Jean Baptiste Lully

Jean Baptiste Lully, originally Giovanni Battista Lulli (* 28. November 1632 in Florenz; † 22. March 1687 in Paris) was a composer of Italian origin, that the largest part of its life for the yard Ludwig XIV.worked. Itbecame 1661 French citizen.

Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean Baptiste Lully

table of contents

lives

Childhood in Italy

Lullys grandparents were farmers, its father Lorenzo (1599 - 1667) was married with the Mueller daughter Caterina Del Sera. Lully was born in via Borgo the Ognissanti in Florenz and to 29. November in the Baptisterium SanGiovanni baptized. 1638 died its older brother Vergini, 1639 its sister Margherita. Lully received gediegene training, a Franziskanermönch gave it first music instruction.

On its journey of Malta Roger de Lorraine, Chevalier de Guise made, in February 1646 station inFlorenz. It looked for Duchesse de Montpensier for Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, called La Grande Mademoiselle (daughter of gas clay/tone d'Orléans, the one brother of Ludwig XIII.was), one „pretty “boys for Italian Konversation. It became on the komödiantisch talentedLully attentively and carried it forward in the agreement of parents to France.

Lully with Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans

in France lived Lully with the Grande Mademoiselle Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans in the Tuilerien. To its tasksbelonged it not only to maintain the lady of the house and to accompany it on the guitar to heat but also, to sort clothes the fire-places and ignite the candles. It perfected far its playing the violin play, took Cembalo and composition instructionwith N. Métru, Francois (II) Roberday and N. Gigault and arose in amusing roles. Jean Regnault de Segrais, who operated with Rouchefoucauld and Marie Marquise de Sévigné and 1661 were taken up to the Académie française, provided for Lullys trainingto the ballet dancer.

Lully and Ludwig XIV. dance together

Der junge Louis XIV. in der Hauptrolle des Apollo im „Ballet royal de la nuit“ 1653
the young Louis XIV. in the main role of the Apollo in „clench royal de la nuit “1653

cardinal Mazarin and Anna of Austria led the Regierungsgeschäfte alone, so long it that, were neglected these did not need young Louis badly and roamed themselves together with his brother in the ditch of the Louvre. There the children of the personnel met, in order to play with one another; here it may have also been that the futureSun king Giovanni Battista Lully became acquainted with. Hardly one may have assumed the king and its brother among the other children, because the royal garbs were guarded by Mazarin like an eyeball, its Geiz were legendary. Thus it came that someService messenger child was better tightened than the king of France. Between Lully and the king a close friendship, it developed learned a dancing and guitar to play together. The relationship went probably beyond the Mäzenatentum far.

It remained natural the remaining yard musiciansnot hidden, the how very king estimated the Italian musician.Jean de Cambefort, who was responsible so far for the ballet music at the French yard, now already saw it as serious threat. Exactly the same the director/conductor of the 24 violins of the king (thatOrchestra was created by Louis XIII and the first being certain orchestra of music history was), Guillaume Dumanoir. But there were also yard composers, who promoted the young musician after forces, like Regnault and Michel Lambert, that as largest masters„the air de Cour “into music history was received. It became late Lullys father-in-law.

To 7. March 1652 appeared to Lully into the Macarade de la foire Saint Germain as a dealer. After a short “Intermezzo” in Saint Fargeau, where Lully La GrandeMademoiselle had followed, which had been forced after Niederringung of the Fronde, Paris to leave, concentrated Lully since at the end of of 1652 completely on Ludwig XIV. In clench royal de la nuit, several marks between that 23. February and 16. March 1653specified, Lully was as shepherds, a soldier, beggar, to see Krüppel and Grazie. The king danced here for the first time the role of the coming up sun. He found such a favour at Lully that he him to 16. March 1653 toCompositeur de la musique instrumentale appointed. Pretty often Lully at the side of the king danced, for example in clenches plaisirs. It could register also first successes as a composer. For clench de Psyché it a Concert Italy had contributed.Its first larger composition was the masquerade La Galanterie you temps, who were specified in the palace Mazarins under co-operation of the Petits violons, this orchestra by Lully with permission of the king was based, around no more on the ponderous 24 violinsfall back to have, tried and perhaps also the old masters out of the way to go to boycott those Lullys ascent.

Lully belonged to the group in Paris under promotion Mazarins active Italian. But regardless of its origin Lully already was inthis time of the general agents of a French coined/shaped dance style.

With Amour malade, to 17. January 1657 uraufgeführt, succeeded to Lully the break-through as a composer. Lully brillierte again as a dancer, here as Scaramouche, to which a donkey dedicates a thesis.

