Jazz

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The jazz is more Black African and more European a music direction, those in the USA in meetingDeveloped for music traditions. Its roots are on the one hand in the Blues and in the Worksongs, mirror-image ritual and Gospels of the afroamerikanischen slave workers in the Southern States of the USA, on the other hand in the different Volksmusiken of the European immigrants, under it „Irish to the Folk“, kreolischer dance music, Viennese tomes and march music. From their meeting a number of new musical styles, first in new Orleans and along Mississippi , later in Chicago and other metropolises of the USA developed with a then high Zuwanderungparticularly of colored ones with Black African ancestors from the Southern States.

Early jazz styles were developed also from the rising up time: an own, through-composed music for the piano with classical roots and (derived from afroamerikanischen rhythms) strictly synkopischer melody guidance. The first jazzagainst it ensemble - music of volume with elements the collective improvisation (new Orleans - was style) and a freer Rhythmik, which are called Swing.

Certain picking up vein of the early jazz such as Buddy Bolden were also salient instrument valleyists with a very individual clay/tone formation. Improvisation,Swing and own clay/tone formation described the jazz historian Joachim seriousness Berendt as basic elements of the jazz music, which contributed his history from the beginning.

Table of contents

characteristics

special characteristics of the jazz are

  • the individual clay/tone formation and Phrasierung,
  • a function enriched with extended chords or Stufenharmonik,
  • the collective andindividual improvisation,
  • rhythmic intensity and polyrhythmische complexity, for example the tension between on-Beat and off Beat and in addition different Phrasierung behind (laid bake: „back-leaned “) or forwards (laid forward: „submitted “) the basic impact (beat),
  • Spontanität, Vitalitätand Expressivität,
  • „the liberty to have many forms “(archie Shepp).

The self expression of the interpreter, its character and its „Message “are located in the center of a jazz presentation: contrary to the European art music, where the interpreter itself precise noted compositionsand this subordinates usually as work-faithfully as possible implements.

A substantial characteristic of the jazz is its intensive time and rhythm - feeling. “Swing” (small written) to the basic impacts, usually Viertelbeats remains, bound. The melodies - usually in smaller Notenwerten, played over it,the “pulse”: Eighths, Triolen, Sechzehnteln or faster - tones stress “between” the Beats, so that to these a tension develops, without their framework to however often leave. This Phrasierung of ensembles and soloists is individually different. It can depending uponStyle direction „binary “(with split pulse) or „ternary “(with three-divided pulse) or consciously not fixed its (Free jazz).

End of the 1940er years the Cuban Polyrhythmik, in which genuin African music traditions had kept, again strengthened into those Jazzrhythmik integrates. Also after it hispanische or Latin American music styles affected - Bossa new facts, Samba, Salsa, Tango, Son etc. - the jazz again and again as the third element apart from the African and European interrelation.

Harmonik

major item: Jazzharmonik

the Harmonik is the basis of the jazz improvisation, the jazz arrangement and the jazz composition. As independent music theory it is relatively again, there the jazz itself not from the theory, but particularly from musical practicedeveloped.

Melodik

major item: Jazzmelodik

as also with the Harmonik partly originates the Jazzmelodik from the Blues. It develops on the Pentatonik, the scale without the half-tone steps. In addition the Blue Notes came in the Blues. ThisTones cannot be produced with blowing or stringed instruments very well, with key instruments however. The overlay of Moll Melodik and Dur Harmonik produces the typical Blues/jazz sound.

Additionally a number of different scales, those are used essentially the respective chord function to express and alsoTensions and passage stages are enriched.

Important classical melody instruments of the jazz are: Clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, harmonica

Rhythmik

major item: Jazzrhythmik

important one classical rhythm instruments of the jazz are: Schlagzeug, Piano, Vibraphon, guitar, Bass

see also: Walking bass

history

major item: History of the jazz

jazz standard

major item: Jazz standard

see also: List of jazz standards and - compositions

Etymologie

the origin of the expression jazz is unsettled.

1909 dipped thatTerm in the Song „Uncle Josh in Society “up: „One lady asked ME if I danced the jazz… “, probably a kind of rising up time - dance meaning. 1913 are the term occupied as designation of a kind of music, possibly as designationfor the music to that rising up time dance. Possibly it is derived from a word „jass “from the kreolischen Patois, „jass “, for „energetic activity “, in the special Sexualverkehr. In addition a source: „If the truth were known about the origin OF theword “jazz” it would more never mentioned into polite society. “[„Étude “, September. 1924]

Starting from at the latest 1915 it gives volume from new Orleans, which carries the word Jass or jazz in the volume name and/or so that designate its music.

Possible is also oneDerivative of the word Jass or jazz from the use of the term jasm (French dictionary of 1860) to energy, dynamics and Vitalität, as suitable spare term for African dance names as for instance Mandingo jasi or Temne yas), anyhow is considered another Slangwort (jism) also derived therefore. Jasi is not only the name of a dance, but stands also for „in excitation shifts “.

Another possibility is the fact that „jazz comes “from kreolisch „jizz “which likewise to the AI Congo word „dinza “is related, and Ejakulationmeant.

Some sources want to recognize kreolischen chasse for hunt in „jazz a Verballhornung of the French: an allusion on the collective improvisation of the instruments in the new Orleans style. Others derive the word rather from chasse beau , a dance figure with the Cakewalk, or on onefamous dancer of a Minstrelshow, which Jasbo called itself, and which the public zurief „incoming goods want more Jasbo “. Again different refer Jézabel “, which too jazz-barks („jazz “- beautiful ones) to a sexual Konnotation or the verballhornte version of the name „was reinterpreted: Thus calledone a popular prostitute in the old new Orleans. Possible also the meaning is „blödes things “as in the verächtlichen idiom „… and all that jazz “. So the white Americans are to have called the first musical going attempts of their slaves, outthose the jazz developed later.Jass is a pack of cards, which admits by immigrants in new Orleans have been might. Jas is a jargon word with possibly sexual meaning from the Senegalese one.

