James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell (actually James Clerk; * 13. June 1831 in Edinburgh; † 5. November 1879 in Cambridge) was a Scottish physicist. It developed a sentence of equations, which the bases that Electricity and the magnetism form.
further he discovered the distribution of velocity of Gasmolekülen (Maxwell distribution). He was a last representative of the recent line of the well-known Scottish family Clerk OF Penicuik. Maxwell becomes generally as the scientists19. Century outstandingly, that the largest influence on the physics 20. Century had, by supplying contributions to the fundamental nature models. 1931, to the hundredth anniversary of Maxwell's birth, described Einstein the work of Maxwell as „the deepest and most fruitful one,that discovered physics since Newton “. Algebra with elements of geometry to unite, is a fundamental of its work. Maxwell showed that electrical and magnetic forces are two supplementing features of electromagnetism. It showed that itself electrical and magnetic fields in the form of electromagnetic waves with a constant speed of <math> 3 \ 10^8 m/s /math< cdot> by the area to move can, which corresponds exactly to the speed of light. It postulated that the light was a form of electromagnetic radiation. In his honours is (became outdated) the cgs unit of the magnetic river with „Maxwell “(unit symbol M) designated. A mountain chain on the Venus, Maxwell Monts, was designated after it, exactly the same as the James Clerk Maxwell telescope, the largest telescope of the world for electromagnetic radiation between infraredand microwaves with a diameter of 15 M. Maxwell married Mary Dewar as it 27 years was old, but they remained childless. It died in Cambridge at the age of 48 years at stomach cancer. It was his whole life a creditorChristian.
It published the first color photography as proof for the theory additives of the color blending.
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Maxwell was born in the India road 14 in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. It was the only child of the attorney John Clerk from Edinburgh. Maxwell's early education, which covered also the Bible study, became itfrom his Christian nut/mother assign. He spent its early youth mostly on the family seat Glenlair with Dumfries. Maxwellls nut/mother died as it only 8 years was old. Later Maxwell went to Edinburgh Academy. Its pointed name at school was „Dafty “(Dussel or Sonderling), which he got, because he carried made shoes at the first school day. 1845, at the age of 14 years, wrote a work, which describes the way like one with a cord mathematical curves draw can to Maxwell.
1847 wrote itself Maxwell at Edinburgh University and studied nature philosophy, moral philosophy and mental philosophy. In Edinburgh it studied with Sir William Hamilton . it wrote two contributions for the Transactions OF the Royal Society OF Edinburgh of those to 18-jährig , when he was still a student in Edinburgh, on the Equilibrium OF Elastic Solids (over the equilibrium of flexible solids) thoseBasis for a singular discovery in its later life put, the temporary birefringence in viscous liquids by heavy forces.
1850 changed Maxwell to the university of Cambridge. First it wrote at the Peterhouse and went themselves then to the Trinity college, because itbelieved to get here more easily a scholarship. Selected at the Trinity college it into a secret connection, admits as Cambridge Apostles. In November 1851 M. studied. with its Tutor William Hopkins , its pointed name „wrangler more maker “(„Wrangler “are students,those the mathematical examination best exist). A large part of elaboration of his electromagnetic equations completed Maxwell as he still a student without conclusion was.
1854 locked Maxwell its study with the secondarybest mathematics examination of its class. Directly after its study conclusionpublished it a scientific paper “on Faraday´s LINEs OF Force “(over Faradays' field lines) in which it a first reference to its electrical research gave, which should find their high point in the largest work of its life.
From 1855 to 1872published it in distances a series of valuable research in connection with the color seeing and the color blindness, for which it was distinguished 1860 with the Rumford medal of the Royal Society. The instruments, which it used for these research was simply and expediently (e.g. Color gyroscope).
1856 became M. to the chair for nature philosophy in the Marischal college in Aberdeen appoint, which it held up to the pool of the two colleges in the year 1860.
1859 it won the Adam price in Cambridge for oneoriginal essay with the title „on the Stability OF Saturn's of ring “(over the stability of the Saturn rings), in which to the conclusion came, the rings could not be completely firm or liquid. Maxwell showed that a stabilityto only prevail can, if the rings consist of numerous small solids. He disproved also mathematically the nebula theory, which means that galaxies form by the progressive condensation of gaseous nebulas. According to its theory for it portions of small solids are necessary. 1860became Maxwell a professor at the King´s college in London. 1861 were selected Maxwell into the Royal Society. He worked in this time over flexible bodies and pure geometry.
of Maxwell's most important research a busy itself alsothe kinetic gas theory. Beginning with Daniel Bernoulli this theory further prepared by the following investigations of John Herpath, John James Waterston, James Prescott joule and particularly by Rudolf Clausius. It reached such a perfection that its forecast accuracy itover each doubt made raised. Maxwell, who on this area as shining experimenter and theoretician showed up, continued to develop it superior. In the year 1865 Maxwell shifted his domicile after Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire, on the Landgut, which it of his fatherhad inherited. he did to 1868 without the chair for physics and astronomy at the King´s college in London.
he formulated 1866 independent of Ludwig Boltzmann after both designated gas theory. Its formula, called Maxwell distribution, computes itself the portion of Gasmolekülen,move at a given temperature with a certain speed. In the kinetic gas theory temperature and warmth cause the movement of the molecules. This approximation to the research article generalized the preceding laws of thermodynamics and explained the observations and experiments more exactly. MaxwellWork over thermodynamics led it to a thought experiment, which under the name „Maxwell Dämon admits “became.