Career at the yard of Ludwig XIV.

Lully belonged now unquestionably to the internal circle around the king. When the king traveled 1659 with Mazarin for the preparation of the Pyrenees peace treaty to the Pyreneeses, it Lully accompanied and composed among other things clenched de Toulouse. To 29. August 1660, three days after the introduction of Ludwig in Paris, rang out into the Église de la Merci in presence of the queen nut/mother Anna of Austria, the king, to the queen Maria Theresia of Spain and Philippsof Orléans, the king brother, with large success Lullys Friedensmotette Jubilate Deo.

The cardinal had Francesco Cavalli, which most famous Italian opera composers, to Paris come to let on the occasion of the ceremonies. Of Paris had also before already experienced performances of Italian operas: Luigi Rossis of works played, particularly impressively was often the performance of the opera „L'Orfeo “. Cavalli should under the title „Ercole amante “(the Herkules) one fallen in love FESTO by in honours of the pair of weddings to write. Lully was turned off, around ballet inserts for the splendor opera toowrite, but it was not on the way to undermine the performance in order to co-operate with Cavalli, but over as Saboteur on behalf the king (that the Italian operas hated).

Cavalli could complete the work not in time and had on an older workfall back: „Xerse “, but also here-lead composed Lully ballet music. As to 21. November 1660 Francesco Cavallis Xerse was specified in the picture gallery of the Tuilerien, over-rampantly grew the dance inserts the opera contributed by Lully almost. Lully, the native Italian, had one completely andFrench music composes, which placed itself beside the Italian, quite with the requirement of the own superiority. Cavallis opera was hardly considered, was not even mentioned as a composer. But not Cavalli was the actual goal of these occurrences, but a cardinal,by the failure of the composer promoted by it to be made ridiculous should.

After death Mazarins (9. ) Many Italians France left March 1661. But although one had referred the Italian opera into its barriers, „Ercole Amante became “neverthelessstill specified. The ballet „Hercule amoureux “should become one of the most memorable events of music history, because the king appeared here now for the second time as Apollo , but this time in all splendour, the yard skandierte during its dance „long lives that Sun king! “. Louis XIV its life should keep this pointed name long. Cavalli returned as a broken and entehrter man to Venice , it swore, to never compose again for the stage. Lully made for far career. To 5. May 1661 appointed LudwigXIV. it to the Surintendant de la musique you roi, whereby he did without the 10,000 livre, which would have cost the office. Michel Lambert became Maître de musique de la chambre.

co-operation with Molière (1664-1671)

Die „Vergnügungen der verzauberten Insel“ (Les plaisirs de l'île enchantée) in Versailles 1664
„the entertainmentsin Versailles 1664 the Minister of Finance Nicolas Fouquet left itself within shortest time a palace

from the soil stampfen to the bewitched island “(Les plaisirs de l'île enchantée). More obligated for it it the best artists of France, Louis Le Vau, that the palace, André Le Nôtre for the garden plants and Charles Le Brun, the first painter of the king, planned who was a outstanding Dekorateur, for the organization of the splendor areas. To 17. August 1661 found the large celebration of Vaux le Vicomteinstead of. The king and its family were loaded as honour guests, besides further 6000 guests were boarded. For the musical organization the most capable musicians should provide, among them Michel Lambert and Lully. Lully, which had closed already long a friendship to Molière,this few days had dissolved before still and full panic had found. It had been able to terminate its comedy „Les Fâcheux “, but it had too few actors - do which. One came on one, equally simple, like ingenious idea.Between the different scenes one inserted to ballet to be able itself to cover in order the actors Zeit to give. Beauchamps and Lully arranged those ballet (Lully composed however only a Courante again).

The performance became an unbelievable success, then became outthe emergency „the Comedie clench “born, which should become for the next years the most important medium for Lully. The celebration however had met with approval with the king less well. Some time was arrested later Fouquet and its properties was seized. The celebrationfrom Vaux gave not only a musical Initialzündung, but showed of Louis which everything was possible, it wanted the lock and its owner to exceed: The old hunting seat of its father should be the place where it unrestrainedly to build could: Versailles.

First becameonly „small “changes accomplished, the construction work were limited mainly to the garden. The lock was supplemented only around two building parts. The park was again planned by Le Nôtre. Already 1664 could be locked the first work. The king instructed thoseAdjustment of an enormous celebration: „Les Plaisirs de l'îsle enchantée “was called the celebration, which took 7 days. The celebration was opened to a horse ballet on the first day with one „Caroussell “, in that the king and different one in precious costumes presented itself.The king was disguised as „Roger “. Under bass drums and trumpets he led the course on (the music Lullys for this is unfortunately verschollen). Afterwards „clench seasons “given, a spectacular ballet, in which even animals arose: Thus that pulledSpring on a horse, the summer on an elephant, the autumn on a camel and the winter on a bear on the place.

