Jean Paul Sartre

Jean Paul Sartre [ʒɑ̃ˈpɔl saʀtʀ] (* 21. June 1905 in Paris; † 15. April 1980 in Paris; complete name Jean Paul Charles Aymard Sartre) was a French writer and philosopher.

That particularly as storytellers,To dramatists, essayist and philosopher active Sartre 20 is considered as the most important and most representative French intellectual one . Century.

Table of contents

lives

childhood and school

Sartre was born in Paris as a son of the naval officer Jean Baptiste Sartre (1874-1906),its nut/mother Anne Marie (1882-1969), born Schweitzer, was on the paternal side German elsässischer descent and a cousin Albert Schweitzers. The father died 15 months after Jean Pauls birth at a tropical illness. Its young nut/mother pulled thereupon back to her parents, where Sartreunder the educational influence of its grandfather Charles Schweitzer buildup, a Gymnasialprofessors (agrégé) for the subject German, which informed it at home. Very early it began to read (also on German), however already suffered as a boy a lens turbidity in the right eye,gone blind the gradually and outward moved, so that he squinted with the time ever more strongly. Only at the age of 10 years he came to the school on the prestigious High School Lycée Henri IV.

1917 married itself its nut/motheragain and it pulled with it to its new man to La Rochelle - two changes, which heavy the twelve-year-old boy bore, particularly since also his grandfather broke indignant with him, when he experienced that the boy had taken money from the family budget,in order to in-flatter itself with sweets with its new school fellows.

1920 were sent back Sartre to Paris and visited - now as boarding school pupils - again the Henri IV. Here it got used to itself with a school fellow, the later writer colleague Paul Nizan, thatit to the contemporary literature introduced. 1922 it put „bac “(baccalauréat) off and decided to aim at together with Nizan, a study to the École normal Supérieure (ENS) the elite university for the teaching profession fan. Both changed therefore on that Lycée edge of Louis putting, whose Vorbereitungsklassen (classes préparatoires) for the ENS were allegedly better than those of the Henri IV.

1923 Sartre a novella and

some novel chapters in small magazines could accommodate study, occupation entrance and war, at the same timeit began to be interested in philosophy. 1924 it occupied sixth rank in the entrance examination (concours) for the ENS. It divided its hostel room there with the likewise taken up Nizan.

The four years on the ENS were onelucky time for Sartre: It read much and worked regularly each day from 9 to 13 and from 15 to 19 o'clock, which it maintained its whole life long. It completed courses and examinations in psychology, moral philosophy, sociology, Logic, Metaphysik and latin, were interested in the new art form cinema and in the jazz imported from America. Also it took box instruction, because “the male” (le petit homme), as it mentioned by its friendsbecame, only 1.56 M. measured.

When sun daily visiting its parents, who likewise lived in the meantime in Paris, it led heated debates with its stepfather, who communiste it as “patenté” (communist with letter and seal) apostrophierte. Was Sartre, different than itsFriend Nizan, a member of the communist party of France, but he was not sympathizer and e.g. refused. together with Nizan quasi the training as the reserve officer, mandatory for students of the ENS. Agein accordance with tried it it also with the love,distant young relatives from Toulouse, which he had become acquainted with on a funeral and which frustrated it with its rare short meetings rather (similarly as its old ego Roquentin in the novel La Nausée (the disgust) of friendAnny is frustrated).

Philosophically Sartre, which had felt “surplus” itself in the family of its grandfather and then its stepfather always somehow to develop a “theory of the Kontingenz” began the human life a coincidence product in accordance with that is and not necessarily onehas sense authentic by higher powers.

it received 1928 during the entrance examination (agrégation) for the office of the Gymnasialprofessors only the not sufficient 50. Place, apparent because he had tried in the written one to formulate original ideas.

After Nizan had married itself,also Sartre meant to have to do this and let its parents around the hand of a young woman continue, whom he had become acquainted with; it was however rejected. A little later, during the preparation for the second approach on “l'agreg”, he met itsfuture way companion Simone de Beauvoir, who as he worked on it. Both were accepted, Sartre this time at place 1, Beauvoir at place 2.

