|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Jakarta (term clarifying).|
|surface:||661.52 km ²|
|population density:||12,920 Einwohner/km ²|
|height:||8 m and. NN|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 6° 10 ' 44 " S. Break.
106° 49 ' 50 " o. L.6° 10 ' 44 " S. Break.
106° 49 ' 50 " o. L.
|city arrangement:||5 urban districts|
Jakarta /d ʒa/ (in former times Batavia, also Djakarta) is the capital of the Republic of Indonesia and has 8.540.306 inhabitants in the actual city and is with 17.593.429 inhabitants in the dye (conditions in each case 1. January 2005) one the largest Metropolregionen of the earth. The capital has the status of a province and by a governor is governed. Jakarta is the most densely populated city and main sea port of the country.
It is the political, economical and cultural center of the country as well as traffic junction with universities, universities, theatres and museums. The population of the city is most diverse origin. Thus humans of Malaysian, Arab, Indian, Netherlands and Chinese descent live in Jakarta.
Table of contents
the city is in the Jakarta bay at the northwest coast of the island Java, because of the delta of the Ciliwung on the average eight meters over the sea level. The city is flat and has a surface of 661.52 square kilometers.
The environment of Jakarta is agriculturally used. In favorable places tropical rain forest is to be found. The geographical coordinates of the city are 6.18 degrees southern latitude and 106.83 degrees of eastern length.
In the bay from Jakarta are „the thousand islands “(Kepulauan Seribu), belonging to the city. The 105 islands, 45 kilometers north the city convenient, have a surface of 11.8 square kilometers. The there sea national park serves the recovery of the population.
the geological structure of the island Java, on which Jakarta lies, is mainly certain by the volcanic material. Only a small part of the surface consists of older rocks, more than two thirds is covered of volcanic deposits: Ashes, Tuffen and lava of recent and older outbreaks. The remaining part consists of tertiary sediments.
The island is because of the place of the Sundabogens, where destroying the earth's crust most intensively, which old underground at most was destroyed and today is to a large extent under the sea level of the Javasee sunk. Also at present still numerous volcanos are active. Their ashes are blown the far over country and to form a constantly effective mineral fertilization. Either direct case of ash is to be registered, or the volcanic loose masses are shipped and deposited by the rivers.
Jakarta is divided into five urban districts:
- Cent ral Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat)
- East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur)
- west Jakarta (Jakarta Barat)
- North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara)
- South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan)
the city is in the tropical climate zone. The annual average temperature amounts to 26.5 degrees Celsius, the annual amount of precipitation of 1,815 millimeters on the average.
The average temperatures lie the whole year over between 25,9 and 27 degrees Celsius, whereby the highest temperatures are in May and September with 27 degrees Celsius and the lowest in January and February about 25,9 degrees Celsius on the average.
Main rain time is between Decembers and March. Most precipitation falls in January with approximately 342.9 litres per square meter, few in August with 53,7 litres per square meter on the average.
first settlement and Kingdom of Pajajaran
the Mündungsgebiet of the Ciliwung river, because of which Jakarta is, is already settled for thousands of years. Since end 12. Century governed there the westjavanische Hindu - dynasty Pajajaran, durably the parts of the Malaii peninsula, Sumatras and Borneos controlling Hindu Imperium Majapahit its independence far opposite that to retain itself could and to a outstanding organized and by the pepper trade flowering commonwealth had developed. Capital of Pajajaran was been appropriate for Pakuwan, in the proximity of the today's Bogor, 60 kilometers south of Jakarta.
