoundly in the course of history both,usually negatively, changes.

Contents and remark characteristics of the hunt were pervertiert by the hunters in multiple regard verfremdet to. Thus it departed ever more from the other forms of the land use. Game animals became accordingly in increasingly intensively used habitatsas disturbing competitors outstandingly and partially radical pursues this to exterminated, and predominantly by extraction of its appropriate bases of life.

game animal management

only in recent past began itself first isolated to implement then with increased weight the realization thatgame animal management up-to-date to the goal to have must of co-ordinating by rational jagdliches acting as well as by orientation by nature habitat organization Flora and fauna in the best possible way in order to train straight partnerships of the culture landscapes vital stable thereby and.

Vitalität cannot be equated thereby on one side with Trophäenstärke, butthe entire life circumstances (population dynamics, health, reactivity on environmental influences etc.) must find to consideration. To tolerate natural robber booty relations, if necessary. to even promote, modern game animal management differentiates of the conventional practice of a selective preference „desired “kinds.

hunt goes always alsothe society to

social acceptance again can be achieved only in conformity with the animal protection as well as nature and protection of species. In this connection e.g. are. determined kinds of hunt such as driving and pressing hunt, trap hunt, building and Wasserjagd, like also firing practicewildernden dogs and cats to submit of an open and differentiated examination.

hunt nature near

hunt today must kind-in accordance with-eat itself for the lasting use of not endangered game animal species in their and begin habitats arranged nature near. Endangered kinds are not such, which are stable due to the respective development of their population and the capacity of the habitat in its existence. For the collection of the current inventory dynamics the hunt avails itself of technically recognized game animal monitoring methods. The return formerly more domestic (more autochthoner) kinds becomes good in principlebeen called and promoted.

The hunt in protected areas of different categories (protected areas, national parks, forest protected areas, intensive recreation regions) has primarily the protection purpose and - a goal to serve. In contrast to this jagdliche requirements must be of subordinate importance. In these areas the hunt part is thatbut intended targets and regulations. She can notice thereby, in the context of protection concepts, tasks of management.

game animal justice

game animal justice, i.e. the attention of the game animal as Mitgeschöpf, can be arranged for the public not by persistent reproduction of outdated jagdlicher rites. Rather are Hunter their handicraft enlightened, consciously and exemplarily exercise. In addition it belongs that they kill game animals, whose existence is not adjusted in natural way as efficiently and trouble-free as possible, and thus animal-protection-fairly.

Hunt means always also disturbance, particularly in connection with frequent district coursesor Ansitzen. Therefore, also in accordance with the conditions of the game animal research, effective and at the same time trouble-free hunt methods must be introduced. Outside of the reduced Bejagungszeiten game animal in peace is to find and maintained know their life rhythm. Among the game animal justice beyond that the thorough and in line with standard usage rankTraining that hunter inside and hunters (basic and advanced training from hunter inside and hunters).

relationship to reason and owners of forest

in our intensively used culture landscape stands the hunt in the obligation for adherence to a well-planned balance within the ecosystem, -to the safety device and promotion of naturenear land and forestry. Reason and owners of forest decide with priority on the practice of the hunt and the jagdlichen goals on their surfaces, under respecting the social requiringness of the property. Therefore hunters, for the tuning of the common interests, participatethe reason and owners of forest as well as the representatives of the nature protection together. And arrange they protect the habitats of the game animals together.

kinds of hunt

in the course of the time developed most diverse kinds of hunt, which in each case in special situations and/or. with thatHunt for certain animal species at the geeignetesten are. The most important are:

single hunt

  • search: To be able to hunt with the help of a dog “scanned” one fields or forest sections around fleeing game. This kind of hunt finds usually on hares, rabbits or feather/spring gameinstead of. It is exercised by a particular or a smaller group by hunters. But one needs shortracing dogs or managing dogs.
  • Ansitz: With the Ansitz a hunter waits quietly at a clearing or a like, frequently on a stand. Wildly,which by-pulls, can in peace be observed in such a way, before it is decided whether one shoots. The uneasiness is minimal. With the Ansitz mainly on Rehwild, robbery game and big game one hunts.
  • Pirsch: Here the hunter commits carefully and quietly the too bejagendeArea, it “pirscht”. Can to traces be followed, in order to seek out game animals. Particularly success-promising this hunt is with new-fallen snow, since the fresh traces are to be seen particularly good here.