There were Lotterien, flanks, balls, a reperformance of „Les Fâcheux “as well as the follow-up work „Le Mariage forcé “.The conquest of the palace of the Alcina formed the high point. This palace was a Staffagebau, which had been developed on an artificial island generally speaking channel by Versailles. The palace was destroyed with very complex fireworks. Molière had here its large, Directly to appearance three of its comedies were played, apart from the clenching comedies specified already brought he his most disputed work also here on the stage:Tartuffe. Never again there should be a celebration of this dimension.

In the following years further ballet comedies developed:„George Dandin “1668 was given in the context of the second large celebration by Versailles. „Monsieur de Pourceaugnac “and/or the large Divertissement de Chambord of 1669. But largest success should the two comedies „Les amants magnifiques “(the beautiful lovers) and„Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme “(the citizen as a nobleman) granted its, both of 1670. Despite co-operation with Molière Lully composed also further yard ballet. 1669 developed the last large yard-clenched „clench Royal de Flore “, here stepped Louis XIV for the third timeas the sun up, in the ballet comedy „Les amants magnifiques “then to the fourth and last mark. Allegedly the king is to have been overtaxed with the heavy Choreographie, on which he gave the ballet up. „Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme “became the usually-played ballet comedy thatboth artists, originally developed around the Turkish Ambassador to make ridiculous, who had specified itself to yards of the sun king like a savage.

1671 culminated the co-operation of Lully and Molière in the Tragédie clench „Psyché “. One wanted away from thatComedy, somewhat heroischeres for the largest king of the world create. The work lasted Pierre Corneille and Philippe Quinault over 5 hours, here worked beside Molière still on the Divertissements. Philippe Quinault should become soon Lullys dear savingists. Nine becamedifferent sceneries used, all Gods of the Olymp had been seen their appearance and a multiplicity of monsters and fabulous creatures were. The work became despite the length the up to then most successful stage work.

Henriette Stuart, which was wife of the duke of Orléans,died. Now one looked for a new woman for the brother of the king. The choice fell on Liselotte of the Pfalz. To this cause one specified „clenches the Ballets “. But instead of perfectly new to compose that becameWork a Pasticcio, as Lully and Molière used the most successful scenes of the last common works. But during the work it came to the controversy, the artists separated in the anger. The ballet was specified, the comedy „La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas “however by Molières new composer one toned:Mark Antoine Charpentier. It wrote also for Molières last comedy „to Le malade imaginaire “(the conceited patient) the very extensive stage music. Molière died 1673 in that costume of the title figure. Only after its death, 1674during the third large celebration of Versailles its last comedy in Versailles was played.

the sun king of the French opera (1672-1685)

Lully in Hoftracht
Lully in Hoftracht

1672 brought Robert Cambert, the former upper yard master of the music to the queen nut/mother, thosefirst frz. Opera on the stage: „Pomone “. Success was bombastisch against expecting.Pierre Perrin was responsible for the libretto. Lully observes the success of the two with curiosity and large envy.
By skillful plots it succeeded, to Pierre Perrin into thatTo float ruin. He came into the Conciergerie, because he could hardly still save himself from debts. Lully visited the unfortunate one and made to it an offer: it provides for the payment of the debts and obtains with the king itsRelease, but it must it the opera rights and all this which with it is connected left. Perrin was involved to know the trade in, without which it thereby on would set.

Lully had now the monopoly for the performance of operas, it obtainedstill further rights with the king, who granted it readily. Like that any performance with music without the permission of the Surintendanten was forbidden and became with Konfiszierung of all instruments, costumes, incomes etc. punished. This met Molière particularly heavily in its last Lebensjahren,since to those Lully music had composed all texts now property of the Florentiners was. The Académie Royale de Musique was firm in the hands Lullys. Its power let he now everyone feel, what had as a consequence that many the outstandingComposers and musician the yard left. Best example is the founder of the French Cembaloschule Jacques champion de Chambonnières.

1672, thus in the same year „of the seizure of power “, brought its first opera to Lully on the stage, a Pastorale „Les Fêtes de l'Amouret de Bacchus “. Here it followed from time emergency the model „clenches the Ballets “thus a Pasticcio. The work was extremely successful and put the foundation-stone for its further career than founders of the French national opera.