End 15. Century developed at the delta of the Ciliwung river the main port of the Pajajaran realm. At that time the city Sunda Kelapa was called. The Portuguese landed there 1522, in order to establish with the agreement of the Hindu ruler a away for the protection of the port for the spice trade. The Islamic prince Fatahillah from the Kingdom of Demak destroyed with his troops to 22. June 1527 the city and established Jayakarta (large victory ) in same place, in allusion to the double victory over the armed forces of the Portuguese and the Kingdom of Pajajaran.
the Netherlands colonial age
toward end 16. Century put on ever more Netherlands trading vessels there. 1619 took the Netherlands east India company under the direction of governor general January to Pieterszoon Coen (1587-1629) the port in possession and made it its head office. Already soon it was called after the away Batavia and capital of the colony Netherlands India. 1699 are destroyed the city by an earthquake.
With the time it attracted ever more enterprising Chinese, who up to the Pogrom in the year 1740 as bankers, buyers, technical designers and a ship farmer established themselves here and came from those many to prosperity. From Batavia controlled the Netherlands at the beginning 18. Century already completely Java, parts of Sumatras and the spice islands (Molukken). However also diseases and epidemics spread in the rapidly growing, tropical port.
A Mitreisender on the Weltumsegelung of the British sailor James Cook (1728-1779) describes the Netherlands Batavia 1770:
„There are few roads in this city, by which one would not have led a rather broad channel; and except these it is cut through still by five or six rivers. The roads are constantly broad, and the houses largely; from both causes this place, in accordance with relationship of the number of buildings, has a larger extent, than possibly another city in Europe. … The channels, which contain a standing, very contaminated and putrid water to a large extent, vapors in the hot season a unausstehlichen Gestank out, and the many trees prevent the free supply of air, whereby those harmful evaporation could become still to some extent absent-minded.
In the wet season… the water in these impure channels swells so on that it steps the lower floors from its banks and in the low areas of the city inundated. If it ran off again, then one finds, where it stood, an unbelievable quantity of mud and excrement. … Of one hundred soldiers, who are dragged by Europe here, is, like one us insured, at the end of the first yearly hardly still fifty alive its… in completely Batavia us only one humans did not occur, who would have looked quite fresh and healthy. “
The inhabitants, that could afford it, continued to settle outside of the Stadtmauern in the south, where the new Batavia developed. In the year 1799 the Netherlands state of bankruptcies the east India company Batavia transferred as colony. During the short British rule between 1811 and 1816 the researcher Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles ( 1781-1826) accomplished a number of progressive reforms, created the Botani garden in Bogor and investigated the history of the country.
In the course 19. Century strengthened the Netherlands von Batavia out their economic and political power over the archipelago. With the opening of the Sueskanals to 16. The routes of transportation shortened November 1869; the Handelsvolumen rose, and ever more European came to Batavia. 1876 were built a new port in Tanjung Priok. 1880 had Batavia of 100,000 inhabitants, until 1915 doubled themselves this number.
In the year 1926 the communist party of Indonesia (PKI) called to the revolutionary war of liberation. The collection failed to the superior Netherlands colonial power. One year later took up the Partai Nasional Indonesia the fight against the Dutchmen, created after smashing the PKI von Achmed Sukarno (1901-1970).
During the Second World War Japanese armed forces began their attack on Indonesia in December 1941. In March 1942 they occupied Batavia and forced the Dutchmen to the surrender. Over three hundred-year old time of its colonial rule was past. Most inhabitants of Jakarta welcomed the Japanese as Befreier of the yoke of the Europeans. The enthusiasm flew however rapidly, when the asiatic neighbours develop a fright and an arbitrariness regime. The rule of the Japanese ended with their surrender to 15. August 1945.
the later president of the country Achmed Sukarno announced in Batavia 1945 national philosophy „to Pancasila “and explained together with Mohammed Hatta (1902-1980) to 17. August 1945 the independence of Indonesia. The city was renamed in Jakarta and in the year 1950 capital that only one year old Republic of Indonesia. At the earlier names the still valid license number reminds „B “. The present way of writing applies since the year 1972 and in the process of a general spelling reform was accepted.