community hunt

  • Treibjagd: A community hunt, with several driversand dogs the game make highly volatile. Treibjagden are usually exercised on open surfaces on hares and other small game, except Rehwild.
  • Pressing hunt: With a pressing hunt several drivers - usually without company of dogs - close bybejagende area around the game animals in motion to bring and from the a conditions “press”. The game is not driven contrary to the Treibjagd by loud noises and Hundegebell from their a conditions. The game arises on the natural changesthe waiting hunters too. This kind of the community hunt produces less stress with the game animals. The hunters wait in the proximity this beginning on before fixed conditions for the game. Thus mostly black game and deer and Rotwild are bejagt.
  • Movement hunt:With this hunt form, similarly the pressing hunt, more spaciously one turns off. The game is only so far worried the fact that it leaves its beginning and if possible trusts and tightens slowly on the contactors. Facilitates for the hunters the purposeful selection and the game becomesworries less. This kind of hunt is used in large districts or district-spreading to all kinds of big game, Rehwild and robbery game.

further kinds of hunt

representation of a pickling hunt in the Très Riches Heures around 1415. It points the Ausritt of an elegant society toFalcon hunt. The long bar, which the Falkner with itself leads, served type of trapping for the Aufschrecken
  • of the birds: The hunt with traps. This is differentiated into the catch by living person traps and by homicide traps. In Germany there are strict laws, the thisHunt form regulate. In most Lands of the Federal Republic the hunter an additional examination for a trap light placing must. In other countries such as Russia are the regulations different. Professional falling plates undertake often large routes and come only after days the place.If the animal is already longer dead, only the skin - goes around it usually primarily - is useful.
  • Rush: Rushing of game with horse and Hundemeute is for a long time forbidden in Germany. Also in Englandthis was forbidden very disputed kind of hunt after protests in June 2004 by law.
  • Pickling hunt: The hunt with grab birds by Falkner.

In different regions different hunt traditions developed beyond that:

  • In England it gave up to the prohibition inJune 2004 the traditional fox hunt to horse, in Scotland was already in former times abolished these.
  • In Africa since the colonial ages the large game hunt (safari) is operated.
  • As modification also the gate hunt exists, with the animal concerned in a gate or enclosure the hunter to the simple firing is presented.
  • In cities (e.g. on cemeteries, in addition, on private or firm properties or airports) besides for Schädlingsbekämpfung pigeons or small game is placed behind. This often happens on behalf from property owners or the city administrationand must be approved by the hunt authority.

right

Germany

hunting right

according to kind. 75 exp. 1 No. the federation has 3 of the Basic Law the right for framework legislation in the area of the hunt.In practice of this legislative competence the federation issued the federal game laws (BJagdG). Besides national game laws exist in all Lands of the Federal Republic. Also the European right has indirect influence on the hunting right of the German Federal Republic, e.g. by the bird protection guideline or the Flora fauna Habitatguideline.

The federal game laws are the follow-up lawthe realm game laws of 1934, hunt-technical contents however continue to decrease much: The bases originate from the Prussian Ministry for agriculture, domains and forests for the term of office of the Social Democrat and hunter Otto brown as Ministers (1918-1921). Further models were the reformedGame laws of Poland, Romania and the British colonial hunting right aligned strongly to nature protection. And interspersed the realm game laws concretely arranged then the Prussian Prime Minister and later realm hunter masters Hermann Göring. Actual moving spirit of the law work, with that the hunt in Germany, was however the hunt functionary Ulrich Scherping ( 1889 - 1958) was for the first time uniformly regulated, which worked since 1933 as a hunt adviser in the Prussian state forest administration.

In the preface of the realm game laws were the “ideology-coined/shaped, partly passages contributed from Hermann Göring themselves concentrated”, like that thatScientific service of the German federal daily, which concerned itself in detail with the origin of the federal game laws. Therefore the preface in the BJG was completely painted. Further details for the emergence of the realm game laws and its meaning for the today's federal game laws find you inthe appropriate elaboration of the scientific service of the German federal daily. ([1])

1952 were transferred the RJG after formal and editorial changes into right of the German Federal Republic. The fact that the federal game laws are the follow-up law of the realm game laws, serves hunt opponents frequently as point of attack.Like the evaluation of the scientific service occupies - to injustice.

After German right the hunting right is inseparably linked with the real property. The practice of the hunting right is permitted and also there however only in hunting grounds, with exception to the hunt for Schädlingsbekämpfung, only outside of “befriedeten districts” (for example residential areas, gardens, etc.) all surface areas within a hunting ground belong to this.