Contrary to Cambertand Perrin it vacated clenches enormous area in its works. Thus all Tragèdies Lullys consists of one pro log and 5 documents. Each act has a generous scene with ballet and choir inserts a Divertissement. The pro log can quite as an independent Divertissement to be seen and exclusively served for the glorification of the sun king.

1673 came the opera „Cadmus et Hermione “on the stage, it are considered as Lullys first tragedy. 1674 followed „Alceste “, this splendor opera became in the marble yard of Versaillesuraufgeführt. It was one of the high points of the third large celebration of Versailles.1675 „Thésée “given, just as splendidly, just as successfully.

1676 followed „Atys “, since the king allegedly was to have composed here with, as well as for a very long time with Lully together-sat overthis work to complete, has this tragedy the sub-title „the opera of the king “. Here Lully does without bass drums and trumpets, in order to obtain a dark rauen sound. The Schlummerszene became legendary, here stepped the still young marine Marais as onethe dreams up.

1677 were given „Isis “. Although Lully submitted an ingenious work here, the opera little success had granted. One criticized the strange action, which had submitted Quinault, and felt Lullys music as too intellectual. The opera gotthe sub-title „the opera of the musicians “, because all musicians and/or. in music were inspired educated spectator of the work.

1678 took the Tragèdie to Lully clench „Psyché “and replaced the spoken dialogues by singing.

1679 came „Bellerophon “on the stage.1680 followed „Proserpine “.

1681, on instruction of the king, a yard ballet „Le Triomphe de l'Amour “. Louis XIV wished itself a revival the old yard ballet. This work by the descendants of the king danced, one became one of the most famous worksLullys at all.

1682 pulled the yard finally after Versailles. To this cause „Persée was given “. With this work became to 17. May 1770 the opera house to Versailles inaugurated, the cause: the wedding of the future Louis XVI with Marie Antoinette.This speaks for the meaning, which one the works Lullys still in 18. Century granted.

1683 died the queen of France, who became performances of „Phaeton “shifted.

1684 came Lullys most successful work on the stage: „Amadis “. Of course1683 composed, the premiere was shifted because of the death of the queen one year. Amadis each year specified, so long the king lived. The moreover one Lully and Quinault turned away French Ritterepen from the mythology and besangen,which the defense of the faith as the highest ideal to contents have. The abolition of the edict of Nantes should leave also in the music its traces.

the crash (1685-87)

1685 was given „Roland “. By the strong influencing control thatMadame de Maintenon was concerned the king now less with Lullys art. One says even, he bored himself during the premiere. Lullys star began to sink. Since 1683 madame de Maintenon was, the former wife of the writer Paul Scarron, the king secret wife and poisoned the yard with Bigotterie and intolerance. You pleased neither the music Lullys nor the composer, whose Homosexualität did not want to tolerate her. As publicly ruchbar it became that Lully a PAGE namedBrunet loved, was this the suitable pretext to extract from Lully the favour of the king. In addition its participation in the Orgien of the dukes of Orlèans and Vendôme came. The king quoted Lully to itself and submitted to him that he notis further determined to bear its behavior. Lully had been appointed in the meantime the Secretaire you Roi, was even an advisor of the king, at least on the paper and the collection into the ennobling and had received, but the king treated his formerTrusted and friend now with cold weather.

Lully wrote asking writing down on asking writing and flehte the king around assigning. And nearly it looked in such a way, as if the king would give in: The Marquis de Seignelay, Sohn of the large Colbert, had a workwith it in order given, „idyl sur la Paix “. The text nobody supplied to smaller one with than Jean Racine. The king, who attended the performance in Sceaux, was extremely done of the newest work of its upper yard master, he left to Lully large sectionsrepeat. But madame de Maintenon put a latch plate for the reconciliation forward.

1686 are uraufgeführt „Armide “, Lullys newest opera, not at the yard, but in Paris. Lully is since longer in disgrace pleases and the king receives it no longer. Lully hopedhowever to attain the Protektion of the king again. Its next opera, which it composed for Louis Joseph Duc de Vendôme on a libretto of the Jean Galbert de Campistron, was a subtle Huldigung to the successor to the throne and thus to the king.Aciset Galatée rang out to 6. September 1686 in the lock of Anet on the occasion of a hunt portion of the Dauphins. Before the performance Lully and the singers as well as the erlauchten guests had diniert. In the preface that the king dedicated score wrote Lully, itfeel in itself one „certainty “, which out-lifts it „over itself “and „with a göttlichen spark fulfill “.