During it (with 21!) when Gymnasialprofessorin was sent to Marseille, Sartre its military service stepped with the Meteoroligistsin route on, where it had one year as teachers the older and later important sociologist and philosopher Raymond Aron. Since the service stressed it little, it wrote much: Poems, at the beginning of a novel, drafts to plays.

1931, with 26,it was sent as Gymnasialprofessor for philosophy after Le Havre. It and Beauvoir met also further regularly in Paris, which remained their point of food. Both made a first larger journey to Spain, which Sartre of the small inheritance of the grandmother Schweitzerpaid.

In its school it was with the pupils soon as interesting teachers likes, but with the colleagues as arrogantly cried. He began to work on a Factum sur la contingence (disputation over the coincidence), one polarize-mixes -sow-Irish writing against the all too optimistic and positive school philosophy, which it had to give in accordance with curriculum to its classes. 1932 it traveled with Beauvoir to Brittany, to Spain and Spanish Morocco. To the school year change it was shifted in the closer Rouen. Interested togetherit itself for victory mouth Freud and its psychoanalysis. Sartre discovered the Phänomenologie Edmund Husserls, in addition, the novels Hemingways. 1933 one undertook again common journeys, this time to London and Italy.

In the autumn 33 was received Sartre forYear as a scholarship holder to Institut Français in Berlin. Here it read Husserl and Heidegger, Faulkner and Kafka and began from factum a novel to develop, the later La Nausée. The policy interested it only to, It, like many left intellectual ones , regarded the straight seizure of power of Hitler taken place to edge as a temporary Spuk. After expiration of the scholarship it traveled with Beauvoir by Germany, Austria and the 1918 again-created Czechoslovakia.

Starting from autumn 1934 it informed again inLe Havre, where he felt lonely and deplatziert and became depressive finally, particularly also the general tendency badly was in the port, which suffered particularly strongly from the world economic crisis, with three, four years delay now also France met thosehad. Sartres depression strengthened by illusion and panic phases, because he could be squirted 1935, after he had begun to write a doctor work over the imaginative power, of a friendly physician the drug Meskalin. It nevertheless took to 14. July1935 with Beauvoir at the anti-fascist large demonstration in Paris part, with which the French left wing parties and trade unions reacted together to the increasing pressure of the fascist forces also in France.

1936 terminated Sartre the novel, at which he since Berlin workedhad. It was very much disappointed, as the Gallimard - publishing house the manuscript rejected. Nevertheless it wrote now telling texts to far. In its own eyes it had become obvious barking trichloroethylene tables the author, and it encouraged of Beauvoir, in the meantime likewise onwrote a novel.

Into May and June 1936 they went not selecting both on principle, were however inspired, as which link “people front “(front populaire) the elections won. The outbreak of the Spanish of civil war in July movedalso Sartre deeply; the thought to follow as a Freiwilliger the anti-fascist international brigades it however, particularly it rejected a straight place in Laon, thus more near at Paris, had gotten. After an Italy journey with Beauvoir it processes the topic more SpanishCivil war in the novella Le Mur (the wall), a small masterpiece, which excited attention, when it appeared printed in July 1937 in the Nouvelle revue Française. Likewise 1937 were finally accepted also its novel, whereby the publisher Gallimardshortening the text and Melancholia in La Nausée suggested the originally planned title (actually: to amend nausea, nausea).

To the school year 1937/38 Sartre into that Paris suburb Neuilly shifted, also Beauvoir got a place in Paris. They livednow in two rooms of a small hotel in the XIV.Arrondissement; of marrying they did not think: Beauvoir wanted to live emancipated, and in addition it belonged that she might have been neither wife nor nut/mother.