The hunting grounds are either self-hunting grounds, or joint hunting grounds. In the latters several properties are united to a sufficient large hunting ground. The associatedBasic owners are forced to the membership in hunt cooperatives ( a body of public right). A joint hunting ground is usually at least 150 hectars largely. If such exists, then the hunt practice right of the hunt cooperative, thus to the body, is entitled, those the practice other one by farm leaseleft can, but does not have. Also partial districts can be leased, if each remaining part for itself is sufficient large. Thus not a property is leased, but excluding the right for hunt practice within a hunting ground.

In the federal game laws and that National game laws as well as further laws (weapon law) and regulations are beyond that held various rules and restrictions for hunt practice. This covers among other things regulations to hunt and close time, huntable animals and permitted hunt methods. So may for example except for some exceptions (land laws), howe.g. for the hunt for black game, to be hunted not at night. It is worth mentioning in this connection that numerous kinds of game for many years all year round preservation (no shooting seasons have). They are not extracted nevertheless from the hunting right, around them in the active preserving obligationto leave the hunter.

Wilderei designates the injury of strange hunting right or hunt practice right.

hunter examination

Gustave Courbet, “the booty” or “hunt with dogs”, oil on canvas, 1857

the hunt to exercise may do only persons, who before a hunting license acquiredhave. This presupposes an examination, which of the specialist areas game animal customer, forest and agriculture, weapon customer, ecology, hunt and weapon right as well as shooting consist. The examination is divided into a verbal, a written and a practical part. The arrangement thatExaminations is in the respective national game laws regulated and is incumbent on for example in Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony the circle hunter shanks in co-operation with the lower hunt authority with the district administrations. Apart from multiple Choice questions this can be also free also questions to formulating answers. In addition comesa shooting examination. The practical examination is usually a district course, with which asking and jagdliche situations are verbally answered to be estimated to have. In some Lands of the Federal Republic a preceding 1-jähriger training course is legal and/or. an intensive course shortened in the duration prescribed.This training course with locking examination is called among hunters “green Abitur”. In Berlin, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, the Saarland, Saxonia-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein it is however also possible, without putting the attendance down of a training course the hunter examination.

Austria

in Austriathe Germanic hunting right (district hunt) applies. It means that exercising of the hunt is inseparably with the possession of reason and soil connected. Game laws are decided and changed on regional level. There are therefore nine different game laws, which cover themselves however to a large extent. Thatwith the hunting right closely connected weapon law is however Federal law. With exception from surfaces to “agricultural game animal husbandry” all areas are bejagbare surfaces. There is however also surfaces available, on which “the hunt rests”, like for example in environment of houses and/orVillages, on cemeteries, public roads etc.).

Bejagbare surfaces divide into self-hunts, (at least 115 hectars of surface) connected municipality hunts (at least 500 hectars of surface) and special hunting grounds (municipality hunts under 500 hectars of surface). In self-hunts the owner of reason and soil is usually also hunt practice person entitled.Municipality hunts will usually assign by public auction at hunt cooperatives or shooting parties (=Verein for the purpose of the practice of the hunt), also an assignment to individuals or legal entities are possible, but rare.

Switzerland

in Switzerland becomes the huntby a Federal law over the hunt and the protection of mammals and birds living in the wild regulated (from the year 1986). The Swiss federal game laws are a protection of species law. It places protection before adjustment and jagdliche use. For the protection of species the federation is responsible, adjustment andUse of the game populations are regulated in kantonalen game laws. Like that it is ensured that with the hunt enterprise on the regional peculiarities regarding the occurring kinds of game, habitats, problems and traditions consideration is taken.

Switzerland knows two different hunt systems. In the patent cantons that can Hunters generally speaking canton area, with exception of the hunt spell areas, hunt. Is fixed, which and how many animals he may hunt during the short shooting season. The hunters pay annually patent fees. In the district cantons the political municipalities lease the hunting right at shooting parties.These pay for it a rent. An exception forms the canton Geneva. Here the hunt nationally paid game guardians is reserved.

criticism

criticism at the hunt in Germany and Austria

Demonstration gegen die Jagd auf dem Pariser Platz in Berlin
demonstration against the hunt on that Paris place in Berlin

strengthened is demanded a stronger adjustment of the hunt at ecological criteria. Thus for example one argues, by feeding of game, game fields and other preserving measures substantial in the ecological system intervenes and thus an unnatural growth of the game populations one favours(Population dynamics). On the other hand objected, actually nature is evenly not unaffected, since it is subject to constant human interferences particularly in the Central European culture landscape. Therefore humans must intervene adjusting and keep the natural equilibrium artificial. Also are the put onGame fields in the culture landscape eliminated in the winter often a last point of retreat for the game, since also in the winter a sufficiently high vegetation exists here. The requirement, “the natural equilibrium” determine and to receive to be able, becomes however from scientists in thatRule rejected. Neither there is an objectively correct natural equilibrium, nor one can adjust the extremely complex relations structures simply purposefully.