Lullys Grab in der Kirche Notre-Dame-des-Victoires in Paris
Lullys grave in the church Notre lady the Victoires in Paris

1687 works Lully on its opera „Achille et Polixène “, there gets sick the king heavily. At firstif it complained only about toothache, which wanted to pull physicians the tooth, it employed itself however so awkwardly that they tore the king a piece of the Oberkiefers out. One burned the strongly bleeding wound out with a glowing iron. One countedalready with the death of the king, but this recovered itself. For the ceremonies over the recovery of the king Lully works on its 1678 composed „width unit Deum “and plans a performance with the entire yard music, 300 musicians. The work too „Achille etPolixene “were reset. But as it the Motette to 8. January 1687 in the Église of the Pères Feuillants specified, passed a misfortune: Lully, as well as the Kapellmeister before it, struck the clock with a long richly verzierten heavy staff. Thattemperful man struck so violently the clock that he rammed himself the staff into the foot. The wound caught fire rapidly and infected themselves with Wundbrand. There Lully refused the toe amputieren to leave, deceased the composer fewDays after. He was buried in Notre Dame of the Victoires under large sympathy.

Its last opera was completed by its secretary Pascall Colasse. The follow-up in the office of the Surintendanten transferred first his sons Jean and Louis de Lully, together withits best pupil marine Marais, until the king Michel Richard Delalande transferred the office.

Lullys music and meaning

also today clearly more well-known composers such as George Friedrich trade can coined/shaped by Lullys

music locking be stated that Lullywith his new orchestra discipline not only the French style resumed and considerably coined/shaped, but thus enormous influence on the European music landscape outgoing 17. Century exercised.

For the sound its orchestra are typical „reproach “, the fünfstimmige orchestra set andthe large occupation of the orchestra. The 24 violins of the king form the core of the ensemble; in addition the 12 large oboes ( at the advancement of the Schalmei to the oboe Lully is to have been considerably involved) step, an extensive Continuogruppe with sounds, Guitars, Cembalo etc. and quite often bass drums and trumpets. Likes was also „the exhibition of “new instruments merged into the work, like the Traversflöte or „the French Trio “thus to 2 oboes with bassoon. These instruments had in manyDances and pieces of instrument valley of solo appearances, usually even on the stage. Straight one in the following German tradition was often used the French Trio, particularly of Fasch and Telemann. In the early years Lully played the first violin at its ensemble,often are in the scores of the Philidor - collection notes like „M. de Lully joue “(the Mr. von Lully plays) to read, the Violinstimme should be dargeboten then with as blumigen an ornaments as possible.

The typically French Ouvertüre in the dotted rhythm with following Joint and repetition of the first part, are however only partially. a new creation Lullys. His predecessors, teachers and contemporaries such as Jean de Cambefort, Francois Caroubel, Nicolas Dugap, Jacques de Montmorency de Bellville, Jacques Cordier, Pierre Beauchamps, Guillaume Dumanoir, Michel Mazuel, Mignotde la Voye or Robert Cambert wrote already Ouvertüren, or better said „to Eröffnungsmusiken “for yard ballet. These Ouvertüren do not have to do anything with the Italian Sinfonias, like them from Monteverdi, Luigi Rossi or Francesco Cavalli and Marc' Antonio Cesti- the typically French orchestra style was developed already at times Ludwig XIII and its ballet masters and is to the establishment of the 24 violins to attribute - Lullys working were composed exist primarily in the continuation of the tradition of its predecessors. But duringthe old Ouvertüren were rather only gravitätisch, added Lully them still another fugierten part. 1660 were specified such „new “Ouvertüre in the ballet „Xerxes “for the first time, this form was since then maintained. Nearly each work begins with suchOuvertüre, an exception forms „de l' Amour for Les Fêtes et de Bacchus “, who is opened still with an anciently seeming Ritournell.

Lully was very mindful as dancers to arrange its dances in such a way and ballet that one alone onthe music already recognizes, which dance it concerns. Thus the music does not stand in the first place with the composition - separate the dance, which it is to embody.

The French opera was from the outset as Gegenpol to the Italianit established opera meant as Louis XIV within all ranges of the art an own French style, was it promoted it a personal request that also in the music should happen. In Lully he found a willing and talentierten master,that its conceptions to convert could.

The French Rezitativ is particularly remarkable in the comparison to the Italian opera . This by Lully and Lambert developed Rezitativ is rather an advancement „of the air de Cour “and has with the Italian Rezitativen hardlysomewhat commonly. Thus rezitierte passages change easily into small songful airs. These airs are not however to confound with the airs like it in the Italian opera occur. The Italian since-capo-air does not exist in the French opera. Thosemost famous scene Lullys is the mono log of the Armide from the gleichnahmigen Tragèdie Lyrique: „Enfin IL est à mA Puissance! “(Act II, scene 5). Contemporaries as later also Rameau regarded this passage than the ideal of the French opera art. Largest earnings/servicesLullys lies in the reason of the French national opera. With the opera form created by him it created it, expectations of the public contently sets, its own, understandable opera and a preservation and an integration of the Balletts.