In April 1938 La Nausée came with pleasing successout: a novel, whose I storyteller Roquentin has similar sense and self identification problems, as it had also Sartre in the years of Le Havre, and which finally does not solve as these the crisis by suicide, but with the resolution Romancier toobecome. Also an anthology with narrations from the last three years, which Sartre published 1939 under the title Le Mur, received attention. André Gide assigned it at the same time to write a series of articles over modern authors for the Nouvelle revue Française:Sartre had created its break-through. It made itself now to a larger novel project and began its first volume L'Âge de raison (the age of the reason).

It and Beauvoir “free-floating intellectual ones” had been so far nearly arrogant (a word creation of theSociologists Karl Mannheim), then began them now to engage itself in view of the increasing expansion urge of Hitler, politically. As France at the 3. September 1939 Germany the war explained, Sartre was drawn in. “La drôle de guerre”, the war, which first none was,spent he in the Elsass, where he wrote industriously at his novel and made themselves notes for a philosophical paper. In April 1940 it could on one vacation into of Paris “prix you the novel populiste” to receive. During after that 10. May, France in the chaos, wrote Sartre fell 1940 the German attack, “le lightning all and” feverful at the last sides of L'Âge de raison. At the end of June, briefly before the armistice, it came with its unit into shank. Here took to ita German officer the finished manuscript off, kept it however and gave it him later again.

While in France the new head of state marshal Pétain established an right-authoritarian however regime quite accepted by that to large majority of the Frenchmen, Sartre spentin a prisoner-of-war camp with Trier nearly lucky months. It closed friendships, e.g. with the Jesuitenpater Paul Feller (1913-1979), and wrote hides political piece, Bariona ou le Fils you tonnerre (B. or the son of the thunder), which itwith comrades to Christmas specified. Differently as the other prisoners, who were distributed gradually than forced laborers on German factories and farms, Sartre became released because of its eye suffering in March 1941. Beauvoir, itself obviously with new conditionshad arranged, was struck by the political and moral Rigorismus, which it along-brought from the camp.

Both activated now old acquaintances and created a group of resistances of Socialisme et liberté (socialism and liberty), which were directed more against the Vichy regimeas against the German Besatzer (which one also hardly noticed at this time in France). Sartres of attempts to attach contacts to communist acquaintance and co-operate with them, failed. The communists, who already were thereby, in the underground a anti-German resistance organizationto construct, and after the German assault on the Soviet Union to 22. It similar as a anarcho left smallcivil intellectual one, that as the figure Hugo in the piece of Les Main sales (those began, regarded June 1941 with assassination attempts on German soldiersdirty hands) for actions was useless. They distrusted to it also because of its unusually rapid dismissal from the war shank and spread the rumor, it are an agent of the German Gestapo.

In the summer Sartre with Beauvoir made one by bicycleas arduous as adventurous journey to the vacant Southern France, in order contacts too politically links authors to search, who had withdrawn themselves there. The action remained however unsuccessful. It nevertheless developed the conception for its piece of Les Mouches on this travel (The flies), where it resembling Oreste kills the head of state Pétain resembling Tyrannen Égisthe, however of the people, whom it wants to free, is rejected and disappointed over its political Unreife leaves the country.

Also Sartre solved 1942frustrates its group of resistances up and was limited to the letter. It finished Les of mouches and wrote at its philosophical Hauptwerk, L'Être et le néant (its and the nothing). In October it became one on the bestParis High Schools shifts, the Lycée Condorcet, where he received the attractive post of a Gymnasialprofessors for Vorbereitungsklassen to the ENS. 1942 it terminated L'Être et le néant and began the second volume of its Romantrilogie Le Sursis (the delay).

Asafter the landing of the British and Americans in North Africa in November 1942 and particularly after the disaster of the German troops in Stalingrad in January/February 1943 a defeat of Germany in the war, organized themselves in France that seemed no longer impossibleResistance. Also Sartre became now again active and worked in the Comité national écrivains (Nationalkomittee of the writers).