Nonspecialists are occasionally the opinion that (among other things) by the close extermination of the wolf in large parts of Europe of the red, deerand Damwild existence rose so strongly that the populations must be controlled by purposeful Bejagung. Some hold against the fact that the alleged (only the Rehwild Damwild has in spreading and individual number increased, also the Rotwild is exterminated in far parts of Europe,population rise did not seem by purposeful feeding was promoted, in order to be able to obtain particularly principal Trophäen to times to high wolf density to Europe yet ).

It is to be however opposed to that that black game had to register a strong increase in the last years,without the hunt, not only various Vorgärten but also the agriculture in some areas would threaten. Feeding for black game serve primarily to protect endangered agricultural cultures by the fact that the animals are diverted, and/or. to facilitate the hunt for black game.

Further points of criticism are purposeful suspending of animals for the hunt (e.g. Pheasant), the poisoning of game animals (e.g. Sea-eagle) by lead ammunition or the alleged prevention of epidemics, with which in particular the hunt for the fox is to be legitimized.

Over possible ecological criteriaprevails however between and also within the besides partly overlapping groups of the hunters, owners of forest, farmers as well as the animal and Naturschützer violent controversy. Serious hunt opponents and - critics dissociate themselves however i.d.R. besides expressly of actionism by force against hunters, thererejecting the force against animals in no case force against humans would justify. It comes nevertheless to cases, in those hunt opponent the hunt enterprise again and again disturbs and/or. prevent or jagdliche mechanisms destroy. In Baden-Wuerttemberg also hunt opponents were gotten thereby,as they only announced stands and thus also indifferent ones or children, who entered the allegedly sturdy stand, brought in mortal danger.

Some Tierschützer refers besides to the fact that the hunt does not determine generally or at least on kinds of hunt compatible with the animal protectionis. In Germany the animal protection is located as a state goal in the Basic Law. On the other hand the hunting right than discharge of the vested title enjoys special basiclegal protection, which does not permit however a property owner to forbid the hunt for its own reason and soil. Rather becomesit into a hunt cooperative in a forced manner, which offends after a judgement of the European Court of Justice for human rights in case of the however legally only with difficulty comparable French hunt cooperatives against the vested title and the freedom of reunion. In Luxembourg 2004 of the there highest Court of Justice became upReason of of Luxembourg right the compulsory membership in the “hunt syndicates” after German model waived. In the iurisdiction it is generally recognized that a hunt exercised after the principles of the feasting justice does not fulfill the criminal offence existence of the cruelty to animals and also otherwise not against animal-protection-legal regulationsoffends, as is stated by some hunt critics. „The feasting justice in such a way specified " is however an indefinite right term, which, however high ethical principles can be very differently laid out contained. Besides many hunt practices do not offend above all therefore against the animal law for the protection, becausethis the hunt of numerous regulations excludes. (e.g. Prohibition to rush an animal on another or the prohibition to suspend a game animal which is not adapted to the climate).


Remarkable are further up to over 800 (hunt) accidents per year,those suffer humans serious damage, in very rare cases to be even killed. The reasons mostly lie in to casual handling the weapon and the surrounding field observation lacking before the shot. Nothing the defiance remains noting that in Germany due to that particularlythe hunters a high state of training and therefore hunt accidents in the totalEuropean comparison have difficult hunter examination (“Abitur” becomes green) are rare.

The argumentation in the sense of the “lasting” hunt, often brought from hunter side, is not completely undisputed, because on the work ofUpper mountain captain Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645 - 1714) decreasing/going back term from the Sylvicultura Oeconomica „the nature-moderate instruction for the wild tree breed “(1713) does not let itself be transferred in its principle so easily to game animals. So far the formulated thought „of the lasting use “on today'sGame animal existence including the birds application to find is, then hunting must experience a fundamental change. Different newer models for lasting hunt exist (e.g. Maximum/Optimel Sustainable Yield), which are rather more theoretical however than practical nature.