Each of its operas is in 5Document and a pro log partition. The pro log serves in music for glorification of its king. It hardly consists usually only of ballets, choirs and airs, but Rezitativen. The 5 document of the tragedies (naturally only classical materials were treated like Ritterepenand stories that Greek -) all are drawn Roman mythology up in verses, which comes to meet the special French Rezitativ much. Everyone the document has large choir scenes a Divertissement, thus and ballet. Certain scenes became the standard like thoseliked dream scenes (Sommeil), which pompösen battles (Combats), the storms (vents) and the locking large Chaconnen and Passacaillen often with soloists and choir.

Already since the Plaisirs de l' Îsle de enchantée had become popular the French music style in Europe, and soit pulled quite many young musicians to Paris over with Lully to study. These pupils should become the European „Lullisten “:Pelham Humfrey, Sigismund Kusser, Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer, Agostino Steffani, George Muffat… These young musicians madethe style Lullys particularly in Germany and England popular. The orchestral compositions of its operas and ballet circulated as Suiten in printed form in completely Europe. Thus it does not surprise that this Suiten coined/shaped the baroque Orchestersuite considerably. In nearly everyoneCopies of the works Lullys were music library of a prince. In Germany above all the yards are in Hanover, Celle, Düsseldorf, Kassel, Darmstadt, restcorroded and Munich been those not only Lullys music collected, but also French musicians imported. Even ifLullys operas still in the developing phase were, then there were already pirat copies of its finished scenes, which were sold on the black market. Its style found some imitations, then is even the famous Orchestersuiten of Johann Sebastian brook imitations from Lullyjustified forms. Further German composers wrote French Suiten in manners Lullys:George Philipp Telemann, Johann Friedrich Fasch, Johann Joseph Fux and Philipp Heinrich experience oh. And finally also the two famous works of trade are, the water music and the Musick for the Royal Fireworks nothing else as compositions, which are based on Lullys works. Straight one in England was maintained its style by the frankophilen taste of the Stuartkönige, the style Lullys is in the music of curl, Humfrey, Blownot to over-hear and Purcell. But already at times of Karl I. the French music style at the yard was established, among other things by the French composer and violonist Stephen Nau.

In France the style Lullys remained approximately for further hundred years binding.The forms, which it gave to the ballet, the opera and the religious music, were not touched. It was even taboo to tone a text, which Lully had already toned, a further mark. Thus the French composers in the direct composedFollow Lullys its operas completely in his style:Marine Marais, André Cardinald Destouches, Pascall Colasse, Michel Richard Delalande, André Campra, Jean Philippe Rameau, Francois Fracoeur, Antoine Dauvergne, Jean Joseph Cassanea de Mondonville, Jean Marie Leclair….

Only with thatEstablishment „of the Concert Spirituel “in Paris and the ever more frequently specified Italian concerts yielded the dislike against the Italian music. When then an Italian troop Pergolesis specified „La serva padrona “in Paris, an open conflict between the trailers broke to thatfrz. traditional opera and the trailers of the new Opera buffa out. Contemporaries report that it happened there quite often as with Religionskriegen… at least which concerns the libellous pamphlets. This Buffonistenstreit entered history and became only years laterby the first performances of the operas of luck settled. With luck also gradually the opera of the Ancien regime, Lully, Campra and Rameau disappeared was hardly still played.

the work

of clergyman of vowel works

Grands motets

1.Jubilate Deo (29. August 1660); 2. Miserere (23. (?) March 1663); 3. Benedictus (1663 or 64); 4. O lachrymae (1664 (?)); 5. Plaude laetare Gallia (24. March 1668); 6. Width unit Deum (9. September 1677); 7. De profundis (May 1683); 8.This irae (1. September 1683); 9. Quare fremuerunt (19. April 1685); 10. Domine salvum fac active (1685 (?)); 11. Notus in Judea (1685 or 86); 12. Exaudiat of width unit Domine (1687).