In the spring 1943 published despite paper scarceness L'Être le et néant and Les of mouches. The latter became to 2. June evenuraufgeführt - with Plazet of the German censorship, but only moderate success. Later in the year written Sartre its first film film script Les jeux sont faits (the play is out) as well as in few days its probably best piece: Huis clos (Closed society), a drama around one man and two women, who with all cheat yourself the Psychoterrors mutually the life hell make, where they already are after the fiction. As Huis clos to 27. May 1944 two weeksbefore the landing of the allied ones successfully in normandy, confirmed it was specified to Sartre as a central figure in the intellectual of Paris of the time. It actually knew in the meantime all people, which were there from importance or should become:Jean Cocteau, Michel Leiris, Albert Camus, Raymond Queneau, Georges Bataille, Jean Genet, Armand Salacrou, Jacques Lacan etc.

After the allied landing in normandy to 6. June tightened it and Beauvoir it forwards, to Parisleft. They turned only after the beginning of the departure of the Germans (19. August) back.

Since Sartre could live in the meantime well on its author activity, he let give time off from the school service and acknowledged themselves this finally completely. When at the beginning of of 1945 its stepfather died,it pulled to its nut/mother. It did not realize temporary marriage plans with a Französin, whom he had become acquainted with in the winter 1944/45 during a USA stay.

the large time

in the postwar years was Sartre then the clay-indicating French intellectual one: Its L' Être et le néant and the essay L' Existentialisme est un humanisme of 1946 was considered as Hauptwerke of the new, mainly philosophy of the Existenzialismus created of it, whose core statement is that humans by the coincidence of its birth into the existence„“is thrown and to actively even try must to give to the life a sense. Its novels were bought and read:Raison and Le Sursis 1946 appeared common to L ' Âge de under the title Les chemins de la liberté (ways of the liberty),1949 were added also the third part of the Trilogie with the title La Mort dans l' âme (death in the soul) . Its pieces were played on all French and many European stages: 1946 Morts sans sépulture (dead one without funeral) and La Putain respectueuse (the respectable Dirne), in which Sartre experiences its America journey of 1945 processes, 1948 Les Main sales (the dirty hands). Also as a journalist Sartre was most active. The magazine Les Temps published created by it andmodern (modern trend times) became a forum for many authors of rank.

Its life became accordingly ever more moved. It gave interviews and went - often together with Beauvoir - on lecture journeys at home and abroad. Also politically it remained engaged: Soif it was 1948 joint founders of a short-lived new party between socialists and communists, struck itself around 1950 however on the side of the communists, which the break with some moderately to left intellectual one drew, e.g.Camus, which it betrayal ona linking to the goals that accused. 1956 turned Sartre again the communist the back, because he disapproved the brutal Russian intervention in Hungary. During „the May revolution “1968 it occurred briefly for the thing of radical left groups of students.

It wrotein also these years still much, for example literature-critical articles (collected printed in the volumes situation, 1947-65) and literature-theoretical essays (in particular that political commitment of the author demanding Qu' est ce que la littérature/which is literature, 1947), in addition, Autorenmonografien(over Baudelaire, 1947; Jean Genet, 1952; Mallarmé, 1953, and Flaubert; 1971–72); in addition some dramas came (under it 1951 Le Diable et le bon Dieu/the devil and the dear God or 1959 Les séquestrés D' Altona/the including) as well as1963 a history of its childhood with the title Les mots (the words).

Its main role was not however since at the latest 1949 no more barking trichloroethylene tables or philosophical author. Rather it became more and more admired and feared „maître àmore penser “(Vordenker) and Allround intellectual ones, which raised its voice to the large and also some smaller problems of the nation and to which later against violations of human rights in the French colonial wars and also in Viet Nam or in the communist Eastern Bloc protested.