End of the 1940er years crossed the city the number of inhabitants of one million, 15 years later was it already 4.5 million. Slums spread, let president Sukarno despite economic problems kolossale monuments, splendourful boulevards and buildings of prestige simultaneous establish. The 1967 to power Hadji Mohamed Suharto come continued this politics predominantly.
In May 1998 it into Jakarta and generally speaking country came to heaviest unrests since the communist Putschversuch failed in the year 1965, and fell the country partially into chaos and anarchy. KOPASSUS and killed several trailers of the democracy movement in the city kidnapped belonging one of the special-purpose force and released thus unrests. Ten thousands humans pulled plündernd by the roads, ignited houses and cars on, numerous Chinese women were raped. The number of the victims becomes estimated on more than 160 women. To 21. May 1998 withdrew Suharto as a president of the country.
To 13. September 2000 detonated in an underground parking of the stock exchange in Jakarta an autobomb and released a fire. 15 humans were killed and hurt 27. The police assumes that the authors from the surrounding field of Suharto come and the notice the goal had the corruption procedure against the former president to disturb. Since in the building an office of the World Bank was, in addition, international terrorism is not excluded.
With an explosive notice on the JW Marriott hotel to 5. August 2003 twelve humans died. There were approximately 150 hurt. The police assumes a suicide assassin of the group of Islamics of Jemaah Islamiyah behind the notice. Several suspicious ones were arrested only days later. The Australian message was one year later, to 9. Septembers 2004, scene of a terror notice with that altogether eleven humans their life lost, who suicide assassins were taken into account, and hurt about 160 humans. The group of Jemaah Islamiyah was responsible also here according to different data.
the number of inhabitants of Jakarta increased from approximately 600,000 in the year 1945 on 8.5 million in the year 2005. This drastic increase in the population led in parts of the city to population of over , unemployment , criminality, an increase of traffic and high environmental pollution.
In order to prevent a further rising of the number of inhabitants, the responsible persons of the city administration issued a restriction of influx, in accordance with which only persons with working premises may pull to Jakarta in the year 1970. Also by the closely drawn city boundaries the increase in population is weakened in the meantime, these takes place clearly predominantly in the innumerable suburbs, which exhibit in the meantime 9.1 million inhabitant. In the Metropolregion Jakarta live 2005 altogether 17.6 million humans.
Town planners assume until 2020 a new giant city will have developed „for Jabotabek “with 25 million humans. „Jabotabek “is compound from the initial letters of the cities Jakarta , Bogor , Tangerang and Bekasi, which will then form into for instance the borders of the new metropolis.
Half of the increase in the population is to be due to the Zuwanderung of land inhabitants, that seem larger here the chances on a job, training or little prosperity than at home. The large attraction of the capital region entices above all young humans to break out of the monotonous everyday life life of a javanischen village. Success is rather modest. Many live in the Slums at the edge of the city. Monotonous development areas are so far still rare. Instead hundredthousands of small cheap houses were established, which into the traditional „Kampung “, village-similar quarters, Jakarta to insert itself.
In Jakarta humans of most diverse origin live. However Sundanesen and Javaner constitute the majority of the population. In Jakarta there is also a larger Chinese minority.
The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1959 it concerns usually around estimations, from 1961 to 2000 around census results and 2005 a computation. The numbers of inhabitants refer to the actual city without the suburb belt.
partnerships between cities
Jakarta maintains partnerships with the following cities.
culture and objects of interest
the only theatre and building of meetings received from the Netherlands colonial age (Gedung Kesenian) originates from the year 1821 and this very day as theatre for concert and ballet performances is used. It lies nearby the independence place (Merdekaplatz) in northeast direction.