Petits motets

1. Anima Christi; 2. Ave coeli munus supernum;3. Dixit Dominus; 4. Domine salvum fac active; 5. Exaudi Deus deprecationem; 6. Laudate pueri Dominum; 7. O dulcissime Domine; 8. Omnes towards width unit; 9. O sapientia in misterio; 10. Regina coeli; 11. Salvo regina.

lay vowel works

1.Dialogue de la guerra avec la paix (1655, music verschollen); 2. Ingrate bergère (1664, text: Octave de Périgny); 3. Anunque podigoas; 4. Scoca purely tutti; 5. A la fin petit Desfarges; 6. D' un beau pêcheur la pêche malheureux; 7. Untendre coeur rempli D' ardeur; 8. Courage, Amour, le paix est faite (1661, text:Benserade; 9. Non vi è più more piacer (music verschollen); 10. Le printemps, aimable Sylvie (text: Benserade; Music verschollen); 11. Tous les jours cent of bergères (text: Perrin,Music verschollen); 12. Viens, mon aimable bergère (text: Perrin, music verschollen); 13. Qui of les saura, mes secrètes amours (text: Perrin); 14. Où êtes vous allé, les belles amourettes; 15. Vous mêlons toute notre gloria; 16. Counterpart que ces flambeaux; 17. Lelangueur beaux yeux (music verschollen); 18. On dit que vos yeux sont trompeurs (text: Octave de Périgny, Musik verschollen); 19. Que vous connaissez peu trop aimable Chimène (text:Quinault, music verschollen); 20. SI for each n' ai parlé de mAflames (music verschollen); 21. EN of ces lieux per ne vois que de promenades (text: Lully, music verschollen); 22. Ah qu' IL est doux de SE rendre (text: Quinault, music verschollen); 23. J' ai fait serment, cruelle (text: Quinault, music verschollen); 24. Leprintemps ramène la verdure (text: Lully (?); Music verschollen); 25. Depuis que l' on soupire (text: Quinault, music verschollen); 26. Sans mentir on est bien misérable (music verschollen); 27. Venerabilis barba capucinorum; 28. IL faut meurir, pécheur (1687).

Stage works

Ballets de cour, Mascarades & Divertissements

1. Mascarade de la foire Saint Germain (text poet unknown, 7. March 1652, music verschollen); 2. Clench you temps (joint venture work, text: Benserade 3. December 1654); 3. Clench plaisirs (joint venture work with Louis de Mollier,Text: Benserade, 4. February 1655); 4. Le Grand clench bienvenus (joint venture work, text: Benserade, 30. May 1655, music verschollen); 5. Clench de Psyché ou la puissance de l' Amour (joint venture work, text: Benserade, 16. January 1656, music verschollen); 6. La Galanterie youtemps (text: Francesco Buti, 3. February 1656, music verschollen); 7. Amour malade (text. Francesco Buti, 17. January 1657); 8. Clench D' Alcidiane (joint venture work with J. - B. Boesser and L. de Mollier, Text: Benserade, 14. February 1658); 9. Clench de la raillerie (joint venture workwith L. de Mollier, Text: Benserade, 19. February 1659); 10. Les Débris you clench you Roy (music from clench de la raillerie, 1659 (?)); 11. Clench de Toulouse (November/December 1659 (?)); 12. Clench de la revente habits declench et de comédie (text: Benserade, 15. December 1660); 13. Clench de l' impatience (joint venture work with Pierre Beauchamps and Francois Hillaire D' Olivet, text: Benserade, Buti, 19. February 1661); 14. Clench sainsons (text: Benserade, 26. July 1661); 15. Clench kind(Joint venture work with M. Lambert, text: Benserade, 8. January 1663); 16. Les Noces de much situation (text: Benserade, 3, or 4. October 1663); 17. Les Amours déguisés (joint venture work with M. Lambert, text: Octave de Périgny, 13. February 1664); 18. Divertissement pour lacollation the Plaisirs de l' île enchanté (7. May 1664); 19. Clench you palace D' Alcine (text:Molière, 9. May 1664); 20. Clench de la naissance de Vénus (joint venture work with M. Lambert and L. de Mollier, Text: Benserade, 28. January 1665);21. La Réception faite par un gentilhomme de campagne à une compagnie choisie à SA mode qui le vient more visitier (text: Benserade, February 1665, music verschollen); 22. Le Triomphe de Bacchus dans les meanwhile (text poets unknown, 9. January 1666); 23.Clench the Muses (text: Benserade, 2. December 1666); 24. Le Carnacal (text: Benserade, 18. January 1668); 25. Le Grotte de Versailles (text: Quinault, April (?) 1668); 26. Clench de Flore (text: Benserade, 13. February 1669); 27. Le Triomphe de l' Amour(Text: Benserade, Quinault, 21. January 1681); 28. Le Noce de much situation (March 1683); 29. L' idyl sur le paix (text:Jean Racine, 16. July 1685); 30. Le Temple de la paix (text: Quinault, 20. October 1685).