Last years

1964 Sartre of the Nobelpreis for literature was awarded, although he had already announced his refusal in the apron and these then also maintained. Its relationship to Beauvoir continued to exist, had gradually however loosened. Starting from 1973 it was practicalblindly. Nevertheless it tried to be further present, among other things with interviews and occasional public appearances. 1974 for example excited its attendance - its judgement political - of the prisoner and RAF - member Andreas Baader in the prison in Stuttgart master home public attention.1979 it still participated in a press conference in favor of „the Boat People of “vietnamesischen refugees mentioned.

Sartre remained to last a well-known personality of the public life: Its death was registered world-wide and with its funeral followed 50,000 humans thatCoffin.

Even if in the meantime its pieces up to Huis are played clos hardly more, its erzählerisches work up to the constantly reprinted Le Mur and La Nausée are hardly more read and above all its philosophy no more discussions release,Sartres rank is as one of the central figures mental France in 20. Century undisputed.

work

philosophy

main point of its earlier theses (all in L'être le et in front néant, 1943) is that thatHumans are condemned to the liberty: it makes in each of its actions a choice, and is it only (e.g. under torture) to live or die. Sartre denies outward obligations due to outside social, natural or göttlicher directives -these are constructions, which from humans the responsibility for what he does, do not remove. He says: “ Hell, that are the others ": expectations and projections, which are addressed by fellow men to one, manipulate its acting, ifit them to become fair tries - from comfort, because it evades to the responsibility, to have to invent itself always again. He formulates his thesis with the sentence “the existence most concise goes to the nature ahead " (“L'existence précède l'essence”) -its naked existence is given only to humans; which constitutes it at the end, he must invent.

That this attitude is abstract in view of the historical reality ( war, Holocaust), experiences Sartre at the own body, when he will call up. Outthis experience, which does not happen to him voluntarily, it modifies its philosophy to a political position founded on the principle of the commitment: the great importance of the picture, which fellow men of one make themselves and a whose acting modify, causes it at the latestsince Le diable et le bon dieu (1951) and the Critique de la raison dialectique (1960) to the insight that the nature of humans, who are lastingly socially coined/shaped reality of its existence and doing.

Atheisti Existenzialismus

Ontologi beginning: (Onto logie: Theory of its): Humans are the only one being end, with which the existence (that he is) precedes the Essenz ( which it is). Reason: For its nature determining fundamentals (whichit to be is, thus it actually humans is) gives it not. There is no God, in which these values would be justified. There is no objectively obligatory ethics (as for instance with Kant or Schopenhauer).

Objection against Kant's categorical imperative:If values stand in the conflict, the general principles fail. Am I to remain with my ill nut/mother and assist her or leave her and attach me the Résistance? What is general law to become?

The situation of humans is thus by absoluteLiberty characterized or: “Humans are condemned to be free” or: “Humans are not a governor anything” (the governor of the development (attaching without Heidegger)!) (Heidegger). Humans have themselves to place to this basic situation. Everything else would be a self-deception.„There is no nature of humans, who live humans, but humans are that, to which he makes himself. “

From it some statements follow: - “Humans are completely responsible “, first for its individuality: With his doing “drawsit its face ". Then however at the same time for whole mankind. Because with its decisions it sketches a model, a “type” of humans. To that extent it is always also a legislator.

“Humans are fear. ”

“Humans are leavingness. ”

“Humans are Despair. “

Sartre introduces this term in connection with the fact that one can build in its projects for the future only on that, what in the own forces stands. It is never sure that other one for instance the own politicalPlans will continue. There are thus no safe hopes beyond the life. Also the others are free. But: “One does not need to hope, in order to undertake something. ”

“There is reality only indeed.” or: “Humans are that,which it achieves. “Humans are not its possibilities. The love is for Sartre the carried out love, the genius the carried out genius. There are no apologies for what only inside remains. Sartres psychological reason: Whether e.g. Civil courage is genuine,one can say only if someone shows her in the life.

Historical situation and human condition: “The historical situation changes… Which does not change, the necessity is to be in the world in it at the work, in it in the midst ofto be and be mortal the others.