In the “Ria Loka” Srimulat with amusing inserts and songs one specifies. Ketoprak, javanisches folk theatre, accompanied of Gamelan music, which refers its topics from people legends and fairy tales, is ordered in the “Bharata Theatre”, not far by the Pasar Senen. On this stage also Wayang Orang performances (= Wayang Wong) take place, which are based on the Ramayana or the Mahabharata. Wayang Wong and Ketoprak are specified just as monthly in the “Taman mini”, “Ancol Dreamland” and “Gedung Kesenian”.
of ring around the old town hall square (Taman Fatahillah) became with support of the UNESCO several colonial buildings restores. In the center „the Jakarta museum is located “, which is accommodated in one of the oldest received buildings. In the year 1710 delighted, it served the administration as „Stadthuys “(city hall), later became it military headquarters and up to the Second World War seat of the administration west Javas. Since 1974 a historical museum is there accommodated. It accommodates a collection of weapons, furniture, old maps and other Relikten of the colonial age.
„The Wayang museum “is at the west side of the place. The traditional doll theatre is common in completely Southeast Asia. Staff dolls and shade play figures as well as the pertinent instruments and other articles, which are used for a performance, are there issued.
A collection of Indonesian painting and ceramic(s) accommodates „the museum for art and painting & museum for ceramic(s) “(Balai Seni Rupa). In that 1870 established buildings of the earlier Law Courts at the eastern side of the place finds one pictures well-known Indonesian painter. Interesting is also the ceramic(s) department. On the north side of the place opposite the city hall the old Portuguese cannon stands „for SI Jagur “, a fertility symbol.
West the independence place lies the national museum (museum Pusat) or Gedung Gajah (elephant building), so mentioned because of, from the Thai king the Rama V. standing there. (1853-1910) in the year 1871 as gift elephants presented bronze. It is one of the largest and best equipped museums in Southeast Asia. Already in the year 1868 it was created by the Dutchmen. The collection informs in detail about the volcanos and islands, peoples and its customs, traditional art and arts and crafts on all islands of the archipelago.
The national museum accommodates a leg-printing collection of hinduistischer works of art from Java like also from porcelain of the Han -, seaweed - and Mingzeit. In the prähistorischen department are issued remainders of the Java human being (Homo erectus), numerous cult articles, stone inscriptions and hinduistische as well as buddhistische statues. In the ceramic(s) department approximately 2000 years are old clay/tone goods and porcelain to see predominant from China.
buildings at the large channel
of the town hall square it is not far up to „the large channel “(potash Besar). There are numerous branch offices, firms and Warenlager from the colonial age. Of beginning 18. Century come the two houses at the western channel side, the Eckhaus „of the Chartered bank “and the house „Toko Merah “, today: PT. Dharma Niaga. There also two buildings, which were established by German emigrants, are appropriate the houses „for Imhoff “and „Wurmb “.
The house of the governor general Gustav William originating from Germany of Imhoff (1705-1750) from empty in Lower Saxony is mentioned an elongated red building of bricks, „Toko Merah “. It is used at present as office building, can be visited however. Is worth seeing the large resounds with the double stairs. The original furniture is partially in the city hall of the city set up. The gravestone Imhoffs is shown in „the Wayang museum “, which was established at „the Taman Fatahillah “in place of ramshackle the old church become.
The house of baron Friedrich von Wurmb (1742-1781) from Thuringia, to which Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) dedicated its Kurzgeschichte „a largecourageous action “, lies two buildings far away from „the IMHO FF house “. Before the entrance two lion sculptures stand. The former splendour lets a renovation-needy, generous , entrance hall established in the style of the classicism suspect. Friedrich of Wurmb was one the founder of the Batavi society for art and science. Its collections form the basis of the today's national museum and the national library.
Into northern direction the restored last over 200 years old Zugbrücke stands „for Hoenderpasarbrug “(chicken market bridge). At the delta of the channel that stands only for 1839 builds observation tower, from which the harbour masters sighted the arriving ships. It is established to bastion Culemborg on the walls of the attachment plant „“from the year 1645.
at the beginning 19. Century most administration buildings from the contaminated old part of town had been resettled into the new Batavia of ring around the Koningsplein. Today about a square kilometer large independence place (Merdekaplatz) in the center towers above that enormously the 132 meters high piece of splendor of the monument art Achmed Sukarnos, the national monument (Monas) with its flame, which is covered with 35 kilograms of gold. The prospect platform is into 115 meters height.
