James Cook

haven-guessed/advised in national maritime museum
haven-guesses/advises James Cook from James Cook ( painted of William

Hodges) (* 27. October 1728 in Marton with Middlesbrough; † 14. February 1779 on Hawaii) was a British sailor and discoverer.

It became famous by three travels into the Pacific ocean, on which it discovered numerous islands and further islands measured and cartography ores.

Table of contents

lives

its birth is in the Pfarrregister of pc. Cuthbert in Yorkshire, Yorkshire, registers 27 with the entry „. October 1728. James, son of the Tagelöhners James Cook and its wifeGrace “. The boy, one of nine children, was allowed to visit the village school at expense of the service gentleman of his father and had appropriate knowledge in reading, counting, letter and arithmetic. When it was seventeen years old, it became its when desiredFather assistant in a mixing goods action.

The sailor

Cooks maritime career began Tyne and London, which were resident in Whitby at the age of 18 years on coal cargo boats between Newcastle upon. Its abilities got it going well, it changed howeverIn the middle of 1755 under financial losses to the Royal Navy, where it had hire first as a sailor on the HMS Eagles. Only the service for the crown made possible the prospect on a substantial social ascent.

The naval officer

Cook got firstsmall command to 5. April 1756 and existed 1757 the examination to the master (solely responsible ship leader, corresponded to the “attendant”). Its outstanding talent as Kartograf revealed itself starting from 1758 during the investigation and measurement above all the pc. Lorenz stream, Neufundländi watersand other parts of the east coast of Canada during the seven-year-old of war (1756-1763). Its precise maps help the British troops under general James wolf in September 1759 to the crucial victory over the Frenchmen with Quebec. From 1764 to the end of theIt had yearly 1767 for its measurement work by the switching of Sir Hugh Palliser, at that time governor of Newfoundland, which over the small Schoner Grenville receive command, which it segelte also several times and fast over the Atlantic, which its qualitiesas a sailor proved. While the winter time was concerned it on behalf the admiralty in England with the compilation of sea charts and sail manuals on the basis its measuring data of the summer. Its call as ship leaders and Kartograf brought those to the ambitious young second lieutenantAppointment to the famous Pacific journey , which was geneidet it by some page, for example of Alexander a Dalrymple, the later first hydraulic count of the admiralty.

First South Seas journey (1768-1771)

Verlauf der ersten Südseereise, 1768 - 1771
process of the first South Seas journey, 1768 - 1771

this expedition that became on recommendation Royal Society undertaken, over in the context of a large-scale project internationally put on the passage of the planet Venus before the sun disk (Venustransit of the 3. To observe June 1769) on Tahiti. These astronomical measurements had the determination of the distance earth sun as a goal. CooksTask was above all to surely bring a number of scientists (under it the astronomer Charles Green) including its instruments after Tahiti and back. It needed for it a roomy ship with small depth. The admiralty acquired the coal transporter Earl OF Pembroke,was converted and the names the Endeavour received.

Beyond that Cook had the secret order, the ocean around the 40. to investigate and one of Kartografen „south continent “, the Terra Australis postulated southern degree of latitude incognita to find. Besides was thosefrom Spain existence secretly held of the torr eating race the admiralty admits, however still confirmed by none of their ships.

At own expense (in similar height, as the crown into the expedition invested) also the 25-year old Joseph took bank at thisExpedition part to put on above all in order Botani collections. It had organized for it a staff of seven persons, among them the Swedish Botaniker Daniel Solander, like bank member of the Royal Society.

The journey began to 26. August 1768 in Plymouth. To dreiwöchigem intermediate stay in Rio de Janeiro, where the ship was thoroughly overhauled, drove Cook at the beginning of of Decembers and was at the beginning of January 1769 in the Bay OF Good Success, Le-Maire-road, fire country.

At the end of January had itwith luck cape Hoorn rounded and stood to 60. Degree of latitude, the southernmost point of this journey. In the middle of April was reached Tahiti, the HMS Endeavour lay in the Matavai bay, and one began to develop away Venus. At the beginning of of May was also the observatoryoperationally, and one dedicated oneself Tahitis to the investigation.

