James Madisonis beside Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton one of the most important mental leaders of the American movement of independence, it is considered also as a father of the condition. With Alexander Hamilton and John Jay he defended the Verfassungskonstrukt publicly under the alias Publius in the Federalist PAPER.
On itdecreases/goes back not only the system of the checks and of balances (mutual control of the national instances executive, legislation and Judikative), but above all the fundamental right catalog in the first ten constitutional amendments, which became the crucial model for all following declarations of the human rights.
From 1801 to 1809he was a minister of foreign affairs under Jefferson, afterwards he became president. The only remarkable event of its presidency is the war with Great Britain 1812 - 1814 (war of 1812). To sea the war begun under reference to numerous British encroachments aimed at a conquest of Canada. Despite large numerical superiority - which the British could do, under which simultaneous muster Napoleoni war, few troops - the US army suffered a number of partly humiliating defeats with its repeated invasion attempts, the 1814 in the destruction of the public buildings of the capital Washington through onthe Chesapeake Bay landed British troops culminated. Madison was by the selection of usually incompetent generals responsible for these setbacks with. It was to be owed to substantially more professionally acting US Navy beside individual capable officers such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison above all that theseWar no disaster for the USA became. The US warships could not break through the economically devastatingly working blockade of the American coast by the British navy. However a set of psychologically important successes in engagements between individual ships succeeded. Were war crucial v.a. but victories inthe battle on the Eriesee and in the battle with flat castle on the Champlainsee, with which the British of a part of the large seas and 1814 a threatening invasion in the Federal State New York were driven out were repelled. In view of the military Patts and the increasing threatfor the co-operation of the union - parts of the new England states threatened with a secession - Madison at the end of of 1814 with the British locked the peace of Gent , in which none of its war goals the USA could reach. After the signing of the peace treaty by general Andrew Jacksonfought for and therefore militarily insignificant victory in the battle with new Orleans made it for Madison possible to represent the war nevertheless as American success an opinion, which is common until today. Despite the unsatisfactory process the USA won in particular by successes of their navy at international reputationand could expand by the clearing of the border disputes with Canada unimpaired to the west.
Madison, the capital of Wisconsin is designated after it. Madison, which was physically perfectly healthy different than its predecessors, was to be suffered as Hypochonder convinced of it from an incurable illness.
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of US-American politicians, 4. President of the USA (1809 - 1817)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||16. March 1751|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||haven Conway, Virginia, the USA|
|DYING DATE||28. June 1836|
|DYING PLACE||Montpelier, Virginia, the USA|