The meaning of the others: The Existenzialist “gives itself account that it cannot be anything (in the sense, as one says, to one is spirit-rich, one is malicious, one is jealous) except if thoseothers it than such recognize. In order to experience any truth about me, I must pass through by the other one. The other one is indispensable for my existence, just as it is indispensable for the realization, which I have from me. Under these conditionsreveals the discovery of my internal one me at the same time the other one than me confronted liberty, which thinks and wants only for or against me. Thus we discover immediately a world, which we “intermediate INESs” (intersubjectivity) to call want, and in this world decideshumans, which it is and which the others are. “One selects in the face of the others, and one selects oneself in the face of the others. Sartre shows in an analysis of the looking at becoming (“the view” in: “Its and the nothing”), howthe other one me appears: as a competitor in the fight for the Perspektivierung of the people unity and the reality.

The existentialistische moral: Sartre stresses the similarity with the act of artistic work. One must compare the moral with the organization of a work of art.Reasons: An artist does not let himself be led by fixed rules. It must make also no certain picture. The artist merges himself into the organization of his picture; and the picture, which is to be made, is exactly the picture, which itwill have made. We are with our moral in a comparable situation requiring for creativity. Contents are always concrete and therefore unforeseeable; it is always invention available. Which counts alone, it is, to know whether the invention, transactedwill, in the name of the liberty one transacts.

Can I fall a moral judgement over others?If humans recognized that he sets values in leavingness - then he can want only one, still i.e. the liberty as basisall values. So I can fall in the name of the human presentness as liberty of judgements over those, the trachten to hide the autonomy of their existence and their total liberty.

The Transzendenz: is not a konstitutives characteristic of humans, butin the sense that a purchase is manufactured to God. That cannot be done any longer than consequence of the atheistischen attitude. Rather Transzendenz is with Sartre the exceeding of the Ichheit, in the sense, as humans are not enclosed in itself,separate is continuously present in a human universe.

The Existentialismus is an human: "... because we (the Existentialisten) remind humans of the fact that there is no other legislator except him and that it in its leavingness over itselfdecides; and because we show that not by rear wall ending on itself, but always by the search for a goal outside of its, which this or that release, this or that special implementation actual that thereby humans itself ashuman nature will carry out. “

See also: Commitment (philosophy)

literature

Sartres place in literature history becomes today particularly of its first, many auto+biographic elements containing novel La nausée (1938) and the narrations of the anthology Le Mur(1939) secured. By it itself at the American assembly novel (among other thingsManhattan transfer of John DOS Passos) oriented, introduced it beside Albert Camus, André Malraux, Antoine de Saint Exupéry and Blaise Cendrars a phase of the French literature, those stronglyis coined/shaped by American realism. As less importantly in the meantime Sartres theatre is estimated, that by the way not, as accepted in Germany gladly, primarily philosophically intended was political, but. As interesting text childhood history Les is considered to the kind Autobiografie mots.

a third complex

, which is mentioned often only at the edge, stands for writings over artists beside Sartres philosophical and literary work: its numerous writings over writers, painters and sculptors. In these studies, like e.g. over Charles Baudelaire, Jean Genet, Stéphane Mallarmé, particularly over Gustave Flaubert (see “the idiot of the family”) in addition, over Jacopo Tintoretto, he examined the relationship of these artists to its work. The work of all this artist demonstrates after Sartre,that above all the liberty is an absolute condition of the art.

