Japan as asiatic nation only late and on detours colonial power became; the prevailing European opinion during 17. and 18. Century it was that it would be assigned to a western great power sooner or later as colony. After the country opened isolation the west however on military pressure of the Americans in the year 1854 after almost 250-jähriger, it grew up fast to an efficient and modern industrial nation after western model, which should recognize and use soon their own economic, technical and military superiority in the Pacific area.
- In the year 1894-1895 Formosa ( today Taiwan ) and the Pescadoren come to the first Japanese-Chinese war under Japanese influence; the independence of Korea is recognized by China.
- In and after the First World War (Versailler contract) the formerly German colonies fall (and/or. German protected areas) Kiautschou and German new Guinea at Japan.
- To end of the Second World War Korea, Formosa (today Taiwan) goes, the Pescadoren, the Südsachalin, as well as the areas for Japan, conquered during the Pacific war, lost.
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process Japanese colonial and of the policy of expansion
the actual beginning of the Japanese colonial policy is difficult to estimate; thus already early (1873 - 1875) uninhabited, small islands were acquired like the Bonin islands, the Mark US island and also the Kurilen on peaceful way.
to end of the First World War
as the first sign that Japan would develop to serious colonial power, 1876 - 1879 the act of conquest and Annexion of the Ryukyu - can be seen islands with Okinawa to the disadvantage of China. At the same time (1876) Japan Korea squeezes first trade agreements through the delegation of three gunboats of the imperial navy to the Korean coast up. Korea provokes Japan by its geographical proximity and by some Bodenschätze such as coal.
In the process of the first Japanese-Chinese war Japan attains finally 1895 the island Formosa (the today's Taiwan), as well as the nearby Pescadores islands of China as colonies. Korea, over it Japan in this conflict mainly goes, attains the independence from China and falls into the Japanese sphere of influence. Japan becomes thereby in the eyes of the western world for the first time serious colonial power.
Japan acquires the peninsula Liaotung (in the south of Manchuria) and the southern half of the island Sachalin, which receive thus the Japanese name „Karafuto “, as well as the diplomatic allocation of Korea to the Japanese empire. 1905 become Korea a protectorate of Japan; in the year 1910 it is finally officially annektiert. See. Major item Korea under Japanese rule
Russia must withdraw itself from Manchuria and Japan develops the Südmandschuri railway , in order to be able to bring raw materials from Manchuria to Korea, of where they are shipped to Japan. Around this course the Guandong army will protect based, which is stationed in the Chinese colonies and spheres of influence of Japan.
In the First World War Japan on sides of the allied ones takes part and gets after end of war by the Versailler contract some before times German colonies awarded: The Marianen, the Karolinen and Marshall Islands still become Japanese colonies, as well as during the war (to 7. November 1914) the former German „presenting colony “ Kiautschou, however to 10. December 1922 on urge of the American diplomacy is returned at China.
already before the world economic crisis 1929 becomes vernehmbar in the Führungsriege Japan the voice of the expansionists (1927 with the choice Tanaka Giichi to the prime minister), which for the establishment of a more spacious sphere of influence, new areas of distribution for the domestic industries and the conquest of further colonies to thus plead. After the black Thursday and the world economic crisis however, which the country and many Kleinbauern (by collapse of the American markets for silk etc.) damage heavily, the pressure relating to domestic affairs grows after drastic steps with regard to foreign policy enormously, and particularly in the high-ranking circles that of military becomes the call after acts loud. Here various secret federations and conspiracy form like for example the Kirschblütenbund, which sees it as its goal of releasing the Japanese policy from the alleged weakness of the democratic parties and the parliament and of leading the empire to new fame and large international influence.
After in September 1931 in Manchuria a group of such conspirators from circles of the Japanese army takes the intervention of the military by a produced act of sabotage on the Südmandschuri course company (the so-called Mukden incident) provocatively (Manchuria crisis), the troop stationed in Guangdong within a half yearly piece by piece entire Manchuria against the Chinese resistance weakened by the Chinese civil war in possession, without however a declaration of war is present. The administration of Manchuria falls into Japanese hands, it comes to the establishment of the puppet state Mandschuko under „the guidance “ Pu Yis, the last Chinese emperor of the Qing dynasty. The Völkerbund condemns the Japanese procedure and demands to 24. Oktober 1931 einen japanischen le der Vorfälle d'Untersuchung de matrice de sowie de Truppenabzug dans le der Mandschurei. The Japanese policy argues meanwhile off that instruction for the occupation of Manchuria to have given and stated, the army operates on own fist, which might have corresponded to the reality probably to a certain part.