Furthermore becomes the hunt ofunite humans as „blood haven “rejected, there the joy in killing animals, and/or. the fun at killing sufferable and pain-sensitive organisms as hobby and leisure activities (more) with the principles of our civilization and culture to agree is not. The huntfulfill no practical use, since the modern science already disproved most arguments of the hunters. Contrary to the landläufigen opinion that the hunt is applied nature protection, harm these nature substantially more, it the nature protection inirgendeiner Weise dienlich wäre - wobei hierüber in der sehr heterogenen Gemeinde der Umwelt-, Tier-, Arten- und Naturschützer keine Einigkeit besteht. Also a strong city/land downward gradient is to be observed with the refusal of the hunt. The moreover one it gives in the differentHunt federations over the fundamental affirmation of the necessity for the hunt outside no agreement, then ÖJV and German Journalists' Federation (in over 90% the hunter member are) with likewise face each other with incompatible positions.

The hunt does not place for gläubigen Christiansabsolutely a paradox. Even if, unite according to sources, the Schutzheilige of the hunters, the holy Hubertus (anniversary 3. November), which hunt for a feature swear off and from the convinced hunter to the Nichtjäger became. Other sources report that the before wild andto-gelless Hubertus after to it a crucifix between antlers white deer appeared, to the Christian-moderate (it was before heath and could after the feature be baptized), to the feast-fair hunter changed myself. Therefore it serves this very day all hunters, Christians hownot Christians as model of the moderation and to the stimulus, in accordance with which, “… the creator in creatures [too] honour jägerlichen password. ”

hunt tourism

famous hunting grounds were and are for example with Rominten or in the Schorfheide. The hunt tourisminto the often nature-left hunting grounds in the Slowakei, in Poland (above all southern East Prussia and Pommern), in the Baltic (cure country), in Romania, the Ukraine or in Russia, in addition, into the most distant regions of the world, has many friends,so that the commercialization of the there hunt procures on the one hand funds in particular for the environmental, nature and animal protection, on the other hand however in many areas by excessive use the game existence were strongly reduced and so increasingly expectations of the hunt tourists not in fullExtent to be fulfilled. To correct this excessive use in earlier decades in many countries of Africa by a purposeful “game running management” taught at universities tried. In this connection the comparison between countries, in those is interesting the hunt for the seventiesis forbidden (e.g. Kenya) and countries, in which for quite some time this game running management is accomplished (e.g. Tanzania). As the first intermediate result one believes to recognize the fact that Wilderei (as Hauptproblem for the decrease of rare kinds is seen) with regulated hunt andInclusion of the population, to be reduced can.

Differently looks however on hunt farms so mentioned in Africa. These usually former cattle farms expand since surfaces inconceivable for Europeans, are enclosed regular, and guarantee to the hunter desired hunt success. Withthe funds nationally regulated the game protection is usually financed there also for approved kinds of game.

literature

  • briefly G. Blüchel, Sigrid swivel, Eric Zimen, Heribert Kalchreuther, et al.: The hunt. Könemann publishing house, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-8290-1560-7
  • Briefly G. Blüchel:Charm of the hunt. Masterpieces of the hunt literature, hunt painting and nature photography. Comet publishing house, impudent one o.J, ISBN 3-89836-123-3
  • walter Frevert and Dietrich steel: The jagdliche customs. Franckh cosmos publishing house, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-44-008251-2
  • Heribert Kalchreuter: The thing with the hunt. Franckh cosmos publishing house 2003, ISBN 3-44-009323-9
  • harsh ore cancer: Before and after the hunter examination. BLV publishing house company, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-405-16372-2
  • briefly Lindner: The hunt in the Vorzeit. History of the feasting work, volume I. de Gruyter, Berlin and Leipzig 1937
  • Briefly Lindner: The hunt in the early Middle Ages. History of the feasting work, volume II. de Gruyter, Berlin 1940
  • Fritz nut flax: The practical manual the hunt customer. BLV publishing house company, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-405-16456-7
  • José Ortega y gas set: Meditationen over the hunt. German publishing house, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-421-01262-8
  • Ferdinand of Raesfeld: The German feasting work. Unchanged Reprint of the first edition by 1914, publishing house Paul Parey, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3490144120
  • Thomas's winters: Hunt - nature protection or blood haven?. Winter book publishing house, Passau 2003, ISBN 3-00-012219-2

see also

  • also the reference to right topics consider feasting justice, list of Web on the left of about
hunt (for major items too largely)!
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)