Bibliografie

  • L'imagination (1936) -- The conception
  • La nausée (1938) -- The disgust
  • L'Enfance d'un boss (1938) -- The childhood oneBoss
  • Le mur (1939) -- The wall
  • L'imaginaire (1940)
  • Les of mouches (1943) -- The flies
  • L'être le et néant (1943) -- Its and the nothing
  • Huis clos (1944) -- Closed one Society
  • L'existentialisme est un humanisme (1945) -- The Existentialimus is an human
  • Morts sans sépulture (1946) -- Dead without funeral
  • La Putain respecteuse (1946) -- The respectable Dirne
  • Qu'est ce que la littérature? (1947) -- What is literature? * Baudelaire (1947)
  • Les jeux sont faits (1947) -- The play is sales
  • from Les Main (1948) -- The dirty hands
  • Le diable le bon et dieu (1951) -- The devil and the dear God
  • Les séquestrés d'Altona (1959) -- The including or also the including of Altona
  • Critique de la raison dialectique (1960) -- Criticism of the dialectic reason
  • Les Chemins deliberté (1946 - 1949) -- Ways of the liberty
  • Les mots (1964) -- The words
  • situation (1947 - 1965)
  • Bariona, ou Le fils you tonnerre (1970) -- Bariona or the son of the thunder
  • L'Idiot de la famille. La vie de Gustave Flaubert de 1821 à 1851 (1971 - 1972)-- The idiot of the family. Gustave Flaubert 1821-1857 (1977 - 1979)
  • Cahiers pour une morale (posthume, publié EN 1984)
  • Lapure Albemarle ou le more dernier touriste. Fragment (posthume, publié EN 1991) -- Queen Albemarle or the last tourist, 1994

quotations

  • the existence precedes the nature.“/” L'existence précède l'essence.“(L'existentialismeest un humanisme)
  • humans is condemned to the liberty.“/” L'homme est condamné à être libre “(L'existentialisme est un humanisme)
  • we were as free never as under the German crew.“(Situation, III)
  • hell, that are the others.“/” L'enfer, does not c'est les autres “(Huis clos)
  • you is anything as what you live.“(Huis clos)
  • Oreste: Strangely me, I knows.Beyond nature, against nature, without justification, without other guarantee than in me. But I do not return under your law: thousand ways are drawn, which lead to you, I want my way to however only follow. BecauseI am humans, Jupiter, and each humans must invent its way. Nature feels frights before humans, and you, you, highest one of the Gods, also you regard humans with frights.“(Les Mouches)
  • who those, Earns confidence has fools against itself.“(Outer one fell de mes lectures)
  • (over Ernesto “Che” Guevara) “I hold for the fact that this man was not only an intellectual, but most perfect humans of our time.”
  • Today I becamethe term liberty as follows define: Liberty is that small movement, which from for a completely socially caused nature humans makes, who do not explain in everything, what to its cause-causing its is due.“(Sartre over Sartre, interview with Perry Anderson one,Ronald drill and Quintin Hoare, 1969)
  • humans is a common jam.

literature

  • Bernard Henri Lévy: Sartre. The philosopher 20. Century. Hanser, Munich 2002
  • walter van Rossum: Simone de Beauvoir and Jean Paul Sartre. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 2001
  • trusting God king (Hg.): Sartre reader. Humans invent. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1986.
  • this. (Hg.): Sartre over Sartre. Essays and interviews 1940-1976. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1977
  • Arthur C. Danto: Jean Paul Sartre.Steidl publishing house, Goettingen 1992.
  • Peter Sloterdijk (Hg.): Sartre. Selected and presented by Thomas's H. Macho. Philosophy lines up now! Dtv publishing house, Munich 1998.
  • Heiner joke man: L'esthétique de Sartre. Artistes et intellectuels. traduit de l'allemand par N. Far eggs et J. Yacar, ÉditionsL'Harmattan (Collection ouverture philosophique), Paris 2001
  • Annie Cohen Solal: Sartre 1905-1980. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 2002
  • Rainer Wannicke: Sartres Flaubert. To the Misanthropie of imagination. Reimer publishing house, Berlin 1990
  • H. Joke man: Sartre and the art. The haven guessing studies from Tintoretto toFlaubert. Gunter fool publishing house, Tübingen 1996
  • Christa Hackenesch: Jean Paul Sartre. Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 2001, ISBN 3-499-50629-7
  • Martin Suhr: Sartre for introduction. 2.Auflage, Junius, Hamburg 2004 ISBN 3885063948
  • Peter Kampits: Jean Paul Sartre.. C.H.Beck, Munich 2004

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