The Chinese reaction to it are commercial boycott, into which large Chinese ports do not become Japanese ships any more load and unload. The Japanese exports decrease/go back on a Sechstel of the usual level. The tendency continues to itself heat, and so Japan reacts in January 1932 extremely brutally to an apparently inconsequential incident in Shanghai (five Japanese monks on open road were attacked and flogged, one of them died at its injuries), which released protest towers in the Japanese media and the public: It comes here among other things to 29. January to the first surface bombardment on civilian population in history by Japanese of land and ship artillery and on aircraft carriers stationed bombers; about 18.000 Chinese civilians are killed, about 240.000 lose their houses. Commercial boycott finally are dropped and a demilitarized zone around Shanghai established. The Völkerbund condemns the Japanese procedure verbal on the sharpest, meets however further no strong measures against the extremely aggressive procedure of the Japanese. In May 1933 the Chinese guidance face of the internal instability closes on the one hand ( civil war between Kuomintang and communists) and on the other hand the openly expressed threat of a Japanese invasion in Peking an armistice and recognizes therein the Japanese requirements on Manchuria on, despite the Gräueltaten already committed to date by Japan, which later there also the war crimes and people attempts of the unit 731 will follow.
After in first instance (the martial law is not imposed), however in the final result as bloody coup d'etat which can be regarded extremely effectively to 15 failed. May 1932, which shakes the confidence of the Japanese perfectly into its parliamentarians, transfers the military and thus the expansionists the political guidance to Japan.
Japan withdraws 1933 due to the sharp criticism and the Hoover Stimson doctrine, which demanded, to ignore the armistice as contract attained by according to international law illegal actions internationally completely from the Völkerbund. The position with regard to foreign policy of Japan shifts in these years completely to an aggressive, totalitarian expansionism. It comes to first contracts with Nazi Germany and fascist Italy (among other things the Antikominternpakt).
to end of the Second World War
as product of the incident at the Marco Polo bridge between Japanese and Chinese troops to 7. July 1937 comes it to the second Japanese-Chinese war, which is regarded of (primarily Chinese) historians also as actual beginning of the Second World War. In its process the Japanese armed forces conquer the entire Chinese coast including the cities Shanghai, Nanking, canton, Suzhou and Tsingtau (the former German colony Kiautschou), as well as the island Hainan. Here in front the events entered as massacres of Nanking into the historical books come in the Chinese capital at that time to a multiplicity of war crime, everything.
In September 1940 Japan closes the three-power pact with Nazi Germany and Mussolinis Italy; it transfers the colonies with agreement of the Vichy regime to French Indochina (Viet Nam, Laos, Kambodscha) and undertakes efforts to seize in Netherlands east India, today's Indonesia, foot. The ideology of the largeEast Asian prosperity sphere, one by Japan from the European colonial gentlemen released Asia, spreads (similar to it: At the German nature becomes the world genesen).
The Japanese expansionist tendencies encounter violent criticism of the USA, which finally result in oil embargo against Japan and the reinforcement of American military operational readiness level in the Pacific. Japan sees itself pushed toward it economically to the wall, and the freshly selected prime minister Tojo Hideki still leaves during the current peace efforts to 7. Decembers 1941 the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor start, which finally results in the entrance of the USA into the so-called Pacific war (historical model in addition: Russian-Japanese war, attack on haven Arthur). The intention was to attain by elimination of the American Pacific fleet free hand with the conquest of further colonies in the Pacific. In December 1941 Japan Thailand forces by troop invasion to the military alliance. The Japanese troops occupy Burma, British Malaya, Singapore, Borneo, Hong Kong and also Netherlands east India. By May 1942 fall also the Philippines, the Salomonen , standing under American control, as well as the north of the island new Guinea into Japanese hands. From largest interest in the Japanese armed forces thereby the oil fields were Sumatras and Borneos. With the defeat in the bloody and long-drawn-out battle of Guadalcanal the triumphant advance of the Americans in the Pacific war begins. Japan loses gradually further territories, the Americans practices the tactics „Iceland of the Hopping “(island-jump).