The eastern side of the place is dominated by 1993 the reconditioned, two-story „Gambir station “. Opposite „the Emmanuel church lies “, a round domed structure with a Eingangstor, which could come from a dorischen temple. 1839 became after king the Willem I. (1772-1843) „Willemskerk designated “as the first common church of Lutheranern and reformed open.
Behind the bridge, to the Pejambon, the independence building (Gedung Pancasila) stands, which was built around 1830 as residence of the military commander in the style of the classicism. Since 1918 there „the Volksraad resided “, whose members originated predominantly from the white population of colonial and only small political powers had. there 1945 prepared a committee under the direction of Sukarno the new condition, used by the Japanese. At the 1. June 1945 described Sukarno of the building from the Pancasila - state philosophy.
In northeast direction the Treasury stands, with whose building 1809 under Herman Daendels, governor general from 1807 to 1811, one had begun. It wanted to reorganize the corrupted colonial system with taut hand and to renew the old contaminated Batavia. The war with Great Britain and its transfer terminated these activities. North of the Ministry the highest Court of Justice (Mahkamah Agung) is, which meets since 1848 in this neoklassizistischen building.
In the west the catholic cathedral is, in the year 1900 in the neogotischen style with some Indonesian influences delighted. The 77 meters of high towers were established from Teakholz, because the earlier cathedral from the year 1833 had broken down 1880 under the weight of the towers.
The new „Istiqlal mosque “from white marble, a monumental building, is considered as the largest mosque in Southeast Asia. The enormous, modern domed structure is between Medan Merdeka and Lapangan Banteng. West the president palace (Istana Merdeka) continues to stand. The building was since 1879 official residence of the Netherlands governor, who preferred however the cool climate of Buitenzorg (Bogor).
southern of the station, in the Jl. Pangeran Jayakarta 1, stands the oldest church of the city, „for Gereja Sion “, between 1693 and 1695 delighted. „The Portuguese church in such a way specified outside of the Stadtmauer “was used its native allied one and slaves, which had been imprisoned taken by the Dutchmen in India and Malaya and kidnapped there by descendants of the first Portuguese conquerers. Beautiful Barockschnitzereien zieren the altar, the organ and the banks. A board in Netherlands language reminds of the opening of the church of 19. October 1695.
In the south the old Chinese quarter of “Glodok” continues to lie. The typical Chinese atmosphere with the shops, restaurants and workshops open to the road is lost to more through numerous monotonous new buildings like modern shopping centres, banks and blocks of flats in the unit concrete style ever. Also with unrests in the year 1998 there much was destroyed.
In the Jl. Petak Sembilan stands the most important Chinese temple of the city, “Jin De Yuan” (also Kim Tek I or Wihara Bhakti called), who was already established to 1650 by the Chinese second lieutenant Guo Xun Guan in honours of the goddess of the mercy. The roof of the main temple is with Nagaschlangen and other porcelain figures verziert, on the inside stands buddhistische and taoistische figures. From that 17. Century comes the figure of the “ruler over the three worlds” (San Yuan) over the main entrance. To Chinese holidays, for example for the “celebration of the hungry spirit” or to the Chinese New Year, the Chinese municipality in the temple meets.
at the end of the Jl. Pantai Sanur stands for one of the oldest Chinese temples, „the Ba DO gong Miao “(Klenteng Ancol). It became probably on instruction of the Chinese Eunuchen - admiral Zheng He and the admiral Wang Zhu Cheng established, which from 1405 to 1430 seven times with their fleet on behalf the Ming - emperor Zhu (1360-1424) the archipelago visited. Zheng He is admired as the holy Sampo Kong in a temple in Semarang (central Java). In the main's building of the Klenteng Ancol the statues of the two admirals are located. Behind that main building are several old graves.