After the successful observations (in the last moment Cook had to again find a stolen instrument) it left Tahiti in the middle of July as well as Tupaia, its native leader. It crossed between Tetiaroa, Moorea, Huahine,Borabora, Raiatea and left in the middle of August the society islands with south course. At the beginning of of Octobers sighted Cook New Zealand, which it discovered extensively cartography ores, thereby the Cookstrasse and white New Zealand as double island out.

After the crew of the Endeavour to 28. April 1770 in the Botany Bay as first Europeans the east coast of Australia , segelte he had entered to the north, further kartografische information collecting. At the night of 10. on the 11. June accumulated the HMS Endeavour on the Great Barrier Reef and would bealmost lost gone. After repair work, which stressed altogether well one month, it could continue driving, found in the middle of August the Cook passage by the Great Barrier Reef and could finally freely northward sails.

Later it landed one week again anddesignated the country new South Wales, before it could by the Endeavour road (the southernmost part of the torr eating race) westward sails. To 10. Octobers reached it Batavia, at that time Netherlands India, where it let the ship overhaul three weeks long thoroughly.While this time fell seven of its men failure illnesses to the victim, and many more, under it the astronomer Green died, on drive on, before the HMS Endeavour could insert a stay of one month starting from in the middle of March 1771 with Capetown, where her again repairedbecame.

To 13. July 1771 set for the first time again the foot for Cook on England soil, and to 16. the HMS Endeavour in Woolwich fastened. To 14. August placed the first lord of the admiralty Earl OF sand-yielded it to king George III.forwards, personally COMM other ( corresponded the today's rank of a lieutenant commander ) appointed it.

Second South Seas journey (1772-1775)

the ships resolution and Adventure in the Matavai bay of Tahiti, on their second journey.

For lack of „literary quality “its became after Cooks returnRecordings does not publish. This happened only 1863. Instead the version of the novelist and dear savingists became Dr.John Hawkesworth publishes, which used Cooks and bank' diaries, but rough inaccuracies and einfältige opinions brought in. Dalrymple, that just in a two-restrained workthe Terra Australis to have logically proven believed, to criticized Cook due to of Hawkesworths publication and shifted the south continent postulated by it into areas, „the Cook insufficiently investigated “ has.

The admiralty came in view of the high-quality map material supplied by Cook those„scientific “demand for a further expedition not inconveniently, and during Dalrymple at its criticism on Cook continued to hold, two new ships was found, developed and renamed in resolution and Adventure. It concerned freighters again out of Whitby. The ship of its first journey, the HMS Endeavour, was to be used however no more.

Joseph bank wanted to again participate, required however for its team and the intended collections so extensive changes that he was in the long run rejected, after thoseby increased superstructures decreased seaworthiness of the resolution on a test run to light came. In its place accompanied Prussia Johann Reinhold Forster and his son George the expedition. Further the klassizistische painter William Hodges participated and two astronomers (upeach ship of one), which had to worry about control of the new time more keeper. Since Cooks had been successful measures against scurvy, this way one continued to experiment: Beside Malz and sauerkraut one led now Kohl also eingesalzenen, Karottengeleeand beer condensate also.

The journey began to 13. July 1772 in Plymouth. Cook took course on cape Circumcision on approx. over Capetown, where he inserted a dreiwöchigen stay starting from at the end of of Octobers. 54° south. This was thirty years before of Charles Bouvet discovered, which erroneous-proves it for a Vorgebirge of the Terra Australis had held.

To 51. One met degree of latitude for the first time icebergs. On third January 1773 one stood about five degree more south than of Bouvet discoveredMainland. Cook had reason to regard the Bouvetinsel, which he never got to face, as Bouvets sifting of an iceberg. To 17. January crossed the expedition as the first the southern polar circle (66° 30 ' S) and steered then again towardNortheast.

To 9. February, in the proximity of the Kerguelen, was lost in thick fog the contact to the HMS Adventure . Since for such a case a meeting place was agreed upon in New Zealand, Cook continued its driving, after the HMS resolutionone afternoon long unsuccessfully cannon shots had delivered, and steered even still further southward. It reached to 24. February 61° 52 ' S, had to the north to keep then further and met by 27. March after 117 (after Cooks recordings; of J. C. Beaglehole* checked 122) days on lake on the south point of New Zealand, where it in the Dusky Sund its people two weeks gönnte and the ship let overhaul. It had the range in the zigzag around the 60. Degree of latitude abgesegelt, without on a continentto push. Thus Dalrymples view was disproved.