The verb „tons of jazz “for „tons of speed or liveUP “, faster or to animate, in momentum bring, is occupied starting from 1917.

In a further theory the origin of the word is described „jazz “from the term „Jass “. There are different explanation beginnings for the origin of „Jass “. The probably most well-knownthe Verkürzung of the term is „Jackass “(„donkeys “), since the music scene established at that time meant that the new improvised play way sounded itself „like a horde/hurdle donkeys “. The term „Jass “did not find however with the musicians favours - finally one could by simpleOmits first letter the word „ate “from it makes. Thus the last two letters changed themselves of „ss “too „zz “.

important meetings

  • Montreux jazz festival - annually in July in Montreux, already since 1967
  • steering wheels jazz days - (June)
  • World of saxophones Congress 2006 - jazz
  • North Sea jazz festival - annual in the summer in the Hague & Cape Town, since 1976
  • Warsaw jazz Jamboree - annual in the autumn since 1958
  • German jazz festival Frankfurt - since 1953(now again) annually in October in co-operation with hr2
  • jazz celebration Berlin - one of the oldest and most renowned festivals, 1964 of Joachim seriousness Berendt based. Annually in November.
  • Leverkusener jazz days, annually in November, since 1980
  • jazz celebration Rottweil, annually in April/May, since 1985
  • international jazz week in castle living, annually in April/May, since 1973
  • international Sonneberger jazz days - annual in November, since 1986
  • jazz spring new Brandenburg - annual in March, April; since 1992
  • Worms: Jazz & Joy - annual taking place, largestJazzfestival in Rhineland-Palatinate, since 1991
  • jazz mile - annually taking place 2-monatiges festival in Thuringia, since 1994
  • Enercity jazz time, one-week meeting row in Hanover (1 week before Ascension Day)
  • Enercity Swinging Hanover, two-day international Jazzfestival in Hanover (Ascension Day)
  • jazz week Hanover (April)
  • Jazz celebration Hanover, two-day Jazzfestival (November)
  • Hot Advent - Jazzfestival in Hanover (3. Advent)
  • Winning jazz - three-day-long new generation competition in Hanover (at the end of of December)
  • jazz at the ball yard - each Saturday in Hanover, of May until September
  • international Wiehler jazz days - since1989 regularly in Wiehl
  • Darmstädter jazz forum - since 1989 every two years concert row and international symposium (see left to Jazzinstitut Darmstadt)
  • international Dixieland festival Dresden annually in May, since 1970
  • international new jazz festival Moers annually at Whitsuntide, since 1972
  • Düsseldorfer jazz Rally in June, since 1993 Leipziger
  • jazz days in October, since 1976 jazz celebration meadows
  • ( castle country) since 1976 Duerener jazz days
  • in Düren, annually in July, since 1991 VS swingt
  • annually annually Jazzfestival in Villingen Schwenningen - annual at the beginning of of July, since1977
  • international jazz festival Viersen - in each case to 4. September weekend
  • jazz of live in the memory in empty - since 1992
  • jazz summers Graz (Steiermark) jazz festival in Graz to free entrance, annually of in the middle of July to at the end of of August

See also

Wikibooks: Jazz - learning and teaching materials
Wikibooks: Jazz guitar - learning and teaching materials
Wikiquote: Jazz - quotations
Wiktionary: Jazz - word origin, synonyms and translations

literature

  • Ken Burns, Geoffrey C. Ward: „Jazz - a music and its history “. Dt.Franca Fritz, Heinrich Koop. Econ, Munich. 2001.ISBN 3430116090. After a documentary film row. Original: „Jazz - A History OF America's music “. Alfred A. Button, NY the USA. 2000 and/or: The jazz film Project, Inc.
  • Klaus curving ore (publisher): „That's jazz - thatSound 20. Century “(Darmstadt 1988 and 1997)
  • Joachim seriousness Berendt, Günther Huesmann: „The jazz book “(Frankfurt/Main 2001) current edition 2005: From new Orleans to in 21. Century ISBN 3100038029
  • Geoff Dyer: „But Beautiful “(argon)
  • John Fordham: „The large bookof the jazz “
  • Studs Terkel: „Giants of the jazz “. Two thousand-unity, Frankfurt 2005 ISBN 3-86150-723-4
  • corner hard Jost: “Social history of the jazz” (Frankfurt/Main 2003) ISBN 3-86150-472-3

encyclopedias

  • Martin Kunzler: „Jazz encyclopedia “(Reinbek with Hamburg 1988 and 2002)
  • Barry core field (publisher):„The new Grove Dictionary OF jazz “(London 1988 and 1994)
  • Carr/Fairweather/Priestley: „Jazz: The Rough Guide “(Metzler music 1999)

catalogs

Bielefelder catalog jazz, hrsg. Manfred Scheffner: Records CDs, MCs, annually again, overview over in Germany availableJazz photographs, sorts according to music titles on the clay/tone carriers, interpreters and labels (labels).ISBN 3-89113-137-2 (and/or. newest expenditure)

jazz photography

  • stages/concert and Portrait photo, Marianne Hamann white, photo archives, approx. 1000 artists (national and international jazz and R&B scene,among other things 14 years in consequence (1987-2002) Montreux jazz festival,

Web on the left of

 

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