The mansion of the well-known javanischen painter Raden Saleh (1811-1880) is in the proximity of the station „Cikini “. He spent Ernst II. from 1839 to four years of his life in Dresden and was until 1852 a gladly seen guest on the locks of duke. of Saxonia Coburg and Gotha (1818-1893). After the home coming after Java it let its residence in memory of lock call mountain establish with Coburg. It is used today as administration building of the Cikini hospital and is publicly accessible.
In the Jl. Hayam Wuruk beside the Bali bank, stands a mosque from the year 1786, „the Mesjid Kebon Jeruk “. It became from the Muslim - Chinese Chan Tsin Whu builds. After the Pogrom of 1740 many Chinese of pursuit tried to escape, by crossing to the Islam. This Orang Cina Peranakan had to loose-say itself of the Chinese society and had occasionally even their own leaders (Kapten). To the mosque complex artful graves, among other things the grave of the Atimah Whu, belong wife of the designer. The gravestones are verziert both in the Chinese and in the Arab style.
To 16. April 2004 was Grundsteinlegung „Jakarta in such a way specified of the Tower “. The 558 meters high tower will be after its completion in the year 2009 the second highest building of the world and only of 577 meters high Muscovite TV tower be exceeded, at present highest free standing building of the earth. Second highest building is at present the CN Tower in Toronto with a height of 553 meters.
Close Jakarta is the world-wide largest still existing port for resting gel ships, Sunda Kelapa. These resting gel ships bereisen the complete malaiische island world and the southChinese sea.
„Taman Impian Jaya Ancol “surface of Southeast Asia is largest entertainment park with art market, free light theatre, swimming pool, Bowlingbahn, golf course and an aquarium with 137 hectares. In Ancol also the 1985 open Fantasiewelt are „Dunia Fantasi “, an Indonesian mixture from Disneyland and Rummelplatz in the architectural style of different epochs and continents.
The Marina is appropriate for far direction beach. From this yachting port boats drive to the archipelago „of the thousand islands to Kepulauan Seribu, “in the bay from Jakarta. The 105 islands, 45 kilometers north of Jakarta convenient, have a surface of 11.8 square kilometers. In the there naval national park different restaurants, hotel, Bungalowanlagen are and at the lagoon a boat rental business. In the Ozeanium daily shows with Seelöwen, dolphins and other animals are shown.
In the approximately 100 hectare large topic park „Taman mini Indonesia Indah “in the southeast of the city the Republic of Indonesia in the mini format was copied, whereby all provinces of the country are represented by to scale in each case buildings in the traditional architectural style and arts and crafts. There are also most modern museums for energy, natural history and technology. Is interesting the there multi-vision-look „Indonesia “. Also a modern theatre was inaugurated there in the year 1997.
The Botani garden in Bogor, in close proximity to Jakarta, is seat of many international research institutes. It became to 18. May 1817 of Caspar George Carl Reinwardt (1773-1854) from Lüttringhausen based and contains today a collection of over 3.000 plant types, among them among other things over 200 kinds of palm and 883 Orchideenarten. Titanium-peppers ( Amorphophallus titanum), an aero staff plant with a bloom high over two meters is famous. The Botani garden is a popular and worthwhile trip goal in a calm and pleasant environment.
in the capital of Indonesia are numerous restaurants with national and international kitchen. Among the many native courts, different noodle courts rank rice soup (Soto, Sop) as well as at the road prepared sowed, on Bambusstäbchen aufgespiesste meat bits over a small portable rust grilled. Tastily also Krupuk are, in oil baked Cracker from Tapiokamehl and gemahlenen crabs or fish, Tahu and Tempeh ferment-closely, in fat out-baked cubes from soy bean quark and/or pressed soy beans.