As Cook to 18. May the meeting place in queen the Charlotte Sund visited, at which the HMS Adventure already waited for six weeks, was with Cook serious and three easy cases of scurvyarisen, on the HMS Adventure however twenty heavy cases. Their commander had not seriously taken the Diätvorschriften too. One exposed bring along goats and planted to potatoes and carrots.

Since the south winter moved closer, Cook moved then on the Tropicstoo. To 2. August stood it close for the position Pitcairns indicated by Carteret, but the island with security did not lie there. On the HMS Adventure again twenty cases of scurvy had arisen. Cook set course off on Tahiti, whereit to 17. August arrived.

At the beginning of of Septembers it segelte, was at the beginning of of Octobers in the Tonga islands, where it was very friendly regaled, which caused it to the designation friendship islands. As we know today, it owed it only to a coincidence that itsGroup was not niedergemetzelt at the night after one of the friendly regaling: The Insulaner did not implement their plan only because of disputes among themselves in the last moment!

It turned again direction New Zealand, which it to 21. September sighted. To 30.Septembers lost it the contact to the HMS Adventure in the heavy weather and drove on the coast along. To 25. It left a message for the HMS Adventure to November at agreed upon place in a bottle, in which it its intended routeindicated. Then it turned toward the south and exceeded themselves the 67. Degree of latitude, before it to 24. December 1773 because of the ice again course north instructed.

At the 11. January 1774 it steered itself again southward, to frightening the crew, alreadyon the home journey had gewähnt. To 30. January achieved it the southernmost point of the journey, 71° 10 ' S, 106° 54 ' W and terminated the raid in the knowledge that no larger country could be also there. Only James Weddell should 1823to the south continue to come: on 74° 15 ' S!

Cook ran now to the north, looked for unsuccessfully the 1563 as „continent “designated Juan Fernández, and got sick even with a Gallencholik. Forster consented, its favourite dog slaughters and prepare to let, around thatCaptain to couriers - with success (23. February). Cook reached at the 11. March the Osterinsel, noted there drinking water „so badly, hardly worth, to be on board brought “ and again segelte by the Tuamotus and Melanesien after Tahiti (22. April),the new Hebriden, and again New Zealand, whereby he discovered still Neukaledonien. After the HMS Adventure asked, the New Zealanders Maori evaded. Later it turned out that a landing boat with eleven men had been attacked, the men killed and possiblyverzehrt became. The HMS Adventure had left at the end of of 1773 New Zealand and in July 1774 around cape Hoorn segelnd in England had concerned. It had umsegelt thereby as the first the earth on eastern course.

The HMS resolution stung to 10. Novemberin lake, the Hoorn happened, looked for still the south Atlantic off and discovered for England the desert islands Südgeorgien and the southern sand yielding islands. By Capetown the HMS resolution directed the course toward pc. Helena and Ascension, looked for thatimaginary „matte house island “, those in Portuguese maps 15. Jh. , and level so close was drawn in of Brazil that Cook decided itself to determine still the position of Fernando de Noronha. Over the Azores one turned to 30. July 1775 afterEngland back. From the 112 men crew on the way only four had died, and none of it at scurvy.

By the expedition collected völkerkundliche objects from the South Seas were distributed on museums of Europe, a large part arrived into the Cook/Forster collection of the VölkerkundlichenMuseum Goettingen.

Third South Seas journey (1776-1779/1780)

the routes from Cooks South Seas journeys

after the second journey was Cook famous, had a safe well paid post in the Greenwich hospital (home for without means naval veterans), and was in acknowledgment of its measures against scurvy inthe Royal Society appointed.„The resolution is in excellent condition and soon its next journey will begin - without me… “ it wrote after Whitby. Planned travel reason was the northwest passage. Since freight from the far east had strongly increased,a shorter and route safer in times of war was in the north not only Konversationsthema. The fact that the Dane Bering had already looked for 1728 there was well-known, although without details.