Intermedia, Comédies ballets

1. Xerxes(6 Entrées for Francesco Cavallis opera, 22. November 1660); 2. Hercule amoreux (18 Entrées for Cavallis opera Hercules amante, 7. February 1662); 3. Le Mariage forcé (text: Molière, 29. January 1664); 4. Les Plaisirs de l' île enchanté/La Princesse D' Elide (joint workwith M. Lambert, text: Molière, 7. /8. May 1664); 5. Oedipe (text:Pierre Corneille, 3. August 1664); 6. Le Favori/Le clench grands ou les délices de la campagne (text: Marie Catherine Desjardins; Pro log and intermédes of Molière, 13. June1665); 7. L' Amour médicin (text: Molière, 14. September 1665); 8. La Pastorale comique (text: Molière, 5. January 1667); 9. Les Sicilien ou l' Amour peintre (text: Molière, 8 (?). February 1667); 10. George Dandin/Le Grand divertissement de Versailles (text: Molière, 18. July1668); 11. Monsieur de Pourceaugnac/Le divertissement de Chambord (text: Molière, Lully, 6. October 1669); 12. Les Amants of magnifiques (text: Molière, 4. February 1670); 13. Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (text: Molière, 14. October 1670); 14. Britannicus (text: Racine, 1670, music verschollen); 15.Psyché (text: Molière, Corneille, Quinault, Lully, 17. January 1671); 16. Le Comtesse D' Escarbagnas/clench ballets (text: Molière, 2. December 1671).

Tragédies EN musique, Pastorale, Pastoralé héroïque

1. Les Fêtes de l' Amour et de Bacchus (libretto: Quinault, Benserade, Perigny, Molière, Lully,11. November 1672; 2. Cadmus et Hermione (libretto: Quinault, around the 15. April 1673); 3. Alceste ou Le Triomphe d'Alcide (libretto: Quinault, 28 (?). January 1674; 4. Thésée (libretto: Quinault, 11. January 1675); 5. Atys (libretto. Quinault, 10. January 1676); 6.Isis (libretto: Quinault, 5. January 1677); 7. Psyché (libretto: Thomas Corneille, 19. April 1678); 8. Béllérophon (libretto: Thomas Corneille, B. le Bovier de Fontenelle, 31. January 1679); 9. Prosperine (libretto: Quinault, 3. February 1680); 10. Persée (libretto: Quinault, 18. April1682); 11. Phaëton (libretto: Quinault, 6. January 1683); 12. Amadis (libretto: Quinault, 18. January 1684); 13. Roland (libretto: Quinault, 8. January 1685); 14. Armide (libretto: Quinault, 15. February 1686); 15.Acis et Galatée (libretto: J.G. de Campistron, 6. September 1686);16. Achille et Polixène (libretto: J.G. de Campistron, only Ouvertüre and 1. Act of Lully, act 2-5 of P. Colasse, 7. November 1687).

instrument valley works

1. Première marche of the mousquetaires (1658); 2. 10 Branles (1665); 3. 3 Gavottes(1665); 4. Passacaille (1665); 5. 3 Courantes (1665); 6. 3 Bourrées (1665); 7. Allemande (1665); 8. Boutade (1665); 9. Gaillarde (1665); 10. 3 Sarabanden (1665); 11. 18 Trios de la chambre you roi; 12. Marches et batteries de Tambour (1670);13. Foil D' Espagne, march (1672); 14. Marche de Savoye, Airs, L' Asemblée, La Retraite; 15. Pleusiers (6) of pièces de Symphonie (1685); 16. Airs pour le carroussel de Monseigneur (28. May 1685); 17. 17 airs; 18. La descente poor (march); 19.Marches gardes de la navy, fusillers, dragons, you prince D' orange; 20. different unique pieces (3 Allemanden, 14 Couranten, 4 Sarabanden, 2 Bourrées, 4 Chaconnes, La Bourse, Trio, Menuet, La Trivelinade, Gigue).

literature

  • Jérôme de laGorce (Hrsg.):Source studies to Jean Baptiste Lully - l'oeuvre de Lully: Etudes of the sorces. Hommage A Lionel Sawkins, Hildesheim 1999 ISBN 3-4871-1040-7
  • Emmanuel Heymann: Lulli. Flammarion, Paris 1991
  • Henry Prunières: Lully. Laurens, of Paris 1910

films

  • the kingdances (Le Roi danse) from 2000. Filming by Lullys life to yards of Ludwig XIV of Gérard Corbiau.

Web on the left of

Commons: Jean Baptiste Lully - pictures, videos and/or audio files
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of andover Jean Baptiste Lully in the catalog of the DDB

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