Everywhere in the city street vendors offer soups with small Fleischbällchen. To be peppered sharply the roasted rice (Nasi ferment-closely) and the roasted noodles (Mie ferment-closely). Süsslich however is prepared the Erdnusssauce to various grilled sow Fleischspies. These receive a particularly tender flavour, if mirror-image-eat of lemon grass consist. With „the Gado Gado “the gesüsste peanut sauce in lukewarm form over the vegetable salad one pours.
Local one characteristics are the filled duck Bebek „Betutu “and the easily marinierte roasting fish „Ikan Acar Kuning “. The fish courts absorbed in a banana leaf (Pepe Ikan) are a further local speciality. „Krupuk “is the name with fish and shrimp paste aromatized and knusprig roasted paste bits from rice or Maniokmehl. „Tofu “and „Tempeh “(a kind Soja Frikadelle) are cooked gladly to spinach or Sellerie.
numerous markets in Jakarta are not interesting only for buying. Beside the fish market “potash Baru” one can itself on the “Bird's Market” (Pasar Burung) southern the Jl. Pramuka, at the beginning of the urban motorway, look around. On the “Pasar Seni Ancol”, a large arts and crafts market in the entertainment park Ancol, arts and crafts such as Schnitzereien, pictures, Flecht and Web work one produces and one sells. An art exhibition is in the adjacent two-story building.
Food, Luxusartikel and other one offer the shopping centres Plaza Indonesia, Sogo, Hayam Wuruk, Gajah Mada Plaza, Pasar Senen and Ratu Plaza in the Jl. Jen. Sudirman as well as Blok M in Kebayoran Baru. There are supermarkets, which correspond also to the European standard, meanwhile in all parts of Jakarta.
economics and infrastructure
most important sectors of the economy of Jakarta are the food and beverage industry, the textile and leather industries as well as the tobacco processing. Increasingly labor intensive, export-oriented industries win such as textile, toy and shoe production at meaning.
For these sectors the purely private-economical, often also multinational enterprises are typical, while in the cement and Düngemittelindustrie, which Petrochemie and the metallurgy state enterprises or Joint venture with state participation prevail to a large extent. An opening away of the often unprofitable working state enterprises and to more Deregulierung and privatisation appears.
Altogether the economic development of Jakarta positively ran since 1967. With all negative seeming like urban poverty, unemployment, insufficient infrastructure and environmental pollution succeeded in lifting the standard of living the population. 1997 bis 2000 wurde Jakartas Wirtschaft von der innenpolitischen und weltwirtschaftlichen Krise stark beeinträchtigt. Factory locking was at the agenda, unemployment rose enormously and the receipts from exports decreased strongly. Only since 2001 the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) rose again.
In the industry, which concentrates in the population centre Jakarta, only insufficient disposal and cleaning capacities exist for waste water, exhaust gas and wastes. To the infection illnesses such as Cholera, diarrhea and typhoid fever, which are spread by insufficient hygenic conditions, in such a way breath way and skin diseases come due to the poisonous emissions of the numerous industrial companies and the motor traffic. Special problems result from the often direct neighbourhood of poorer populated areas and the industry.
The Indonesian capital is seat of the daily paper The Jakarta post office appearing in English language.
Jakarta is an important traffic junction with flight and railway lines, port, motorways as well as cross-country bus terminals. On the international airport Soekarno Hatta in Cengkareng, 23 kilometers to the west of Jakarta, are dispatched all international and national flights. It can be attained by the center of Jakarta by means of a motorway.
With the offered airport taxis prices should be certain before. The Taxifahrer waiting there are often localunaquainted and know only larger hotels or places. A shuttle service of the hotel, and/or a sedan service is recommended and still in approach-resounds postable. Autorenting and independent transportation into the city is to be advised against expressly.