Nobody would have zugemutet a further such load to Cook: It offered itselfand was allowed to expect to be rejected. The present Polynesier Omai, the noble savage of the Londoner society, which on the second journey from Huahine had come along, should be returned on this journey again into its homeland. Also with it were upthis journey for example the painter John Webber, George Vancouver and a Heinrich Carpenter, who published its travel memories as Heinrich Carpenter von Wissloch in the Pfalz, journey around the world, with Capitain Cook. Cooks Sailing master of the HMS resolution was William Bligh.

Cooks discovery journeys had received meanwhile also international attention. 1776 had been instructed the naval officers of France, Spain and the United States by their respective governments, captain Cook does not only ungeschoren to leave, regardless of its whether one itselfdegrees in the war with England found to treat but it beyond that with greatest possible respect so as if he would be a civilian. Finally all countries profited from the discoveries Cooks, because its realizations were published in the form of sea charts.

To12. July set Cook in Plymouth sail, in order to drive first over Teneriffa to Capetown. There pushed in November the second ship, the HMS Discovery under as per. Charles Clerke, for expedition. Cook at the end of of December about one week made first measurement worklong on the Kerguelen, which had regarded its discoverer 1773 likewise still as a part of the south continent and had called France Australe. Cook called it poverty islands, before he turned toward New Zealand.

At the end of January met it in thatAdventure Bay, Tasmanien, where the contacts were impaired to the native ones by Omai, which measure-interpreted its approximation attempts and fired its weapon. After discovery some of the southern Cook islands were the ships in February in the queen Charlotte Sund, where them scarcelytwo weeks were long repaired. At the end of April was it in Nomuka („Anamoka “), where Tasman had already supplied itself. From there it segelte after Tongatapu, where it was regaled festively received and and to 5. July a solar eclipse observed. Through-crossing the Tonga islands, he set course after an attendance on Eua on the society islands, where he visited Tubuai , Tahiti and in August and September systematically different islands.

To 12. October became Omai, in armament and horse,brought with Pomp on its homeland island Huahine, where a house for it was then built. Omais parting from Cook was water-rich, and Cook brought dark notions over Omais to future to paper:„… Omai was the more respected, the further he of itsHomeland away was… “. Omai ignored also Cooks advice, which made itself powerful ones by guest gifts too umschmeicheln, which had been given to it in large quantities, and still during Cooks of stay „each man from some meaning to the enemy “.

Cook discoveredto 24. December Christmas Iceland and observed to 30. December a further solar eclipse on Eclipse Iceland. To 18. January 1778 high islands on the horizon emerge. With astonishment the sailors placed during the following zehntägigen stay the culture andLanguage relationship to the Tahiti removed far firmly. Before it after northeast absegelte, in order to investigate the 1579 of Francis Drake found new facts Albion (California), Cook designated the Inselgruppe after the first lord of the admiralty sand yielding islands (today Hawaii, not to confound alsothe southern sand yielding islands in the south Atlantic). It should have been Cooks last large discovery.

For at the beginning of March stood it before the coast Oregons, and at the end of March inserted it in resolution the Cove, Hope Bay (Nootka sound) a land stay of one month, around thoseTo overhaul ships. It called it „König-George-Sund “, designated an island after Bligh and a peninsula after Clerke. Then the expedition of the coast moved along to the north, crossed the Aleuten, advanced into the Bering Strait, to it on 70°because of the luggage ice failed to 44 ' N.

On east course Cook Asia achieved and arrived to cape Dezhneva, the easternmost point of the Siberian coast, before he returned again to the Aleuten. On Unalaska it met Russian fur dealers, could map material of the Aleuten andthe Kamtschatka copy and received from a businessman named Ismailov a recommendation letter to the governor von Kamtschatka and Petropavlovsk. Over Ismailov it sent post office to the British admiralty.

When the winter from the high widths drove it out, Cook tookto 26. October again course on the sand yielding islands (Hawaii), where it at the end of Decembers concerned, at one time, which was assigned to the God Lono. Also it landed in the proximity of a holy place.