The largest part of Maxwell's life's work was dedicated to the study of the electricity.Maxwell's most important contribution was the elaboration and mathematical formulation of earlier research over electricity and magnetism of Michael Faraday, André Marie Ampère and other one in a group of linked with one another differential equations. At first were 20 equations, later throughthe vector way of writing were summarized. These equations, which are called today altogether Maxwell equations (or sometimes as „Maxwell's marvelous equations “), were published for the first time 1864 in the Royal Society. Together they describe the behavior both from electrical and magnetic fields, as well astheir reciprocal effect with subject. Beyond that Maxwell forecast waves of swinging electrical and magnetic fields, which move by the empty area. He could predict the speed from simple electrical experiments; by using the data, at that time toStood for order, computed he the propagation speed to 310.740.000 m/s. Maxwell wrote 1865: “This velocity is so nearly that OF light, that it seems incoming goods have strong reason ton conclude that light itself (including radian heat, and OTHER radiation if any)is on electromagnetic these door benches into the form OF of waves propagated through the electromagnetic field according tons electromagnetic laws.(This speed is so close at the speed of light, so that we have a strong reason to the acceptance that the light(including radiant heat and other radiation, if there are it), an electromagnetic wave is). Maxwell's forecast was correct. The Wellentheorie was confirmed later by experiments by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz and forms the basis of the entire radio engineering. The quantitative connection betweenLight and electromagnetism, becomes as a large triumph of the physics 19. Century outstandingly. At this time Maxwell believed the propagation of the light requires a medium in which the waves to reproduce itself could. This medium was called light ethers. In the runthe time resulted ever larger difficulties, which were untraceable existence of such a medium, which fulfilled the whole area, but by mechanical means, with the results of the experiments (e.g.To bring Michelson Morley experiment) in agreement. Beyond that it seemedabsolute reference system, in which the equations were valid, to need. This would have had as a consequence that the equations for a moved observer would have had another form. This difficulty moved Einstein for the formulation of special relativity theory at and in thisProcess answered Einstein in the negative the necessity for a light ether.
Maxwells Arbeiten über Farbblindheit führten zum Gewinn der Rumford Medaille durch die Royal Society von London. It wrote a admirable text book over thoseTheory of the warmth (1871) and exzellente einführende a paper over bodies and movement (1876). In the year 1871 it as the first Cavendish professor OF Physics was appointed to Cambridge. Maxwell supervised the structure of the Cavendish laboratory. It supervised each step withBuilding of the building and with the purchase of the valuable equipment collection, with which the laboratory was equipped owing to the generous founder, the 7ten Duke OF Devonian-almost. One of the last large contributions of Maxwell to the science, was the evaluation of the research of Henry Cavendish. It came out that Cavendish had concerned itself among other things with questions over the middle density of the earth and the composition of the water.
Maxwell has the results of preceding electromagnetic and optical experiments and observations in a series ofmathematical equations in summary. These equations (as also the Maxwell distribution) proved since then as extraordinarily useful in physics. They worked satisfactorily in all cases and some new laws out of electromagnetism and the optics brought, the most important ones over electromagneticRadiation. The equations are fundamental for radio and television and can be used for the investigation of x-ray, gamma radiation and infrared radiation and other forms by radiation. „The life James Clerk Maxwell “became of its school fellow and lifelong friend, a professor LewisCampbell, 1882 publishes. Its collected works, given change including the series of articles over the characteristics of subject in two volumes of Cambridge University press 1890.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, on the Description OF oval Curves,and those having A plurality OF Foci. Procedure OF the Royal Society OF Edinburgh, Vol. ii. 1846.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, illustration OF the Dynamical Theory OF of gas. 1860.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, on Physical LINEs OF Force. 1861.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, A Dynamical Theory OF the Electromagnetic Field. 1865.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, Theory OF Heat. 1871.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Clarendon press, Oxford. 1873.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, Molecules. Nature, Septembers, 1873.
- Maxwell, James Clerk, on the Results OF Bernoulli's Theory OF of gas as Applied ton their Internal Friction, their diffusion, and their Conductivity for Heat.
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|NAME||Maxwell, James Clerk|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||James Clerk|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Scottish physicists|
|DATE OF BIRTH||13. June 1831|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Edinburgh|
|DYING DATE||5. November 1879|
|DYING PLACE||Cambridge (England)|