The regional traction network existing in the population centre Jakarta (region JABOTABEK - Jakarta, Bogor, Tangeran and Bekasi) consists of several lines with about 125 kilometers overall length. The distance sections used by the close and long-distance trains are partly electrified. The courses are often more than overcrowded in the peak hour, if the necessary vehicle capacity cannot be placed due to losses by the operator. Tragic accidents are not rarity. From the Kota or Gambir station in Jakarta there are train connections after central and Ostjava.
the roads in Jakarta are into partial bad condition and in the city exists no efficient public traffic system with high capacity, like an underground, an overhead railway or a streetcar, which would relieve the road. Since summer 2004 is a rail course - a system of 27 kilometers of length in the structure. The public suburban traffic is mastered by Diesel-driven buses. Since end of the yearly 2004 a central Buslinie, „Trans Jakarta was introduced “. In addition a lane was structurally separated in each case and different stop act ions was furnished. It is in such a way conceived the penalty that in and doors are possible at the intended stops only. The entrances are in over a meter height.
Thus it comes to the daily back-up, which does not only make more difficult and to increased air pollution by exhaust gases leads progressive movement, but also other problems intensified: so the garbage cannot be disposed already efficiently in the capital, because the refuse lorries most time are located in the back-up. The pilot formation is increased in Jakarta also by the missing traffic moral, in particular the public penalty and Mofas. Their passengers in all places let the smaller penalty in and step out. In addition all edges of the lane, and the center of the roadway are used. Vehicles use not the intended driving strips, change frequently without announcement the lanes, hold no side and safety margin, turn over several lanes. Accidents are not rarity. An accident adjustment does not take place usually.
The first horse route course in Jakarta opened its enterprise and the first steaming race course to 1869 1881. Starting from 10. April 1899 was electrified the streetcar net and traffic was stopped in the year 1962. A possibility of progressive movement is additionally the use much-tough-lies to existing taxis. Except with rains taxis are sufficiently present. It is to be put expressly on using the Taxometers worth. Attempted frauds are with many taxi enterprises the rule. One should use the somewhat more expensive, air-conditioned taxis of the Blue and Silver Bird companies.
Pedestrians do not have a chance in Jakarta. Sidewalks are missing, and/or are in a very bad condition. Pedestrian crossings are as good as missing. The existing footbridges are for beggars, merchants and pickpockets popular meeting places.
Jakarta is seat of eleven universities: Universitas Indonesia, Universitas trichloroethylene share, Universitas Tarumanagara, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, Universitas Jayabaya, Universitas Gunadarma and Universitas Pembangunan Nasional.
of sons and daughters of the city
- Mia Audina, Netherlands Badmintonspielerin
- Tonke Dragt, authoress
- Millane Fernandez, Pop singer
- Eddy de Neve, Fussballspieler
- George Eugene Uhlenbeck, US-American physicist
- Ilse Werner, German actress
- Jos Bajetto, jazz musician
- Bernd well graves: City traffic in Jakarta: An investigation of participants and decision conditions, publishing house for development policy, Saarbruecken, 2001, ISBN 3881567496
- Martin Heintel, Heinz Nissel, Christof Parnreiter, Günter Spreitzhofer, Karl Husa (publisher), Helmut Wohlschlägl (publisher): Megacities of the third world during the globalization process. Mexico town center, Jakarta, Bombay - comparative case studies in selected culture areas, University of Vienna, 2000, ISBN 3900830401
- Marion Markham: Politeness and hierarchy with the Javanern living in Jakarta, Peter long publishing house, Frankfurt/Main, 1995, ISBN 3-631-47744-9
- Werner Mlyneck, Stefan Loose, Renate Ramb: Sumatra. Travel manual. With Peneng and Melaka, Singapore and Jakarta., Stefan Loose publishing house, Berlin, 2000, ISBN 3922025595
- Günter Spreitzhofer, Martin Heintel: Metro Jakarta: Between Nasi and Nike, Peter-Lang-GmbH, European publishing house of the sciences, 2000, ISBN 3631359926
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