Whether it was regarded as the God,is an issue of many years. It stands firmly that its crew by its behavior native soon another instructed. At the latest, when a deceased sailor at a place was buried, which was entitled only to chieftains, must itself the attitude of the Hawaiians against theirGuests turned. There Cook two days later, to 4. February, applied, did not come it any longer to assaults. As it however at the 11. February again returned, in order to replace to one in the storm damaged mast of the HMS resolution, was the relationsruined. It came to several thefts, and the attempt to take the king for it as hostages Cook paid to 14. February with its life.

Cooks end

of Cook was stopped at the beach and pressed by a large quantity. After firstShooting with pellets, which it had delivered from its double-barreled gun, effect did not show, because it in the sign of an aggressor are had remained, delivered it as the second shot a ball and killed thereby another. While it turned, around instructionsto give, he was stabbed from the rear, fell with the face in the water, was expenditure-pulled and niedergemetzelt. Four naval infantrymen and some Hawaiians left their life likewise with this event.

After the incident took over as per. Charles Clerke the command of the expeditionand the HMS resolution, which to HMS over Discovery he handed its second lieutenant would ferment. Clerke was intelligently enough to take from Repressalien distance and received over switching of the priest and a son of the king at least some parts of the body Cooks and that marinehanded out, which up to 20. February lasted - which were bodies carved up and distributed to different families, partly also burned. Cook at years before a fire wound of the hand developed in New Zealand was identified. To 21. February became for itin the bay held, and on the next day the ships applied a sea-funeral.

They segelten to the north after Petropawlowsk, where they were friendly taken up by the Russians. The message of Cooks death left on the Landweg and reached Englanda half year before the home coming of the ships. As per. Clerke tried to resume the order failed however on 70° 33 ' N the luggage ice, which seemed still stronger than in the previous year. When its ship returned to Petropawlowsk, the 38-jährige had already died.As per. John would ferment, who had taken part in Cooks three Pacific journeys, led back the expedition to England, where it to 6. October 1780 arrived. Died 1798 would ferment.

Family

Cook had married 1762 Elizabeth Batts and had six children. The newborn son, Joseph,1768 had died, the four years old daughter 1771, the newborn George 1772 (thus during the first Pacific journey), and none the remaining became old. Son Nathaniel came 1780 in a hurricane around the life, Hugh died 1793 as a student in Cambridge, and thatoldest, James, * 1763, drowned 1794. Mrs. Cook got a stately pension of 200 Pound annually from the admiralty and died 1823 at the age of 93 years.

Cooks meaning lies, apart from its kartografischen achievements and geographical discoveries, also in itsPioneer work for the prevention of scurvy and Beriberi, but, around it with the words of the historian J. C. To say Beaglehole: „The largest praise speech on Cook is the sea chart Pacific. “

Literature

  • Captain James Cook “discovery travels in the Pacific” the logsthe journeys 1768 - 1779, given change of A. Grebfell Price, edition earthling, 1983, ISBN 3-522-61040-7
  • Tony hearing joke: Cook - the discovery of a discoverer. Marebuchverlag, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-93-638489-4
  • Peter Aughton: The wind delivered - James Cook and the adventurous searchnach Australien. Diana Verlag, Munich and Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-82-845037-7
  • Christian count von Krockow: The large dream of education - on the traces of the large discovery travelers James Cook and George Forster. Cunning publishing house, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-47-179467-0
  • Otto Emersleben: James Cook. Rowohlt paperback publishing house GmbH, Reinbek with Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-49-950569-X
  • George Forster: Journey around the world with captain Cook. Lamuv publishing house GmbH, Goettingen 2002, ISBN 3-88-977619-1
  • George Forster, George Christoph Lichtenberg: Cook of the discoverers - writingsover James Cook. Publishing house Philipp Reclam June., Leipzig 1983
  • Heinrich Carpenter: Heinrich Carpenter journey around the world with Capitain Cook. Patmos publishing house house, Duesseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-49-196017-7
  • Brigitta house Schäublin, Gundolf Krüger (Hrsg.): James Cook, gifts and treasures from the South Seas- The Göttinger collection Cook/Forster. Prestel publishing house, Munich 1998 (Dt. - English ones Expenditure), ISBN 3-79-131868-33

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