To end of war the Americans fight for their way up to the island Okinawa, which to the Ryukyu - Inselgruppe belongs and one of earliest colonialistic conquests of Japan represents. After the surrender of Japan to 15. August 1945 the Ländereien and Inselgruppen are again distributed; the main figures of the Japanese expansionist tendencies made of military and politics were accused in the so-called Tokioter processes, similar to the Nürnberger processes against the Führungsriege Nazi Germany.
former one Japanese colonies after 1945
- Korea is split by the allied powers arbitrarily along the 38ten of degree of latitude into two parts, the Russian-communist in the north as well as the south standing under western administration. It comes here in June 1950 to the Korea war. Splitting Korea exists until today.
- Taiwan goes back at China and serves the Kuomintang finally underlying in the Chinese civil war as an escape goal. The taiwanische society sees itself until today as part of the Republic of China created of the Kuomintang, which draws large conflicts with the communist People's Republic of China with itself.
- Kambodscha, Laos and Viet Nam explain 1945 affected by anti-European ideas of the Japanese their independence, fall however first again under French colonial rule, attain then however as consequence of the Indochinakriegs 1954 their independence.
- Hong Kong falls back under British administration, in the year 1997 as contractually fixed at China is then returned.
- Manchuria goes first to the Soviet Union, 1946 however already drop back at China.
- Indonesia avowedly first its independence, is then taken however again of the Netherlands as colony in possession, attained however after violent rebellions and regulating American intervention 1949 independence.
- Papua New Guinea becomes Australian trust territory and 1975 independently.
- Malaysia decreases/goes back first at Great Britain and becomes 1957 independently.
- The Ryukyu - and Bonin islands go to the USA, at Japan are however later returned (Ryukyu 1953, Bonin 1968).
- The Karolinen, Marianen as well as Marshall Islands fall under American rule, it become independent with exception of the Marianen in the 1980ern and 1990ern.
Often - straight of nationalistisch Japanese historians - the wave of declarations of independence in the formerly Japanese colonies is rated after end of war as late success „of the largeEast Asian prosperity sphere “; Eastern Asia would be this very day divided under European colonial powers Great Britain , France and the Netherlands, then these argue, not by military successes of the Japanese empire would have been clearly demonstrated that asiatic states could independently fight for their place in the world.
It is certainly clear that the collapse of the Japanese Imperiums and the following phase of the uncertainty and processes of the social re-organization in the states concerned such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Kambodscha, Viet Nam and Laos actually made a large contribution for the there independence efforts. However generally the Japanese imperialism with all its shade sides is seen like the committed massacres, cruel experiments at humans as well as the obligation recruiting of „comfort women “and also that arrogance of the occupation troops which can be observed daily in relation to the requests of the population rather as negative example, as last „heilsamer shock “, which clarified the necessity to these nations to free itself of any kind foreign regulation.
aftereffects of the colonial efforts of Japan
like anti-Japanese demonstrations before Japanese mechanisms on Chinese soil in April 2005 (due to the publication of school books, which varnish the Japanese colonialism and expansionism) show, exist further an immense clarifying need straight concerning the committed war crimes. Since 1945 caught fire often such international conflicts (so-called symbolic crises) at allegedly unimportant aspects of the relations between Japan and the states, which fell at that time its colonial efforts to the victim. The reason for this is to be looked for probably in the fact that the social discourse in Japan never really affected the topics debt and compensation after the surrender in August 1945, as this was for example in postwar Germany the case. Rather revisionistic tones prevail forwards, which the committed Gräueltaten and the extremely bloody kind of the war guidance either when inevitably for the general well-being of Japan represent, or which historical correctness of such reports completely doubt (comparisons to it: Holocaustleugnung). Thus also the victims of the obligation prostitution in Japan are called varnishing comfort women.
At least in the past however for this the estimate applied that economic interests are too closely interlocked in Eastern Asia, such conflicts and associated raue diplomatic conversational language could actually escalate to military conflicts.